Bank and Monument London Underground Docklands Light Railway
Bankwbankofengland.jpg
Entrance at the Bank of England, by Bank junction
Bank and Monument is located in Central London
Bank and Monument
Bank and Monument
Location of Bank and Monument in Central London
LocationKing William Street
Local authorityCity of London
Managed byLondon Underground
Number of platforms10
AccessibleYes (Bank DLR only)[1]
Fare zone1
OSIBank: Monument: [2]
London Underground annual entry and exit
2016Increase 64.26 million[3]
2017Decrease 61.80 million[3]
2018Decrease 54.77 million[4]
2019Increase 61.79 million[5]
2020Decrease 7.03 million[6]
DLR annual boardings and alightings
2016Increase 32.256 million[7]
2017Decrease 31.666 million[8]
2018Decrease 29.505 million[9]
2019Increase 30.497 million[10]
2020Decrease 8.594 million[11]
Key dates
6 October 1884 (6 October 1884)Opened (MICCR)
8 August 1898Opened (W&CR)
25 February 1900Opened (C&SLR)
30 July 1900Opened (CLR)
18 September 1933Bank-Monument
escalator link opened
29 July 1991Opened (DLR)
Listed status
Listed featureEntrance within
Bank of England &
Redundant entrance within St Mary Woolnoth
Listing gradeI
Entry number1079134 (Bank)[12]
1064620 (Church)[13]
Added to list4 January 1950
Other information
External links
WGS8451°30′47″N 0°05′17″W / 51.513°N 0.088°W / 51.513; -0.088Coordinates: 51°30′47″N 0°05′17″W / 51.513°N 0.088°W / 51.513; -0.088
Underground sign at Westminster.jpg
 London transport portal

Bank and Monument are interlinked London Underground and Docklands Light Railway (DLR) stations that form a public transport complex spanning the length of King William Street in the City of London. Bank station, named after the Bank of England, opened in 1900 at Bank junction and is served by the Central, Northern and Waterloo & City lines,[14] and the DLR. Monument station, named after the Monument to the Great Fire of London, opened in 1884 and is served by the District and Circle lines. The stations have been linked as an interchange since 1933.[14]

The station complex is one of the busiest on the London Underground network, with usage of the station rising by 38% since 2008.[15] Owing to this, the station complex has been rated the Underground's worst station in passenger surveys,[16] and is currently undergoing a substantial upgrade and expansion.[15] The stations are in fare zone 1.

History

The Bank–Monument station complex was created by building links between several nearby stations constructed by different companies. The first station was opened by the Metropolitan Inner Circle Completion Railway.

Metropolitan Inner Circle Completion Railway, 1884

Monument station on an 1888 map. The C&SLR's King William Street station, then under construction, is also shown.
Monument station on an 1888 map. The C&SLR's King William Street station, then under construction, is also shown.

The Metropolitan Railway (MR) and District Railway (DR) had, by 1876, built most of the Inner Circle (now the Circle line), reaching Aldgate and Mansion House respectively. The companies were in dispute over the completion of the route as the DR was struggling financially and the MR was concerned that completion would affect its revenues through increased competition from the DR in the City area. City financiers keen to see the line completed established the Metropolitan Inner Circle Completion Railway in 1874 to link Mansion House to Aldgate. Forced into action, the MR bought out the company and with the DR began construction of the final section of the Inner Circle in 1879. The new section of railway included two new stations: Tower of London and another located close to the Monument.

The station at Monument opened with the name "Eastcheap" on 6 October 1884, after the nearby street, and was renamed "The Monument" on 1 November 1884.[14] Initially, trains from both companies served the station on the Inner Circle service but other operational patterns have been used. The Inner Circle service achieved a separate identity as the Circle line in 1949 although its trains were still provided by the District or Metropolitan lines.[14]

Waterloo & City Railway, 1898

The Waterloo & City Railway was built by the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR) to link its terminus at Waterloo to the City. The station, with platforms under Queen Victoria Street and close to Mansion House, opened on 8 August 1898 as "City".[14]

The Waterloo and City line platforms were renamed "Bank" on 28 October 1940.[14] In September 1960, the steeply sloping passages to the platforms were supplemented with the "Travolator", one of the few sets of moving walkways on the whole underground system.[17] Advertising at the Waterloo & City line station often takes the form of large painted murals on the walls and ceilings of the sloped exits, forming one of the largest advertisements on the Underground.

As the W&CR was owned by the L&SWR, a mainline railway, it became part of British Rail; it was only transferred to Underground operation in 1994.

City & South London Railway, 1900

The entrance to the former C&SLR station, now a branch of Starbucks, with the church of St Mary Woolnoth behind.
The entrance to the former C&SLR station, now a branch of Starbucks, with the church of St Mary Woolnoth behind.

The first station to be known as Bank opened on 25 February 1900 when the City & South London Railway (C&SLR, now part of the Northern line) opened its extension from Borough to Moorgate.[14] The earlier terminus of the line, King William Street, on a different tunnel alignment was closed at the same time.

The C&SLR had obtained permission to demolish the 18th-century church of St Mary Woolnoth on the corner of Lombard Street and build a station (originally proposed to be named "Lombard Street") on the site. After public protest, the company changed its plans to build only a sub-surface ticket hall and lift entrance in the crypt of the church. This necessitated moving the bodies elsewhere, strengthening the crypt with a steel framework and underpinning the church's foundations. Unusually for stations later converted to escalators, the original lift access from the ticket hall is still in use.

Central London Railway, 1900

Bank and Monument shown on a 1908 Tube map. Bank was served by the Central London (blue), City & South London (black), and Waterloo & City (thin grey) railways, while Monument was served by the Metropolitan (red) and District (green) railways. The stations were not yet connected.
Bank and Monument shown on a 1908 Tube map. Bank was served by the Central London (blue), City & South London (black), and Waterloo & City (thin grey) railways, while Monument was served by the Metropolitan (red) and District (green) railways. The stations were not yet connected.

The opening of the eastern terminus of the Central London Railway (CLR, now the Central line) at Bank followed on 30 July 1900.[14]

As with the C&SLR, the high cost of property in the City, coupled with the presence of the Royal Exchange, the Bank of England, and Mansion House, meant that the station had to be built entirely underground. Permission was granted by the City of London Corporation for the station to be sited beneath the busy junction of roads meeting at this point on condition that public subways were provided to act as pedestrian road crossings. To avoid undermining the road above, the station's lifts were installed in separate lift shafts rather than paired two-per-shaft as usual.

To avoid wayleave payments to property owners and to lessen possible claims for damage during construction and operation, the CLR tunnels were directly under public streets. This caused the platforms under Threadneedle Street and Poultry to be so curved that one end of the platform cannot be seen from the other. East of Bank station the Central line tunnels have sharp curves to avoid the vaults of the Bank of England itself. Due to the close proximity of the CLR, W&CR and C&SLR stations, and the non-competing directions of their services, their ticket halls were soon connected, but connection between the CLR and C&SLR platforms were made only when escalators were installed in 1924. The Central London Railway station itself was reconstructed during the major rebuilding of the Bank of England in 1925. The booking hall underneath Bank junction was redecorated and a new subway entrance built into the corner of the Bank itself.[18]

Monument link, 1933

Wall tiles at the station show the supporters of City of London coat of arms, combined with the Underground Roundel
Wall tiles at the station show the supporters of City of London coat of arms, combined with the Underground Roundel

The southern end of the C&SLR (by then part of the Edgware-Highgate-Morden line) platforms was close to those of Monument station and, on 18 September 1933, a connecting escalator link was opened, connecting the two stations directly for the first time.[14][17]

World War II

During the Blitz, the station was used as a bomb shelter. On 11 January 1941 during World War II the Central line ticket hall of Bank station suffered a direct hit from a German bomb. The roadway collapsed into the subways and station concourse, killing 56 people.[19]

Docklands Light Railway and station refurbishment, 1990s

In 1991, the Docklands Light Railway was extended to Bank station, following criticism of the original, poorly connected terminus at Tower Gateway.[20] The new platforms were built parallel to but deeper than those of the Northern line, with connections at one end to the Central line and Monument Station at the other. As part of the construction of the extension, a new link between the Waterloo & City and the Central line was excavated – uncovering part of one of the Greathead tunnelling shields used for the Waterloo and City line. This shield forms part of the new passageway, and passengers pass through when transferring between the two lines.[21] As with all other DLR stations, the DLR platforms are accessible, however the route is indirect with the use of three different passenger lifts required to reach the DLR.[18]

Statue of James Henry Greathead, which was erected by Bank station in 1994
Statue of James Henry Greathead, which was erected by Bank station in 1994

In January 1994, a statue of James Henry Greathead was erected outside the station, next to the Royal Exchange. It was unveiled by the Lord Mayor of London and is positioned on a plinth which hides a ventilation shaft for the Underground.[22]

Etched glass panels by artist John Hutton
Etched glass panels by artist John Hutton

The rest of the station was comprehensively refurbished, with decorative tiling panels based on the City's coat of arms, new lighting and replacement of escalators. This work was completed in 1997, partially funded by the City of London Corporation.[23]

New Bloomberg entrance, 2010s

In the late 2010s, a new entrance was constructed at Bloomberg's new London headquarters on Walbrook, near Cannon Street station,[24] providing direct access to the Waterloo & City line via four new escalators and two lifts – providing step free access to that line for the first time. First announced in 2008,[25] construction began in November 2015 following delays due to the financial crisis.[26] The new entrance was opened on 30 November 2018, and was officially opened by Mayor of London Sadiq Khan and former Mayor of New York Michael Bloomberg in December 2018.[27]

The new entrance incorporates etched glass panels by artist John Hutton, depicting 66 figures based on the ancient Roman history of the area, including the Roman Temple of Mithras. The artwork was originally completed in 1962 on Bucklersbury House, the post war office building previously located on the site.[28][29]

Station upgrade and expansion

The curved Central line platform, showing the 1-foot (30 cm) gap between the train and the platform edge (delineated by the solid white line).
The curved Central line platform, showing the 1-foot (30 cm) gap between the train and the platform edge (delineated by the solid white line).

Since 2003, demand at the Bank-Monument station complex has risen by over 50% to 337,000 customers per day.[18] According to Transport for London (TfL), "areas of the station are close to 'saturation' point, where day to day demand overwhelms capacity". Unlike other congested stations such as Oxford Circus, passengers cannot be held back at station entrances during peak times to avoid overwhelming the station, as around half of passengers are interchanging between lines.[15] The high demand on the station is exacerbated by the narrow passageways, pinch points, spiral staircases and indirect routes between lines. Some parts of the station operate "one way", with staff directing passengers on longer routes to increase the capacity of the station.[18]

Given these issues, the station complex is currently under construction to substantially upgrade the station and increase capacity by 40%, at a cost of around £700m.[30][31] The overall project – incorporating twelve new escalators, two new lifts and two moving walkways – includes:[15][32]

Owing to the severe curvature of the Central line platforms, there is a substantial gap between the train and the platform. Because of this, no step-free access is currently proposed for the Central line, as the cost would be prohibitive and it would be difficult for passengers to use.[33]

TfL have described the construction of the project as "intricate and complicated", with over 30 listed buildings in the historic City of London located above the tunnels.[34] The new southbound Northern line tunnel was dug from a worksite on King William Street, using the underground spaces left over from the closed King William Street tube station.[35][36] Former running tunnels have previously been used as circulation space at Angel and London Bridge stations.

Progress

Following consultations in the early 2010s[37][38] and a Transport and Works Act Order in 2015,[39] construction of the new Northern line tunnel began in April 2016, and was estimated to take 6 years. By July 2019, the project had reached the halfway stage.[40] By October 2020, the majority of tunnelling work, around 1.3 kilometres (0.8 mi), had been completed, with around 200,000 tonnes of material excavated from beneath the City.[41][42] By July 2021, installation of escalators was underway, as well as preparation work to connect to the new Northern line tunnels in 2022.[32][43] From January until mid May 2022, the Northern line through Bank was closed[44] - this was required to allow the existing line to be connected to the new running tunnels, convert the previous southbound platform to a new passenger concourse, as well as final fit-out and integration works throughout the expanded station complex.[43][32][45]

On 16 May 2022, the new Northern line southbound platform and concourse was opened, the first part of the station expansion project open to the public.[46] Further areas of the station including DLR escalators and the Central line moving walkway will open in Autumn 2022, and the new Cannon Street entrance will open in late 2022.[32][47] When complete, the station will have 27 escalators, the most of any station on the Underground.[48]

Ticket halls and entrances

Following the opening of the Bloomberg entrance in 2018, the station complex has sixteen entrances and four ticket halls,[18][49] the most of any station on the Underground.[50]

Notable events

On 11 January 1941, during the Blitz, 56 people were killed and 69 were seriously injured when a German bomb hit the booking hall, with the blast travelling down the stairs and escalators to the platforms. The crater, measuring 120 by 100 feet (37 m × 30 m), was covered with a Bailey bridge for the traffic to pass over. The station itself was closed for two months.[51][52]

On 7 September 2003, Bank station was used for a disaster training exercise, Exercise Osiris, billed as "the most realistic live disaster exercise of its kind". The event, lasting several hours and involving about 500 police, fire brigade, ambulance and London Underground personnel, was intended to prepare the emergency services for mass decontamination in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear attack.[53]

Connections

A large number of London Bus routes serve the station complex day and night.[54][55][56]

References

  1. ^ "Step free Tube Guide" (PDF). Transport for London. April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2021.
  2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLSX). Transport for London. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ a b "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures (2007–2017)". London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. January 2018. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Station Usage Data" (CSV). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2018. Transport for London. 21 August 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2019. Transport for London. 23 September 2020. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2020. Transport for London. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Passenger Numbers - Docklands Light Railway Limited" (XLSX (after downloading zip)). What Do They Know. Transport for London. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2017. Transport for London. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  9. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2018. Transport for London. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  10. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2019. Transport for London. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  11. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2020. Transport for London. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  12. ^ Historic England. "Bank of England (1079134)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  13. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Mary Woolnoth (1064620)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rose, Douglas (1999). The London Underground, A Diagrammatic History. Douglas Rose/Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-219-4.
  15. ^ a b c d "Improvements and Projects – Bank & Monument". Transport for London. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Bank is 'most disliked' Tube station". BBC News. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  17. ^ a b "Research Guide No 38: Bank Station" (PDF). TfL Corporate Archives. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d e "Transport and Works Act 1992 – London Underground (Bank Station Capacity Upgrade) Order – Design and Access Statement part 1" (PDF). Transport for London. September 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  19. ^ Larson, Erik (25 February 2020). The Splendid and the Vile: A Saga of Churchill, Family, and Defiance During the Blitz (Kindle ed.). Crown. p. 6046. ISBN 978-0385348713.
  20. ^ "London Docklands Railway (City Extension) Bill (By Order) (Hansard, 6 March 1986)". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Greathead shield at Bank". London Remembers. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  22. ^ "James Greathead statue". London Remembers. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  23. ^ "Bank Station modernisation plaque". London Remembers. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  24. ^ "Bank Station Part 1: The Forgotten Upgrade". London Reconnections. August 2012.
  25. ^ "Transport for London strikes a bargain basement deal". Transport for London. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  26. ^ "Bank station: work starts on a new entrance". Transport for London. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  27. ^ a b "New Waterloo & City line entrance relieves congestion at Bank station". Transport for London. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Bucklersbury House, City of London". recclesia.com. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  29. ^ "London Underground displays the Hutton Panels inside Bank station". www.ianvisits.co.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  30. ^ Smale, Katherine (29 January 2019). "TfL considers 'expensive' Bank station redesign". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  31. ^ "Northern line Bank branch to re-open on Monday 16 May following completion of latest works". Transport for London. 9 May 2022. Retrieved 10 May 2022. within the £700m budget.
  32. ^ a b c d Lydall, Ross (12 July 2021). "Northern line section to close as Bank station gets £700m upgrade". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  33. ^ Khan, Sadiq (12 February 2020). "Bank Central Line Step Free". Mayor's Question Time. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  34. ^ "Northern line Bank branch to re-open on Monday 16 May following completion of latest works". Transport for London. 9 May 2022. Retrieved 10 May 2022. Much of the work completed for the project has been intricate and complicated, with 31 listed buildings at street level above the new tunnels, and foundations for other buildings that had to be tunnelled through.
  35. ^ "Bank station upgrade construction reaches half-way stage". Transport for London. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  36. ^ "Behind the scenes at London Underground's Bank tube station upgrade". www.ianvisits.co.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  37. ^ "Major new scheme proposed to ease congestion at Bank station". Transport for London. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  38. ^ "Exhibition and consultation on Bank Stn upgrade plans". Transport for London. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Major upgrade of Bank Tube station gets the green light for work to begin". Transport for London. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  40. ^ "Bank station upgrade construction reaches half-way stage". Transport for London. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  41. ^ "Tunnelling complete at Bank Tube station". Transport for London. 28 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  42. ^ Horgan, Rob (29 October 2020). "Tunnelling complete on Bank station upgrade". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  43. ^ a b "Check your hub: All of the Northern Line station closures in 2022". CityAM. 13 July 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  44. ^ "REMINDER: Planned 17-week closure of Northern line's Bank branch starts this weekend". Transport for London. 13 January 2022. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  45. ^ "Bank Station Capacity Upgrade Tunnelling Completes! | Dr. Sauer & Partners". www.dr-sauer.com. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  46. ^ Keane, Daniel (16 May 2022). "Commuters return to Bank branch of Northern line for first time in months". Evening Standard. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  47. ^ Morris, Seren (10 May 2022). "When is the Northern line's Bank branch reopening and what will be different?". Evening Standard. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  48. ^ "Mayor re-opens Bank branch of Northern line to new spacious Underground platform and concourse". Transport for London. 16 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022. Bank already has 15 escalators so will have 27 escalators once the works are complete, the largest number on the Tube network.
  49. ^ "3D maps of every Underground station". www.ianvisits.co.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  50. ^ "Stations public entrances and exits - a Freedom of Information request to Transport for London". WhatDoTheyKnow. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  51. ^ "The Underground at War". www.nickcooper.org.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  52. ^ "Bank Tube Station Blitz". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  53. ^ "London undergoes terror test". BBC News. September 2003. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  54. ^ "Buses from Bank" (PDF). TfL. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  55. ^ "Buses from Monument and Cannon Street" (PDF). TfL. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  56. ^ "Night buses from City of London" (PDF). TfL. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  Bank   Preceding station   London Underground   Following station St Paul'stowards Ealing Broadway or West RuislipCentral lineLiverpool Streettowards Epping, Hainault or Woodford (via Hainault) Moorgatetowards Edgware, Mill Hill Eastor High BarnetNorthern lineBank branchLondon Bridgetowards Morden WaterlooTerminusWaterloo & City lineMondays to Saturdays onlyTerminus Preceding station   DLR   Following station TerminusDocklands Light RailwayShadwelltowards Lewisham, Becktonor Woolwich Arsenal   Monument   Preceding station   London Underground   Following station Cannon Streettowards Edgware Road (via Victoria)Circle lineTower Hilltowards Hammersmith (via King's Cross St. Pancras) Cannon Streettowards Wimbledon, Richmond or Ealing BroadwayDistrict lineTower Hilltowards Upminster   Former services   Preceding station   London Underground   Following station Cannon Streettowards Wimbledon, Richmond or Ealing BroadwayDistrict line(1884–1967)Mark Lanetowards Upminster