Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
Trifluoromethyl chloride
Arcton 3
Freon 13
Genetron 13
CFC 13
UN 1022
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.814 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-894-4
RTECS number
  • PA6410000
  • InChI=1S/CClF3/c2-1(3,4)5 checkY
  • InChI=1/CClF3/c2-1(3,4)5
  • ClC(F)(F)F
Molar mass 104.46 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas with sweet odor
Density 1.526 g/cm3
Melting point −181 °C (−293.8 °F; 92.1 K)
Boiling point −81.5 °C (−114.7 °F; 191.7 K)
0.009% at 25 °C (77 °F)
Vapor pressure 3.263 MPa at 21 °C (70 °F)
Thermal conductivity 0.01217 W m−1 K−1 (300 K)[1]
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Ozone depletor and asphyxiant
Flash point Non-flammable
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 0420
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Chlorotrifluoromethane, R-13, CFC-13, or Freon 13, is a non-flammable, non-corrosive, nontoxic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and also a mixed halomethane. It is a man-made substance used primarily as a refrigerant. When released into the environment, CFC-13 has a high ozone depletion potential, and long atmospheric lifetime.[2] Only a few other greenhouse gases surpass CFC-13 in global warming potential (GWP).[3]: 2  The IPCC AR5 reported that CFC-13's atmospheric lifetime was 640 years.[4]


CFC-13—like all chlorofluorocarbon compounds—contains atoms of carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F).[5][6]

It can be prepared by reacting carbon tetrachloride with hydrogen fluoride in the presence of a catalytic amount of antimony pentachloride:

CCl4 + 3HF → CClF3 + 3HCl

This reaction can also produce trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4).[7]

Montreal Protocol

Main article: Montreal Protocol

Following the unanimous ratification of the 1987 Montreal Protocol—in response to concerns about the role of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in ozone layer-depletion in the stratosphere—a process was put into place to gradually phase out and replace CFC-13 and all the other CFCs.[8] Research in the 1980s said that these man-made CFC compound compounds had opened a hole in ozone layer in the upper atmosphere or stratosphere that protects life on earth from UV radiation.[5]

CFC-13's ozone depletion potential (ODP) is high— 1[9] (CCl3F = 1)—it is categorized as a Class I in the IPCC's list of ozone-depleting substances.[9] CFC-13's radiative efficiency is high which results in a high global warming potential (GWPs) of 13 900 GWP-100 yr that is "surpassed by very few other greenhouse gases."[3] It is categorized as a Class I in the list of ozone-depleting Substances.[9]: 2 

Increase in atmospheric abundance of CFC-13 in 2010s

Starting in the 2010s, despite a global ban on the production of CFCs, five of these ozone-damaging emissions were on the rise.[5]

The atmospheric abundance of CFC-13 rose from 3.0 parts per trillion (ppt) in year 2010 to 3.3 ppt in year 2020 based on analysis of air samples gathered from sites around the world.[10] Contrary to the Montreal Protocol, the atmospheric emissions of CFC-13 and four other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), increased between 2010 and 2020.[11]

As of 2023, the drivers behind the increase in CFC-13 and CFC-112a emissions were not certain.[11]

Physical properties

The IPCC AR5 reported that CFC-13's Atmospheric lifetime was 640 years.[12]

Property Value
Density (ρ) at -127.8 °C (liquid) 1.603 g⋅cm−3
Density (ρ) at boiling point (gas) 6.94 kg⋅m−3
Density (ρ) at 15 °C (gas) 4.41 g⋅cm−3
Triple point temperature (Tt)
Critical temperature (Tc) 28.8 °C (302 K)
Critical pressure (pc) 3.86 MPa (38.6 bar)
Critical density (ρc) 5.5 mol⋅L−1
Latent heat of vaporization at boiling point 149.85 kJ⋅kg−1
Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp) at -34.4 °C 0.06 kJ⋅mol−1⋅K−1
Specific heat capacity at constant volume (CV) at -34.4 °C 0.051 kJ⋅mol−1⋅K−1
Heat capacity ratio (к) at -34.4 °C 1.168016
Compressibility Factor (Z) at 15 °C 0.9896
Acentric factor (ω) 0.17166
Viscosity (η) at 0 °C (gas) 13.3 mPa⋅s (0.0133 cP)
Viscosity (η) at 25 °C (gas) 14.1 mPa⋅s (0.01440 cP)
Ozone depletion potential (ODP) 1[9](CCl3F = 1)
Global warming potential (GWP) 14,000[4] (CO2 = 1)
Atmospheric lifetime 640 years[4]

See also


  1. ^ Touloukian, Y.S., Liley, P.E., and Saxena, S.C. Thermophysical properties of matter - the TPRC data series. Volume 3. Thermal conductivity - nonmetallic liquids and gases. Data book. 1970.
  2. ^ Siegemund, Günter; Schwertfeger, Werner; Feiring, Andrew; Smart, Bruce; Behr, Fred; Vogel, Herward; McKusick, Blaine (2002). "Fluorine Compounds, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_349. ISBN 978-3527306732.
  3. ^ a b Vollmer, Martin; Young, Dickon; Trudinger, Cathy; Mühle, Jens; Henne, Stephan; Rigby, Matt; Park, Sunyoung; Li, Shihong; Guillevic, Myriam; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Harth, Christina; Miller, Benjamin; Reimann, Stefan; Yao, Bo; Steele, L.; Wyss, Simon; Lunder, Chris; Arduini, Jgor; McCulloch, Archie; Simmonds, Peter (October 10, 2017). "Atmospheric histories and emissions of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-13 (CClF3), CFC-114 (C2Cl2F4), and CFC-115 (C2ClF5)". Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. 2017 (39). doi:10.5194/acp-2017-935. hdl:1721.1/116270.
  4. ^ a b c "Chapter 8". AR5 Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. p. 731.
  5. ^ a b c Ashworth, James (April 3, 2023). "Mystery emissions of ozone-damaging gases are fuelling climate change". Natural History Museum. Retrieved April 3, 2023.
  6. ^ Elkins, James.W. (2013). "Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species". NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory (Press release). Retrieved April 3, 2023 – via US Department of Commerce and NOAA.
  7. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  8. ^ Allen, Kate (April 3, 2023). "Remember ozone-destroying CFCs? They're on the rise again. And the source is a mystery". The Star. Retrieved April 3, 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d "Class I Ozone-depleting Substances". Science - Ozone Layer Protection. US EPA. 2007. Archived from the original on 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  10. ^ "AGAGE Data and Figures". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  11. ^ a b Western, Luke M.; Vollmer, Martin K.; Krummel, Paul B.; Adcock, Karina E.; Fraser, Paul J.; Harth, Christina M.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mühle, Jens; O’Doherty, Simon; Oram, David E.; Reimann, Stefan; Rigby, Matt; Vimont, Isaac; Weiss, Ray F.; Young, Dickon; Laube, Johannes C. (April 3, 2023). "Global increase of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons from 2010 to 2020". Nature Geoscience. 16 (4): 309–313. Bibcode:2023NatGe..16..309W. doi:10.1038/s41561-023-01147-w. hdl:1983/9e103fef-e61c-49c7-a1a3-902540ec1d7c. ISSN 1752-0908. S2CID 257941769. Retrieved April 3, 2023.
  12. ^ Forster, Piers; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Artaxo, Paulo; Berntsen, Terje; Betts, Richard; Fahey, David W; Haywood, James; Lean, Judith; Lowe, David C; Raga, Graciela; Schulz, Michael; Dorland, Robert Van; Bodeker, G; Etheridge, D; Foukal, P; Fraser, P; Geller, M; Joos, F; Keeling, C D; Keeling, R; Kinne, S; Lassey, K; Oram, D; O’Shaughnessy, K; Ramankutty, N; Reid, G; Rind, D; Rosenlof, K; Sausen, R; Schwarzkopf, D; Solanki, S K; Stenchikov, G; Stuber, N; Takemura, T; Textor, C; Wang, R; Weiss, R; Whorf, T; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Ramaswamy, V; Artaxo, P; Berntsen, T; Betts, R; Fahey, D W; Haywood, J; Lean, J; Lowe, D C; Myhre, G; Nganga, J; Prinn, R; Raga, G; Schulz, M; Dorland, R Van. "Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing". International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC). AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.