In linguistics, a blend—sometimes known, perhaps more narrowly, as a blend word, lexical blend, portmanteau (/pɔːrtˈmænt/ port-MAN-toh or /ˌpɔːr(t)mænˈt/ POR(T)-man-TOH; pl. portmanteaus or portmanteaux[1]), or portmanteau word—is a word formed, usually intentionally, by combining the sounds and meanings of two or more words.[2][3][4] English examples include smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[3][5] as well as motel, from motor (motorist) and hotel.[6] The component word fragments within blends are called splinters.

A blend is similar to a contraction, but contractions are formed, usually non-intentionally, from words whose sounds gradually drift together over time due to them commonly appearing together in sequence, such as do not naturally becoming don't (phonologically, /d nɒt/ becoming /dnt/). A blend also differs from a compound, which fully preserves the stems of the original words. The 1973 Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation explains that "In words such as motel, boatel and Lorry-Tel, hotel is represented by various shorter substitutes – ‑otel, ‑tel, or ‑el – which I shall call splinters. Words containing splinters I shall call blends".[7][n 1] Thus, at least one of the parts of a blend, strictly speaking, is not a complete morpheme, but instead a mere splinter or leftover word fragment. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a blend, of star and fish, as it includes both words in full. However, if it were called a "stish" or a "starsh", it would be a blend. Furthermore, when blends are formed by shortening established compounds or phrases, they can be considered clipped compounds, such as romcom for romantic comedy.[8]

Classification

Blends of two or more words may be classified from each of three viewpoints: morphotactic, morphonological, and morphosemantic.[9]

Morphotactic classification

Blends may be classified morphotactically into two kinds: total and partial.[9]

Total blends

In a total blend, each of the words creating the blend is reduced to a mere splinter.[9] Some linguists limit blends to these (perhaps with additional conditions): for example, Ingo Plag considers "proper blends" to be total blends that semantically are coordinate, the remainder being "shortened compounds".[10]

Commonly for English blends, the beginning of one word is followed by the end of another:

Much less commonly in English, the beginning of one word may be followed by the beginning of another:

Some linguists do not regard beginning+beginning concatenations as blends, instead calling them complex clippings,[11] clipping compounds[12] or clipped compounds.[13]

Unusually in English, the end of one word may be followed by the end of another:

A splinter of one word may replace part of another, as in three coined by Lewis Carroll in "Jabberwocky":

They are sometimes termed intercalative blends; these words are among the original "portmanteaus" for which this meaning of the word was created.[14]

Partial blends

In a partial blend, one entire word is concatenated with a splinter from another.[9] Some linguists do not recognize these as blends.[15]

An entire word may be followed by a splinter:

A splinter may be followed by an entire word:

An entire word may replace part of another:

These have also been called sandwich words,[16] and classed among intercalative blends.[14]

(When two words are combined in their entirety, the result is considered a compound word rather than a blend. For example, bagpipe is a compound, not a blend, of bag and pipe.)

Morphological classification

Morphologically, blends fall into two kinds: overlapping and non-overlapping.[9]

Overlapping blends

Overlapping blends are those for which the ingredients' consonants, vowels or even syllables overlap to some extent. The overlap can be of different kinds.[9] These are also called haplologic blends.[17]

There may be an overlap that is both phonological and orthographic, but with no other shortening:

The overlap may be both phonological and orthographic, and with some additional shortening to at least one of the ingredients:

Such an overlap may be discontinuous:

These are also termed imperfect blends.[18][19]

It can occur with three components:

The phonological overlap need not also be orthographic:

If the phonological but non-orthographic overlap encompasses the whole of the shorter ingredient, as in

then the effect depends on orthography alone. (They are also called orthographic blends.[20])

An orthographic overlap need not also be phonological:

For some linguists, an overlap is a condition for a blend.[21]

Non-overlapping blends

Non-overlapping blends (also called substitution blends) have no overlap, whether phonological or orthographic:

Morphosemantic classification

Morphosemantically, blends fall into two kinds: attributive and coordinate.[9]

Attributive blends

Attributive blends (also called syntactic or telescope blends) are those in which one of the ingredients is the head and the other is attributive. A porta-light is a portable light, not a 'light-emitting' or light portability; light is the head. A snobject is a snobbery-satisfying object and not an objective or other kind of snob; object is the head.[9]

As is also true for (conventional, non-blend) attributive compounds (among which bathroom, for example, is a kind of room, not a kind of bath), the attributive blends of English are mostly head-final and mostly endocentric. As an example of an exocentric attributive blend, Fruitopia may metaphorically take the buyer to a fruity utopia (and not a utopian fruit); however, it is not a utopia but a drink.

Coordinate blends

Coordinate blends (also called associative or portmanteau blends) combine two words having equal status, and have two heads. Thus brunch is neither a breakfasty lunch nor a lunchtime breakfast but instead some hybrid of breakfast and lunch; Oxbridge is equally Oxford and Cambridge universities. This too parallels (conventional, non-blend) compounds: an actor–director is equally an actor and a director.[9]

Two kinds of coordinate blends are particularly conspicuous: those that combine (near‑) synonyms:

and those that combine (near‑) opposites:

Blending of two roots

Blending can also apply to roots rather than words, for instance in Israeli Hebrew:

"There are two possible etymological analyses for Israeli Hebrew כספר kaspár 'bank clerk, teller'. The first is that it consists of (Hebrew>) Israeli כסף késef 'money' and the (International/Hebrew>) Israeli agentive suffix ר- -ár. The second is that it is a quasi-portmanteau word which blends כסף késef 'money' and (Hebrew>) Israeli ספר √spr 'count'. Israeli Hebrew כספר kaspár started as a brand name but soon entered the common language. Even if the second analysis is the correct one, the final syllable ר- -ár apparently facilitated nativization since it was regarded as the Hebrew suffix ר- -år (probably of Persian pedigree), which usually refers to craftsmen and professionals, for instance as in Mendele Mocher Sforim's coinage סמרטוטר smartutár 'rag-dealer'."[24]

Lexical selection

Blending may occur with an error in lexical selection, the process by which a speaker uses his semantic knowledge to choose words. Lewis Carroll's explanation, which gave rise to the use of 'portmanteau' for such combinations, was:

Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words ... you will say "frumious."[25]

The errors are based on similarity of meanings, rather than phonological similarities, and the morphemes or phonemes stay in the same position within the syllable.[26]

Use

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Some languages, like Japanese, encourage the shortening and merging of borrowed foreign words (as in gairaigo), because they are long or difficult to pronounce in the target language. For example, karaoke, a combination of the Japanese word kara (meaning empty) and the clipped form oke of the English loanword "orchestra" (J. ōkesutora, オーケストラ), is a Japanese blend that has entered the English language. The Vietnamese language also encourages blend words formed from Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary. For example, the term Việt Cộng is derived from the first syllables of "Việt Nam" (Vietnam) and "Cộng sản" (communist).

Many corporate brand names, trademarks, and initiatives, as well as names of corporations and organizations themselves, are blends. For example, Wiktionary, one of Wikipedia's sister projects, is a blend of wiki and dictionary.

Origin of the term portmanteau

The word portmanteau was introduced in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass (1871),[27] where Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of unusual words used in "Jabberwocky".[28] Slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy means "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways, comparing it to the then-common type of luggage, which opens into two equal parts:

You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word.

In his introduction to his 1876 poem The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll again uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection:[28]

Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious". Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a perfectly balanced mind, you will say "frumious".

In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase that opened into two equal sections. According to the OED Online, a portmanteau is a "case or bag for carrying clothing and other belongings when travelling; (originally) one of a form suitable for carrying on horseback; (now esp.) one in the form of a stiff leather case hinged at the back to open into two equal parts".[29] According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD), the etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", and manteau, "cloak" (from Old French mantel, from Latin mantellum).[30] According to the OED Online, the etymology of the word is the "officer who carries the mantle of a person in a high position (1507 in Middle French), case or bag for carrying clothing (1547), clothes rack (1640)".[29] In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like.[31][32][33]

An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".[34]

Examples in English

For a more comprehensive list, see List of portmanteaus.

The original Gerrymander pictured in an 1812 cartoon. The word is a portmanteau of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry's name with salamander.

Many neologisms are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon.[28] In Punch in 1896, the word brunch (breakfast + lunch) was introduced as a "portmanteau word".[35] In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Similarly Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia.

Some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana border, while Calexico and Mexicali are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger (a tigon is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger).

Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software; the cheese Cambozola combines a similar rind to Camembert with the same mould used to make Gorgonzola; passenger rail company Amtrak, a portmanteau of America and track; Velcro, a portmanteau of the French velours (velvet) and crochet (hook); Verizon, a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for truth) and horizon; Viacom, a portmanteau of Video and Audio communications, and ComEd (a Chicago-area electric utility company), a portmanteau of Commonwealth and Edison.

Jeoportmanteau! is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy! The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words Jeopardy and portmanteau. Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together.

Portmanteau words may be produced by joining proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy salamander in outline. The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms bjelkemander and playmander.

Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit".

A spork

The word refudiate was famously used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though the word was a gaffe, it was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010.[36]

The business lexicon includes words like "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" (informational commercial).

Company and product names may also use portmanteau words: examples include Timex (a portmanteau of Time [referring to Time magazine] and Kleenex),[37] Renault's Twingo (a combination of twist, swing and tango),[38] and Garmin (portmanteau of company founders' first names Gary Burrell and Min Kao). "Desilu Productions" was a Los Angeles–based company jointly owned by actor couple Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball. Miramax is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers.

Name-meshing

Main article: Name blending

Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce epithets such as "Billary" (referring to former United States president Bill Clinton and his wife, former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton). In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist Benjamin Zimmer states.[39] For instance, Putler is used by critics of Vladimir Putin, merging his name with Adolf Hitler. By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaus to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "...giv[e] people an essence of who they are within the same name."[40] This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "supercouples". An early known example, Bennifer, referred to film stars Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez. Other examples include Brangelina (Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie) and TomKat (Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes).[40] On Wednesday, 28 June 2017, The New York Times crossword included the quip, "How I wish Natalie Portman dated Jacques Cousteau, so I could call them 'Portmanteau'".[41]

Holidays are another example, as in Thanksgivukkah, a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of Thanksgiving and the first day of the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah on Thursday, 28 November 2013.[42][43] Chrismukkah is another pop-culture portmanteau neologism popularized by the TV drama The O.C., merging of the holidays of Christianity's Christmas and Judaism's Hanukkah.

This 2012 novelty t-shirt combines the names of two place names, Wisconsin and Compton, California to form 'WISCOMPTON'

In the Disney film Big Hero 6, the film is situated in a fictitious city called "San Fransokyo", which is a portmanteau of two real locations, San Francisco and Tokyo.[44]

Other languages

This article should specify the language of its non-English content, using ((lang)), ((transliteration)) for transliterated languages, and ((IPA)) for phonetic transcriptions, with an appropriate ISO 639 code. Wikipedia's multilingual support templates may also be used. See why. (May 2020)

Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew abounds with blending. Along with CD, or simply דיסק (disk), Hebrew has the blend תקליטור (taklitór), which consists of תקליט (taklít, 'phonograph record') and אור (or, 'light'). Other blends in Hebrew include the following:[45]

Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a blend that resembles an acrostic:

Irish

A few portmanteaus are in use in modern Irish, for example:

Icelandic

There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and neologisms are frequently created from pre-existing words. For example, tölva 'computer' is a portmanteau of tala 'digit, number' and völva 'oracle, seeress'.[53]

Indonesian

Main article: Indonesian language § Acronyms and portmanteau

In Indonesian, portmanteaus and acronyms are very common in both formal and informal usage.

A common use of a portmanteau in the Indonesian language is to refer to locations and areas of the country. For example, Jabodetabek is a portmanteau that refers to the Jakarta metropolitan area or Greater Jakarta, which includes the regions of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi).

Malaysian

In the Malaysian national language of Bahasa Melayu, the word jadong was constructed out of three Malay words for evil (jahat), stupid (bodoh) and arrogant (sombong) to be used on the worst kinds of community and religious leaders who mislead naive, submissive and powerless folk under their thrall.[citation needed]

Japanese

Main article: Japanese abbreviated and contracted words

A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others (that is, from two back-clippings).[54] The portion of each input word retained is usually two morae, which is tantamount to one kanji in most words written in kanji.

The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese words, gairaigo (later borrowings), or combinations thereof. A Sino-Japanese example is the name 東大 (Tōdai) for the University of Tokyo, in full (kyō daigaku). With borrowings, typical results are words such as パソコン (pasokon), meaning personal computer (PC), which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a uniquely Japanese contraction of the English personal computer (ナル・コンピュータ, pāsonaru konpyūta). Another example, Pokémon (ポケモン), is a contracted form of the English words pocket (ポケット, poketto) and monsters (モンスター, monsutā).[55] A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is karaoke (カラオケ, karaoke), blending the Japanese word for empty (, kara) and the Greek word orchestra (オーケストラ, ōkesutora). The Japanese fad of egg-shaped keychain pet toys from the 1990s, Tamagotchi, is a portmanteau combining the two Japanese words tamago (たまご), which means "egg", and uotchi (ウオッチ) "watch". The portmanteau can also be seen as a combination of tamago (たまご), "egg", and tomodachi (友だち), which means "friend".

Some titles also are portmanteaus, such as Hetalia (ヘタリア). It came from Hetare (ヘタレ), which means "idiot", and Italia (イタリア) which means Italy. Another example is Servamp, which came from the English words Servant (サーヴァント) and Vampire (ヴァンパイア).

Portuguese

In Brazilian Portuguese, portmanteaus are usually slang, including:

In European Portuguese, portmanteaus are also used. Some of them include:

Spanish

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Although traditionally uncommon in Spanish, portmanteaus are increasingly finding their way into the language, mainly for marketing and commercial purposes. Examples in Mexican Spanish include cafebrería from combining cafetería "coffee shop" and librería "bookstore", or teletón 'telethon' from combining televisión and maratón. Portmanteaus are also frequently used to make commercial brands, such as "chocolleta" from "chocolate" + "galleta." They are also often used to create business company names, especially for small, family-owned businesses, where owners' names are combined to create a unique name (such as Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", or Mafer, from "María" + "Fernanda"). These usages help to create distinguishable trademarks. It is a common occurrence for people with two names to combine them into a single nickname, like Juanca for Juan Carlos, Or Marilú for María de Lourdes.

Other examples:

A somewhat popular example in Spain is the word gallifante,[64] a portmanteau of gallo y elefante (cockerel and elephant). It was the prize on the Spanish version of the children TV show Child's Play (Spanish: Juego de niños) that ran on the public television channel La 1 of Televisión Española (TVE) from 1988 to 1992.[65]

Portmanteau morph

In linguistics, a blend is an amalgamation or fusion of independent lexemes, while a portmanteau or portmanteau morph is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying morphemes.[66][67][68][69] For example, in the Latin word animalis, the ending -is is a portmanteau morph because it is an unanalysable combination of two morphemes: a morpheme for the singular number and one for the genitive case. In English, two separate morphs are used: of an animal. Other examples include French: à leau [o] and de ledu [dy].[66]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Adams attributes the term splinter to J. M. Berman, "Contribution on blending," Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 9 (1961), pp. 278–281.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Example provided by Elisa Mattiello's chapter "Blends" (of Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2013) of a blend of this kind.
  3. ^ Example provided by Elisa Mattiello's chapter "Blends" (of Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2013) of a blend of this kind. (Etymologically, fan is a clipping of fanatic; but it has since become lexicalized.)
  4. ^ a b Elisa Mattiello, "Lexical index." Appendix (pp. 287–329) to Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena (Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2013; doi:10.1515/9783110295399; ISBN 978-3-11-029539-9).
  5. ^ Example provided by Elisa Mattiello's chapter "Blends" (of Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2013) of a blend of this kind, slightly amended.
  6. ^ a b Example provided by Mattiello of a blend of this kind. The word is found in Finnegans Wake; Mattiello credits Almuth Grésillon, La règle et le monstre: Le mot-valise. Interrogations sur la langue, à partir d'un corpus de Heinrich Heine (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1984), 15, for bringing it to her attention.

References

  1. ^ "Definition of PORTMANTEAU". 18 March 2024.
  2. ^ Garner's Modern American Usage Archived 27 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, p. 644.
  3. ^ a b "Portmanteau". Merriam-Webster Offline Dictionary. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
  4. ^ "Portmanteau word". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. Archived from the original on 26 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
  5. ^ "portmanteau word". Webster's New World College Dictionary. Cleveland: Wiley. 2010. ISBN 978-0-7645-7125-1.
  6. ^ "Portmanteau word". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  7. ^ Valerie Adams, An Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation, Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1973; ISBN 0-582-55042-4, p. 142.
  8. ^ Fandrych, Ingrid (10 November 2008). "Submorphemic elements in the formation of acronyms, blends and clippings". Lexis (2). doi:10.4000/lexis.713.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Elisa Mattiello, "Blends." Chap. 4 (pp. 111–140) of Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena (Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2013; doi:10.1515/9783110295399; ISBN 978-3-11-029539-9).
  10. ^ Ingo Plag, Word Formation in English (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003; ISBN 0-521-81959-8, ISBN 0-521-52563-2), 121–126.
  11. ^ Stefan Th. Gries, "Quantitative corpus data on blend formation: Psycho- and cognitive-linguistic perspectives", in Vincent Renner, François Maniez, Pierre Arnaud, eds, Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012; ISBN 978-3-11-028923-7), 145–168.
  12. ^ Laurie Bauer, "Blends: Core and periphery", in Vincent Renner, François Maniez, Pierre Arnaud, eds, Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012; ISBN 978-3-11-028923-7), 11–22.
  13. ^ Outi Bat-El and Evan-Gary Cohen, "Stress in English blends: A constraint-based analysis", in Vincent Renner, François Maniez, Pierre Arnaud, eds, Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012; ISBN 978-3-11-028923-7)
  14. ^ a b Suzanne Kemmer, "Schemas and lexical blends." In Hubert C. Cuyckens et al., eds, Motivation in Language: From Case Grammar to Cognitive Linguistics: Studies in Honour of Günter Radden (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2003; ISBN 9789027247551, ISBN 9781588114266).
  15. ^ Angela Ralli and George J. Xydopoulos, "Blend formation in Modern Greek", in Vincent Renner, François Maniez, Pierre Arnaud, eds, Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012; ISBN 978-3-11-028923-7), 35–50.
  16. ^ Harold Wentworth, "'Sandwich' words and rime-caused nonce words", West Virginia University Bulletin: Philological Studies 3 (1939), 65–71; cited in Algeo, John (1977). "Blends, a Structural and Systemic View". American Speech. 52 (1/2): 47–64. doi:10.2307/454719. JSTOR 454719.
  17. ^ Francis A. Wood, "Iteratives, blends, and 'Streckformen'," Modern Philology 9 (1911), 157–194.
  18. ^ Algeo, John (1977). "Blends, a Structural and Systemic View". American Speech. 52 (1/2): 47–64. doi:10.2307/454719. JSTOR 454719.
  19. ^ Michael H. Kelly, "To 'brunch' or to 'brench': Some aspects of blend structure," Linguistics 36 (1998), 579–590.
  20. ^ Adrienne Lehrer, "Blendalicious," in Judith Munat, ed., Lexical Creativity, Texts and Contexts (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2007; ISBN 9789027215673), 115–133.
  21. ^ Giorgio-Francesco Arcodia and Fabio Montermini, "Are reduced compounds compounds? Morphological and prosodic properties of reduced compounds in Russian and Mandarin Chinese", in Vincent Renner, François Maniez, Pierre Arnaud, eds, Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Lexical Blending (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012; ISBN 978-3-11-028923-7), 93–114.
  22. ^ Klein, Ernest (1987). A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language. Jerusalem: Carta. See p. 97.
  23. ^ Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 66. ISBN 978-1403917232.
  24. ^ Zuckermann 2003, p. 67.
  25. ^ Carroll, Lewis (2009). Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955829-2.
  26. ^ Fromkin, Victoria; Rodman, R.; Hyams, Nina (2007). An Introduction to Language (8th ed.). Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 978-1-4130-1773-1.
  27. ^ "portmanteau, n.". Oxford English Dictionary, third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  28. ^ a b c Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2007) An Introduction to Language, Eighth Edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 1-4130-1773-8.
  29. ^ a b "portmanteau". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 July 2019. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  30. ^ "Portmanteau". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
  31. ^ Petit Robert: portemanteau – "malle penderie" (suitcase in which clothes hang).
  32. ^ "PORTEMANTEAU : Définition de PORTEMANTEAU". cnrtl.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.
  33. ^ Such a "coat bag" is mentioned in Chapter 12 of Alexander Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo.
  34. ^ "Frankenwords: They're Alive!" The Guardian, 5 February 2016. Archived 10 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ Punch, 1 August 1896, 58/2
  36. ^ "NEW OXFORD AMERICAN DICTIONARY'S 2010 WORD OF THE YEAR IS..." Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  37. ^ Tully, Shawn (7 March 2015). "The crazy, true-life adventures of Norway's most radical billionaire". Fortune. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. A few years later Thomas Olsen would rechristen the company Timex. He hatched the iconic name from an unusual confluence of sources. Recalls Fred: "My father always loved to noodle with words. He liked to read Time magazine, and he used a lot of Kleenex, so he put the two names together and got Timex."
  38. ^ "Twingo I". Renault UK Press Office. Renault. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  39. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (1 November 2005). "A perilous portmanteau?". Language Log. University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  40. ^ a b Winterman, Denise (3 August 2006). "What a mesh". BBC News Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  41. ^ "The Daily Crossword". The New York Times. 28 June 2017.
  42. ^ Christine Byrne (2 October 2013). "How To Celebrate Thanksgivukkah, The Best Holiday Of All Time". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  43. ^ Stu Bykofsky (22 October 2012). "Thanks for Thanukkah!". Philly.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  44. ^ "A Tour Of 'San Fransokyo', The Hybrid City Disney Built For Big Hero 6". Gizmodo Australia. 8 October 2014. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  45. ^ See p. 62 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2009), Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns Archived 22 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2 (2009), pp. 40–67.
  46. ^ "The Irish words for 'selfie', 'Brexit' and 'spam'". Irishtimes.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  47. ^ "Making sense of Brexit". Irishtimes.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  48. ^ "Slánaiste: Irish Times Letter Writers Have Their Say on the Political Crisis" Archived 8 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine (30 November 2017). The Irish Times. Retrieved from IrishTimes.com, 18 September 2018.
  49. ^ Spain, Cíara. "'Slánaiste' As Frances Fitzgerald Set To Resign – Radio Nova". Nova.ie. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  50. ^ "Champion of Irish Dancing & Naíonraí Has Passed Away". Cnag.ie. Archived from the original on 8 September 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  51. ^ "The Irish translation of the Game of Thrones books are really, really literal". Entertainment.ie. 23 October 2016. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  52. ^ CHRÍOST, DIARMAIT MAC GIOLLA (23 June 2018). Jailtacht: The Irish Language, Symbolic Power and Political Violence in Northern Ireland, 1972–2008. University of Wales Press. ISBN 9780708324967. JSTOR j.ctt9qhjkk.
  53. ^ Kristján Árnason; Sigrún Helgadóttir (1991), "Terminology and Icelandic Language Policy", Behovet och nyttan av terminologiskt arbete på 90-talet, Nordterm 5, Nordterm-symposium, pp. 7–21.
  54. ^ "What are contracted words like rimokon?". Sljfaq.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  55. ^ Rosen, Eric. "Japanese loanword accentuation: epenthesis and foot form interacting through edge-interior alignment∗" (PDF). University of British Columbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  56. ^ "A hora das cantrizes – ISTOÉ Independente". ISTOÉ Independente (in Brazilian Portuguese). 4 October 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  57. ^ ""Consegui realizar meu grande sonho: ser cantriz!"". Tititi (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2 February 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  58. ^ "O que é uma palavra-valise?". Kid Bentinho. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  59. ^ "Significado de Aborrescente". Dicionarioinformal.com.br. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  60. ^ ""Pescotapa" de Ciro Gomes repercute nas redes; apoiadores afirmam que vídeo foi manipulado – Brasil – BOL Notícias". Noticias.bol.uol.com.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  61. ^ "Significado de Pescotapa". Dicionarioinformal.com.br. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  62. ^ "telemóvel – English translation – Linguee". Linguee.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  63. ^ Cantautor, ra Royal Spanish Academy Archived 29 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ "Gallifantes – RTVE.es". Rtve.es. 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  65. ^ "Jugar bien vale un 'gallifante'". El País. 4 June 1988. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  66. ^ a b "What is a portmanteau morph?". LinguaLinks Library. 2003. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008.
  67. ^ Thomas, David (1983). An invitation to grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics. Bangkok: Mahidol University. p. 9.
  68. ^ Crystal, David (1985). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (2nd ed.). New York: Basil Blackwell. p. 237.
  69. ^ Hartmann, R.R.K.; Stork, F.C. (1972). Dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Applied Science. p. 180.