Euston Square London Underground
Euston Square Station - geograph.org.uk - 2727745.jpg - crop.png
Southern entrance on Gower Street
Euston Square is located in Central London
Euston Square
Euston Square
Location of Euston Square in Central London
LocationEuston Road
Local authorityLondon Borough of Camden
Managed byLondon Underground
Number of platforms2
AccessibleYes (Westbound only)[1]
Fare zone1
OSIEuston National Rail London Overground
Euston London Underground
Warren Street London Underground[2]
London Underground annual entry and exit
2017Decrease 14.13 million[3]
2018Decrease 10.57 million[4]
2019Increase 14.12 million[5]
2020Decrease 3.67 million[6]
2021Increase 5.26 million[7]
Key dates
10 January 1863 (1863-01-10)Opened as Gower Street
1 November 1909Renamed Euston Square
Other information
External links
WGS8451°31′33″N 0°08′09″W / 51.5258°N 0.1358°W / 51.5258; -0.1358Coordinates: 51°31′33″N 0°08′09″W / 51.5258°N 0.1358°W / 51.5258; -0.1358
 London transport portal

Euston Square is a London Underground station at the corner of Euston Road and Gower Street, just north of University College London – its main entrance faces the tower of University College Hospital. The multi-interchange Euston station is beyond Euston Square Gardens, which is one street east. The station is between Great Portland Street and King's Cross St Pancras on the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines in Travelcard Zone 1.

History

The original southern entrance building on Euston Road, 1862
Platforms with ventilation shafts
Ordnance Survey map showing station, 1895

The station was opened as "Gower Street" on 10 January 1863 by the Metropolitan Railway (MR), the world's first underground railway.[8] The line runs east–west under Euston Road at this point. The station originally had entrances in single-storey pavilions with stone-effect stucco render on each side of Euston Road with stairs to the platforms.[9]

The MR was constructed using the cut-and-cover method with the tunnel and station platforms directly under the road. The walls to the rear of the platforms were originally lined in buttressed brickwork supporting a brick arch 45 feet 1 inch (13.74 m) wide and 10 feet 4 inches (3.15 m) high composed of between six and twelve layers of brickwork. Ventilation shafts lined with glazed white tiling were spaced along the platforms to let in light from openings in the front gardens of the houses at street level.[10][11][12]

In 1864, Parliament authorised the North Western and Charing Cross Railway to construct a line to connect the mainline stations at Euston and Charing Cross. This would have connected to the MR to the west of Gower Street, but the company was unable to raise funds.[13] A revised scheme under the name of the London Central Railway (LCR) was approved in 1871. The proposals included an interchange at Gower Street with the LCR's platforms north of and parallel to the MR's.[14] LCR branches would have connected from east of Gower Street to Euston and St Pancras stations. As before, the LCR was unable to raise funding and the scheme was abandoned in 1874.[15]

In 1890, the MR obtained parliamentary permission to construct a pedestrian subway under Euston Road from the station to the mainline station. This was never constructed.[16][17]

In 1906, the original timber platforms were reconstructed in concrete as a fire precaution related to the electrification of the MR.[18] The station was given its present name on 1 November 1909.[8]

Between 1929 and 1931, the station buildings were reconstructed to a design by the MR's architect C. W. Clark.[19] A bridge was constructed above the tracks so that a single ticket office could be provided in place of the separate ones for each platform.[20] At the same time the station platforms were lengthened requiring the closure of Euston Road to enable the roadway and tunnels to be excavated as quickly as possible.[21] The brick arch of the tunnel roof and the side walls were removed and replaced with a flat roof on steel beams supported by concrete walls to the rear of the new platforms.[19]

During World War II, much of the southern side of Euston Road between Gower Street and Gordon Street was destroyed by bombing. When the site was reconstructed post-war the southern entrance was reconstructed again to incorporate it into the corner of the new building that occupied the site. The north entrance remained. In the 1960s, in conjunction with the construction of an underpass at the junction of Euston Road and Tottenham Court Road, Euston Road was widened. At this time, the north entrance building was demolished and converted to a simple subway entrance.

In the 21st century, the buildings on the south side of Euston Road were again redeveloped and the station entrance was again reconstructed. Since late 2006, the south entrance is incorporated into the corner of the headquarters of the Wellcome Trust with the entrance in Gower Street. A linking pedestrian subway connects under Euston Road from the north side. Since 2011, two lifts provide access between the main entrance and the westbound platform.[1]

Future

In December 2005, Network Rail announced plans[22] to create a subway link between the station and Euston station as part of the re-development of Euston station. This will create a direct link for users of main line rail services which depart from Euston. These plans would also be pursued during a rebuilding for High Speed 2.[23]

Services

The station is served by the Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City and Circle lines, between King's Cross St Pancras to the east and Great Portland Street to the west. All three lines share the same pair of tracks from Baker Street Junction to Aldgate Junction making this section of track one of the most intensely used on the London Underground network.

Euston Square at rush hour in 2013
Euston Square at rush hour in 2013

Circle line

The typical service in trains per hour (tph) is:[24]

Hammersmith & City line

The typical service in trains per hour (tph) is:[24]

Metropolitan line

The Metropolitan line is the only line to operate express services, though currently this is only during peak times (Westbound 06:30-09:30 / Eastbound 16:00-19:00). Fast services run non-stop between Wembley Park, Harrow-On-The-Hill and Moor Park, while semi-fast services run non-stop between Wembley Park and Harrow-On-The-Hill.[25]

The typical off-peak service in trains per hour (tph) is:[26]

Off-peak services to/from Watford terminate at Baker Street

The typical peak time service in trains per hour (tph) is:[26]

Preceding station Underground (no text).svg London Underground Following station
Great Portland Street
towards Hammersmith
Circle line
King's Cross St Pancras
towards Edgware Road via Aldgate
Hammersmith & City line King's Cross St Pancras
towards Barking
Great Portland Street Metropolitan line King's Cross St Pancras
towards Aldgate
Former services
Great Portland Street
towards Hammersmith
Metropolitan line
Hammersmith branch (1864-1990)
King's Cross St Pancras
towards Barking

Connections

London Buses routes 18, 24, 27, 29, 30, 73, 134, 205 and 390 and night routes N5, N18, N20, N29, N73, N205, N253 and N279 serve the station.

References

  1. ^ a b "Step free Tube Guide" (PDF). Transport for London. April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2021.
  2. ^ "Out-of-station interchanges". Transport for London. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  3. ^ "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures (2007–2017)". London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. January 2018. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Station Usage Data" (CSV). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2018. Transport for London. 21 August 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2019. Transport for London. 23 September 2020. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2020. Transport for London. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2021. Transport for London. 12 July 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ a b Rose 1999.
  9. ^ Jackson 1986, pp. 24–25.
  10. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2016, p. 20.
  11. ^ "Metropolitan Subterranean Railway". The Building News. 9: 110–111. 8 August 1862. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  12. ^ Routledge 1900, pp. 114–115.
  13. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 10.
  14. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 11.
  15. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 13.
  16. ^ Jackson 1986, p. 197.
  17. ^ "No. 25995". The London Gazette. 22 November 1889. pp. 6385–6386.
  18. ^ Jackson 1986, pp. 188–189.
  19. ^ a b Croome 2003, p. 45.
  20. ^ Jackson 1986, p. 274.
  21. ^ "Longer Platforms on the Underground". The Times. No. 45388. 17 December 1929. p. 9. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  22. ^ "Euston redevelopment". Always Touch Out. 25 January 2006. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006.
  23. ^ "High speed rail". Transport Select Committee. House of Commons. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.
  24. ^ a b "Circle and Hammersmith & City line WTT" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2016.
  25. ^ "CULG - Metropolitan Line". davros.org. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  26. ^ a b "Metropolitan line WTT" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2016.

Bibliography