Catfish Hunter
Hunter with the New York Yankees, c. 1977
Born: (1946-04-08)April 8, 1946
Hertford, North Carolina, U.S.
Died: September 9, 1999(1999-09-09) (aged 53)
Hertford, North Carolina, U.S.
Batted: Right
Threw: Right
MLB debut
May 13, 1965, for the Kansas City Athletics
Last MLB appearance
September 17, 1979, for the New York Yankees
MLB statistics
Win–loss record224–166
Earned run average3.26
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Baseball Hall of Fame
Vote76.3% (third ballot)

James Augustus Hunter (April 8, 1946 – September 9, 1999), nicknamed "Catfish", was an American professional baseball player in Major League Baseball (MLB). From 1965 to 1979, he was a pitcher for the Kansas City / Oakland Athletics and New York Yankees. Hunter was the first pitcher since 1915 to win 200 games by age 31. He is often referred to as baseball's first big-money free agent, and was a member of five World Series championship teams.[1]

Hunter retired at age 33 following the 1979 season, after developing persistent arm problems, and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1987. He was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, in his early 50s, and died of the disease about a year after his diagnosis. Hunter has been the subject of numerous popular culture references, including the Bob Dylan song "Catfish".

Early life

The youngest son of eight children, Hunter was born and raised in Hertford in northeast North Carolina. He grew up on a farm and excelled in a variety of sports at Perquimans County High School. Hunter played linebacker and offensive tackle in football as well as shortstop, cleanup batter, and pitcher in baseball. His older brothers taught him to pitch,[2] and his pitching skill began to attract scouts from MLB teams to Hertford.

During his senior year in November 1963, Hunter's right foot was wounded by a brother in a hunting accident; he lost one of his toes and shotgun pellets lodged in his foot.[3] The accident left Hunter somewhat hobbled and jeopardized his prospects in the eyes of many professional scouts, but the Kansas City Athletics signed Hunter to a contract.[4] Hunter was sent to the Mayo Clinic that year so that surgeons could work on his foot. He recovered in La Porte, Indiana, at the farm of Athletics owner Charles O. Finley.[5]

Professional career

Kansas City / Oakland Athletics

Hunter signed with the A's on June 8, 1964 for a reported $75,000, but did not play professionally during the 1964 regular season due to foot surgery and the subsequent recovery from his hunting accident the previous fall. He made his professional baseball debut in the Florida Instructional League in the fall of 1964.

It is commonly cited that Finley gave Hunter the nickname "Catfish" in 1965 because he thought his 19-year-old pitcher needed a flashy nickname.[2][3] A story circulated that his family gave him the nickname as a child when he went missing and was later found with a string of catfish; there is no truth to that explanation.[6] However, news articles published mere days after his signing in 1964 reference the nickname (as well as that of John "Blue Moon" Odom, who signed at the same time).[7]

Aside from the fall stint in the instructional league, Hunter never played in the minor leagues.[8] He made his major league debut in May, 1965 and earned his first win on July 27 in Fenway Park over the Boston Red Sox. In 1966 and 1967, he was named to the American League All-Star team.

Prior to the 1968 season, Finley moved the A's from Kansas City to Oakland. On Wednesday, May 8, against the Minnesota Twins, Hunter pitched the ninth perfect game in baseball history and the first in 46 years in the American League since Charlie Robertson's perfect game in 1922, (excluding Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series).[6] The game also marked the first no-hitter by an Athletics pitcher since Bill McCahan in 1947 with what were then the Philadelphia Athletics.[3]

The game was scoreless until the bottom of the seventh inning; offensively, Hunter got three hits and drove in three of Oakland's four runs with a squeeze bunt in the seventh and a bases-loaded single in the eighth.[6] Hunter disagreed with only two of catcher Jim Pagliaroni's pitch-calling decisions during the game, and as a token of his appreciation for his catcher's contributions, rewarded Pagliaroni with a gold watch that he had inscribed on back.[9][10]

Hunter continued to win games, and in 1974 received both The Sporting News's "Pitcher of the Year" award and the American League Cy Young Award after going 25–12 with a league-leading 2.49 earned run average. The A's also won their third consecutive World Series. Hunter's statistics while he was with the Athletics were impressive: four consecutive years with at least 20 wins, and four World Series wins without a loss.[4] He had won 161 games for the A's, 131 in seven seasons in Oakland and 30 in his first three seasons in Kansas City.

Free agency

On February 11, 1974, Hunter agreed with the A's on a two-year, $200,000 contract with a clause stipulating that $50,000 payments be made to a life insurance annuity of his choosing in each of the two seasons. After Finley refused to make payment on the annuity after discovering he had to pay $25,000 in taxes which was due immediately, the breach of contract dispute was brought before an arbitration hearing on November 26, 1974.[11] Twenty days later on December 16, arbitrator Peter Seitz decided in favor of Hunter, officially making him a free agent.[2][12][13] Hunter recalled being scared after he was declared a free agent. "We don't belong to anybody", he told his wife.[2]

New York Yankees

Hunter (left) with manager Billy Martin and Brad Gulden shortly after Thurman Munson's death in 1979.

Two weeks after he won his arbitration, Hunter became the highest-paid player in baseball and highest-paid pitcher in history when he signed a five-year contract with the New York Yankees worth $3.35 million.[2][14][15][16][17] He had been courted by 23 of the 24 teams, including the A's but not the San Francisco Giants,[18] and refused higher offers from the San Diego Padres and the Kansas City Royals.[19] New York was closer to his home in North Carolina and the team played on natural grass.

Finley attempted to have the arbitration ruling overturned,[20] but was unsuccessful after several appeals.[21][22][23] Further details of Finley's history with Hunter gave the A's owner added negative publicity.[24] Hunter became known as baseball's "first big-money free agent".[2]

Hunter got off to a rough start going 0–3 in his first three starts, but settled down and was named to his seventh All-Star team. He led the league in wins (23) for the second year in a row, and also led the league in innings pitched (328) and complete games (30) to finish second to Jim Palmer of the Baltimore Orioles in the American League Cy Young balloting. Hunter was the last major league pitcher to throw 30 complete games in a season.[25] He also became only the fourth (and last) American League pitcher to win 20 games in a season for five consecutive seasons (1971–1975). The others were Walter Johnson (10), Lefty Grove (7), and Bob Feller (5).

In 1976, Hunter won 17 games, led the Yankees in complete games and innings pitched, and was again named to the All-Star team. The Yankees won three straight pennants with Hunter from 1976 to 1978. In 1976, Hunter became the fourth major league pitcher to win 200 games before the age of 31 and the only one since Walter Johnson in 1915, preceded by Cy Young and Christy Mathewson.[26] Hunter was also a competent hitter, with a career batting average of .226; in 1971 he hit .350 with 36 hits in 38 games. After the designated hitter was adopted by the American League in 1973, Hunter had only two plate appearances in his final seven seasons, with one base hit in 1973.

Hunter won his Opening Day start in 1977, limiting the Milwaukee Brewers to three hits over seven shutout innings in a 3–0 victory on April 7.[27] He left the game with a bruised foot and was eventually placed on the 21-day disabled list with the injury, not pitching again until May 5.[28][29]

Arm injuries plagued Hunter beginning in 1978. In spring training, he was diagnosed with diabetes[30][31] and combined with his chronic arm trouble the disease began to sap Hunter's energy. Following the 1979 season and the end of his five-year contract, Hunter retired from baseball at age 33.[2][32] Hunter won 63 games in his five seasons with the Yankees. He retired with appearances in six World Series and with five World Series championships.[2][33]

While with the Yankees, Hunter was a resident of Norwood, New Jersey, preferring to live outside of New York City.[34]

Hunter following his playing career

Later life

He returned to his farm in Hertford where he grew soybeans, corn, peanuts, and cotton, and was a spokesman for diabetes awareness.[35][36][37] Hunter noticed arm weakness while hunting in the winter of 1997–1998. He was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease.[2]

Hunter died at his home in Hertford on September 9, 1999, at age 53, a year after his ALS diagnosis.[2][3][33] A month before his death, on August 8, Hunter fell and hit his head on concrete steps at home.[38] He was unconscious for several days after the fall, but he had returned home from that hospitalization when he died.[39] Hunter is interred at Cedarwood Cemetery in Hertford, adjacent to the field where he played high school baseball.[40]


Hunter's number 27 was retired by the Oakland Athletics in 1991[41].


Along with Billy Williams and Ray Dandridge, Hunter was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown in 1987.[4] At the time, Hall of Fame officials would always defer to the player's wishes in determining which team would be memorialized on his Hall of Fame Plaque. Before and after his induction, Hunter spoke highly of his experiences with both the Athletics and Yankees and his appreciation for both team owners, Charlie Finley and George Steinbrenner. For this reason, he declined to choose a team; accordingly, his plaque depicts him with no logo on his cap. He was credited by Steinbrenner as the cornerstone of the Yankees in their return to championship form.[2]

In 1990, Hunter was inducted into the Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame. In 2004, the Oakland Athletics began the Catfish Hunter Award.[42] His number 27 was retired by the Oakland Athletics in a pre-game ceremony on June 9, 1991, the first in the franchise's 90 year history.[41][43]

The Jim "Catfish" Hunter Memorial is located in Hertford.[44] An annual softball event is held in Hertford in memory of Hunter. All proceeds from the weekend benefit ALS research. The tournament has raised over $200,000 since 1999.

On September 5, 2018, Hunter was inducted into the Oakland Athletics first Hall of Fame class, with wife, Helen, there to receive the honor.


After Hunter's death, former teammate Reggie Jackson described Hunter as a "fabulous human being. He was a man of honor. He was a man of loyalty."[45] Steinbrenner said, "We were not winning before Catfish arrived... He exemplified class and dignity and he taught us how to win."[45] Former teammate Lou Piniella said, "Catfish was a very unique guy. If you didn't know he was making that kind of money, you'd never guess it because he was humble, very reserved about being a star-type player... almost a little bit shy. But he told great stories. He had a heck of a sense of humor. When you play with guys like that, you feel blessed."[45]

Popular culture

Hunter has been the subject of multiple popular culture references. Bob Dylan wrote the song "Catfish" in 1975.[3] The song was later released by Dylan, Joe Cocker and Kinky Friedman. In 1976, Hunter was also the subject of the Bobby Hollowell song "The Catfish Kid (Ballad of Jim Hunter)", which was performed by Big Tom White and released on a 45 RPM single. Hollowell was best friends with the young Jim Hunter while they grew up together.

Hunter is mentioned in the 1976 film The Bad News Bears. When Coach Morris Buttermaker (Walter Matthau) is trying to get Amanda Wurlitzer (Tatum O'Neal) to pitch for his Little League team, Amanda makes a number of outlandish demands (such as imported jeans, modeling school and ballet lessons) as conditions for joining the team. Buttermaker asks, "Who do you think you are, Catfish Hunter?" Amanda responds by asking, "Who's he?" In the movie Grumpier Old Men, an enormous and highly prized fish is named "Catfish Hunter" by the locals. In You, Me and Dupree, Catfish Hunter is mentioned by Owen Wilson's character, Dupree, convincing an Asian orchestra student that he can pitch: "First, call me Dupree 'cause I'm your teammate. Second, so what if you're in the orchestra? So was Catfish Hunter."

Minor-league pitcher Jason Kosow portrayed Hunter in the ESPN miniseries The Bronx is Burning, which depicted the 1977 New York Yankees.

In the Marvel Comics' The Tomb of Dracula #51 (December 1976, page 26), the narrative written by Marv Wolfman states that "Dracula throws Blade through a window with the ease of Catfish Hunter throwing a fastball."

Career statistics

Total 224 166 .574 3.26 500 476 181 42 0 3,449+13 2,958 1,248 1,380 374 954 2,012 49 49

See also


  1. ^ "ALS deals Hunter final out". Wilmington Morning Star. (North Carolina). wire reports. September 10, 1999. p. 6C.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Berkow, Ira (September 10, 1999). "Catfish Hunter, Who Pitched in 6 World Series for A's and Yankees, Dies at 53". New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e Coffey, Michael (2004). 27 Men Out: Baseball's Perfect Games. New York: Atria Books. pp. 118–138. ISBN 0-7434-4606-2.
  4. ^ a b c "Jim "Catfish" Hunter". State Library of North Carolina. Archived from the original on 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
  5. ^ Charlie Finley: The Outrageous Story of Baseball's Super Showman, p.81, G. Michael Green and Roger D. Launius. Walker Publishing Company, New York, 2010, ISBN 978-0-8027-1745-0
  6. ^ a b c "'Catfish' spins first perfect regular AL game in 46 years". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. May 9, 1968. p. 1D.
  7. ^ Associated Press (June 11, 1964). "A's Pay $100,000 for Young Third Baseman". St. Joseph Gazette. p. 11. Retrieved February 21, 2024.
  8. ^ "Catfish Hunter Winter Leagues Statistics & History". Sports Reference. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  9. ^ "Catfish Never Dreamed One Pitch Worth So Much". Sarasota Journal. Associated Press. May 9, 1968. Retrieved December 29, 2011 – via Google News.
  10. ^ "Teammates reflect fondly on Catfish". Allegheny Times. Knight Ridder. September 9, 1999. p. 12. Retrieved December 29, 2011 – via Google News.
  11. ^ Turbow, Jason. "How a contract breach led Catfish Hunter to become baseball's first real free agent", Sports Illustrated, March 6, 2017.
  12. ^ "'Catfish' Hunter said winner over Finley in arbitration fight to become free agent". Montreal Gazette. UPI. December 16, 1974. p. 15.
  13. ^ "It's open season on Catfish". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. December 18, 1974. p. 39.
  14. ^ Lincicome, Bernie (September 10, 1999). "Catfish forever altered economics of sports". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. (Chicago Tribune). p. C-5.
  15. ^ "Catfish selects Yankees, Pirates offer short $ $". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. January 1, 1975. p. 43.
  16. ^ "Catfish accepts Yankee offer". Montreal Gazette. Associated Press. January 2, 1975. p. 9.
  17. ^ Haupert, Michael (Fall 2011). "Baseball's Major Salary Milestones". The Baseball Research Journal. Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Catfish narrows field". Leader-Post. Regina, Saskatchewan. Associated Press. December 28, 1974. p. 19.
  19. ^ Charlie Finley: The Outrageous Story of Baseball's Super Showman, p.217, G. Michael Green and Roger D. Launius. Walker Publishing Company, New York, 2010, ISBN 978-0-8027-1745-0
  20. ^ "Finley making moves to keep Jim Hunter". Montreal Gazette. Associated Press. January 2, 1975. p. 12.
  21. ^ "Judge upholds Hunter ruling". Milwaukee Journal. wire services. January 4, 1975. p. 13.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ "Hunter ruling stands but Finley to appeal". Montreal Gazette. UPI. March 27, 1975. p. 41.
  23. ^ "Finley loses Hunter appeal". Miami News. August 19, 1976. p. 4C.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ "Catfish was treated like animal". Bangor Daily News. Associated Press. January 9, 1975. p. 13.
  25. ^ "Yearly League Leaders & Records for Complete Games". Baseball-Reference. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  26. ^ "200th win for Catfish". The Hour. Norwalk, Connecticut. UPI. September 20, 1976. p. 22.
  27. ^ "Catfish Hunter 1977 Pitching Gamelogs". Baseball-Reference. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  28. ^ Chass, Murray (April 19, 1977). "Blue Jays Beat Yanks; Hunter on Disabled List". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  29. ^ "Catfish Hunter 1977 Pitching Gamelogs". Baseball-Reference. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  30. ^ "A medical miracle has saved the Yanks". Edmonton Journal. Associated Press. September 28, 1978. p. E1.
  31. ^ "Diabetes strikes 'Catfish' Hunter". Edmonton Journal. Associated Press. March 2, 1978. p. C5.
  32. ^ Anderson, Dave (September 17, 1979). "Catfish Hunter: a man's man". Miami News. (New York Times). p. 2C.[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ a b "Catfish Hunter dead at age 53". Daily Times. Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Associated Press. September 10, 1999. p. B1.
  34. ^ Anderson, Dave via The New York Times. "Catfish Hunter still planning on retirement", Star-News, September 15, 1979. Accessed May 24, 2016. "He has lived in Norwood, a leafy Bergen County town less than half an hour's drive from Yankee Stadium; he has succeeded in remaining a farm boy."
  35. ^ Norris, Tim (December 12, 1988). "Control pitcher". Milwaukee Journal. p. 1D.[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "Catfish Hunter helping diabetics". Evening News. Newburgh, New York. Associated Press. July 22, 1990. p. 2A.
  37. ^ Pabst, Georgia (July 14, 1993). "Catfish Hunter is still pitching". Milwaukee Journal. p. D2.[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ Waggoner, Martha (August 11, 1999). "Hunter regains consciousness after fall". Times Daily. (Florence, Alabama). Associated Press. p. 4C.
  39. ^ Bock, Hal (September 10, 1999). "Ace pitcher and baseball's first free-agent star". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. p. B-5.
  40. ^ "Hunter Is Buried in the Town Where He Learned Baseball". New York Times. September 13, 1999. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  41. ^ a b "'Catfish' has number retired by Oakland". Union Democrat. Sonora, California. Associated Press. June 10, 1991. p. 2B.
  42. ^ Catfish Hunter Award (2004–present). Baseball-Almanac. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
  43. ^ "Catfish's number retired". Gadsden Times. Associated Press photo. June 10, 1991. p. B3.
  44. ^ "Perquimans County Chamber of Commerce/Visitor Center & Jim "Catfish" Hunter Museum". North Carolina Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
  45. ^ a b c "Catfish Hunter dead". Retrieved August 24, 2013.
Achievements Preceded bySandy Koufax Perfect game pitcher May 8, 1968 Succeeded byLen Barker Preceded byTom Phoebus No-hitter pitcher May 8, 1968 Succeeded byGeorge Culver