Farringdon London Underground Elizabeth line National Rail
Farringdon station new building open 2012.JPG
The new National Rail entrance, built as part of the Thameslink Programme. It is built opposite the 1922 station frontage, which still stands.
Farringdon is located in Central London
Farringdon
Farringdon
Location of Farringdon in Central London
LocationClerkenwell
Local authorityLondon Borough of Islington
Managed byLondon Underground
OwnerTransport for London
Network Rail
Station codeZFD
DfT categoryE
Number of platforms6 (2 National Rail)
(2 London Underground)
(2 Elizabeth line)
AccessibleYes[1][2]
Fare zone1
London Underground annual entry and exit
2016Decrease 15.87 million[3]
2017Increase 20.14 million[3]
2018Increase 22.79 million[4]
2019Increase 25.92 million[5]
2020Decrease 5.90 million[6]
National Rail annual entry and exit
2016–17Decrease 12.046 million[7]
2017–18Increase 12.618 million[7]
– interchange Increase 0.168 million[7]
2018–19Increase 15.087 million[7]
– interchange Increase 0.383 million[7]
2019–20Increase 16.497 million[7]
– interchange Increase 0.399 million[7]
2020–21Decrease 2.643 million[7]
– interchange Decrease 0.118 million[7]
Key dates
10 January 1863Opened as Farringdon Street
23 December 1865Resited
26 January 1922Renamed Farringdon & High Holborn
21 April 1936Renamed Farringdon
1 July 1936Goods yard closed[8]
1982Electrified
May 1988Thameslink started
21 March 2009Thameslink services to Moorgate discontinued
24 May 2022Elizabeth line opened
Listed status
Listed featureUnderground station
Listing gradeII
Entry number1298047[9]
Added to list17 May 1994; 28 years ago (1994-05-17)
Other information
External links
WGS8451°31′12″N 0°06′19″W / 51.520°N 0.1053°W / 51.520; -0.1053Coordinates: 51°31′12″N 0°06′19″W / 51.520°N 0.1053°W / 51.520; -0.1053
 London transport portal

Farringdon is a London Underground and connected main line National Rail station in Clerkenwell, central London. The station is in the London Borough of Islington, just outside the boundary of the City of London. Opened in 1863 as the terminus of the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway, Farringdon is one of the oldest surviving underground railway stations in the world.

Today the station is served by the London Underground Circle, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines between King's Cross St Pancras and Barbican, the National Rail Thameslink route between St Pancras and City Thameslink, and the TfL Elizabeth line (since the opening of the line between Abbey Wood and Paddington on 24 May 2022).

History

The Metropolitan Railway's second Farringdon station, 1866.
The Metropolitan Railway's second Farringdon station, 1866.

The station was opened on 10 January 1863 as the terminus of the original Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground metro line. The station, initially named Farringdon Street, was originally a short distance from the present station building. The line ran from the Farringdon area to Paddington, a distance of 4 mi (6 km).

The station was relocated on 23 December 1865 when the Metropolitan Railway opened an extension to Moorgate. It was renamed Farringdon & High Holborn on 26 January 1922 when the new building by the architect Charles Walter Clark[9] facing Cowcross Street was opened, and its present name was adopted on 21 April 1936.[10] It was built in conjunction with a freight station to take livestock to a slaughterhouse to its south-east to supply Smithfield Market; remains of cattle ramps on a street outside the market, West Smithfield. Smithfield was redesignated as a wholesale 'deadmeat' market in the 19th century and the freight station was last used in the 1920s.

The station frontage carrying the name Farringdon & High Holborn, 1989.
The station frontage carrying the name Farringdon & High Holborn, 1989.

The lines from Farringdon towards King's Cross St. Pancras run alongside the Fleet ditch, culverted since 1734.[11] The station building is unusually well-preserved early 20th-century London Underground architecture. It retains indications of the Metropolitan Railway's main-line style operation such as a sign for a parcel office on the outer wall and some original signage, with the 1922–1936 name on the facade.

After the bay platforms at Blackfriars closed on 21 March 2009, Southeastern services that previously terminated at Blackfriars were extended to Kentish Town, St. Albans, Luton or Bedford, calling at this station.[12] Thameslink trains to Moorgate ceased at the same time.

Recent and current developments

There are two major rail development projects in progress that involve Farringdon: The Thameslink Programme is a major upgrade to the existing north-south Thameslink route, enabling longer and more frequent trains, completed in 2018; and the Four Lines Modernisation involves the wholesale resignalling of the London Underground's sub-surface lines bringing a major boost in capacity to Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan line services calling at Farringdon.[13]

Once these projects have been completed by 2023, Farringdon will be one of the country's busiest stations with approximately 200 tph, an average of one departure every 20 seconds.[14] A new building, housing a dedicated ticket hall, has been constructed to serve these extra passengers. The new building is to the immediate south of the original station, which itself has been upgraded as part of the programme.

An additional entrance has also been built at the north end of the original station, onto Turnmill Street.

Thameslink upgrade

A Class 319 heads south from Farringdon. On the left is the blocked-off City Widened Line branch to Moorgate, closed as part of the Thameslink Programme.
A Class 319 heads south from Farringdon. On the left is the blocked-off City Widened Line branch to Moorgate, closed as part of the Thameslink Programme.

Farringdon Station has been rebuilt[15] to accommodate longer Thameslink trains and to make other improvements to the station.[16] The existing station building has been refurbished with a new roof canopy covering the north end of all four platforms and a new entrance and concourse facing Turnmill Street. An additional ticket hall has been built on the south side of Cowcross Street providing access to the Thameslink platforms, which have been extended southwards underneath this building, allowing the station to handle 240 m (12-carriage) trains. Platforms have been widened to accommodate increased passenger numbers. This process required the bridge that formed Cowcross Street to be demolished and rebuilt.[17] Cowcross Street is now pedestrianised.[18] Lifts have been provided throughout.

The existing listed ticket hall and concourse have been remodelled, for use by London Underground and Thameslink passengers.[19] Interchange within the station has been improved by removing the interchange bridge and installing new stairs and lifts with access to all four platforms, allowing passengers with impaired mobility to use the station.[20]

It was necessary to build the Thameslink platform extensions to the south, since there is a sharp gradient to the immediate north of the station. This resulted in the two-station branch to Moorgate being permanently closed.[21] The platform extensions cross the former Moorgate line and reach within a few metres of the entrance of the Snow Hill Tunnel.[22] The alternative of realigning both the Thameslink and Circle/Hammersmith & City/Metropolitan lines was impractical as the latter crosses over the former on a bridge almost immediately to the north of the station.[22]

Elizabeth line

Eastbound Elizabeth line platform at Farringdon
Eastbound Elizabeth line platform at Farringdon

The Farringdon Elizabeth line station was built as part of the Crossrail project. It lies between Farringdon and Barbican Underground stations and has interchanges with both of them.[23] Access at the Farringdon end is via the new Thameslink ticket hall.[24] Work was anticipated to be completed in 2018,[25] but the scheduled opening date was delayed.[26]

From 24 May 2022 the new railway line linked Farringdon to Abbey Wood via Canary Wharf in the east and Paddington, in the west. The station is also a hub for cross-London travel, being the only station to be on both the north-south Thameslink service and the east-west Elizabeth line service.[24]

Direct Elizabeth line services between Reading/Heathrow in the west and Shenfield (via Whitechapel and Stratford) in the east is planned to commence in late 2022.[27]

With the opening of the Elizabeth line, Farringdon is the interchange at the crossroad between the north-south Thameslink and the new west-east Elizabeth line
With the opening of the Elizabeth line, Farringdon is the interchange at the crossroad between the north-south Thameslink and the new west-east Elizabeth line

Dual traction current supply

Warning to drivers heading south from Farringdon in August 2012
Warning to drivers heading south from Farringdon in August 2012

Thameslink trains switch between the 25 kV AC overhead supply used to the north of London and the 750 V DC third rail supply used to the south whilst standing at the platform. The trains that formerly ran to Moorgate used 25 kV AC throughout their journeys. This project was installed by the Network SouthEast sector of British Rail in May 1988.

A Network SouthEast livery British Rail Class 319 in the station switching power supply.
A Network SouthEast livery British Rail Class 319 in the station switching power supply.

Until the start of the Thameslink Programme southbound trains that were unable to switch to DC were taken out of service at Farringdon and stabled at Moorgate to prevent them from blocking the core section of the Thameslink route. As this option is no longer possible the catenary has been extended to City Thameslink to enable these trains to continue to the southbound platform[28] at City Thameslink using AC and then return northwards using the new crossover in Snow Hill Tunnel.[29] The pantograph on southbound trains is normally lowered at Farringdon.

Underground trains serving Farringdon use the four-rail 630 V DC system.

A Metropolitan line S Stock train departing Platform 1 with an Eastbound service to Aldgate
A Metropolitan line S Stock train departing Platform 1 with an Eastbound service to Aldgate

Accidents and incidents

Services

Farringdon is in the core of the Thameslink network, and is served by Thameslink. These Class 377 Electrostar units as well as Class 319 used to operate over the Bedford to Brighton route, however they have been replaced with Class 700 trains.
Farringdon is in the core of the Thameslink network, and is served by Thameslink. These Class 377 Electrostar units as well as Class 319 used to operate over the Bedford to Brighton route, however they have been replaced with Class 700 trains.

London Underground

Underground trains at Farringdon Station
Underground trains at Farringdon Station

The London Underground part of the station is directly next to the National Rail platforms and is served by the Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City and Circle lines, between King's Cross St Pancras and Barbican. All three lines share the same pair of tracks from Baker Street Junction to Aldgate Junction making this section of track one of the most intensely used on the London Underground network.

Circle line

The typical service in trains per hour (tph) is:[36]

Hammersmith & City line

The typical service in trains per hour (tph) is:[36]

Metropolitan line

The Metropolitan line is the only line to operate express services, though currently (when?) this is only during peak times (Westbound 06:30–09:30 / Eastbound 16:00–19:00). Fast services run non-stop between Wembley Park, Harrow-on-the-Hill and Moor Park. Semi-fast services run non-stop between Wembley Park and Harrow-on-the-Hill.[37]

The typical off-peak service in trains per hour (tph) is:[38]

Off-peak services to/from Watford terminate at Baker Street

The typical peak time service in trains per hour (tph) is:[38]

Farringdon is in Transport for London's Travelcard Zone 1.

National Rail

All National Rail services at Farringdon are served by Thameslink trains between St Pancras International and City Thameslink using part of the City Widened Lines and Snow Hill Tunnel respectively. Services are operated using Class 700 EMUs.

The typical off-peak service in trains per hour is:[39]

The station is also served by a half-hourly night service between Bedford and Three Bridges.[40]

Prior to 2009, Thameslink services also ran to Moorgate via Barbican with trains diverging from the core route east of the platforms at Farringdon. This section of line was closed as part of the Thameslink Programme which involved the construction of a new ticket hall and the lengthening of platforms at Farringdon to enable platform extensions to accommodate longer 12 carriage trains which covered over the junction in the process.

Farringdon is in Transport for London's Travelcard Zone 1.

Elizabeth line

Elizabeth line services began calling at Farringdon on 24 May 2022 and all services are operated using Class 345 EMUs.

The current service in trains per hour is:[41]

Elizabeth line trains currently only run between 06:00 and 23:00 on weekdays and Saturdays. There is currently no Sunday service on the Elizabeth line although this is due to commence in Autumn 2022.[42]

Preceding station   London Underground   Following station King's Cross St Pancrastowards HammersmithCircle lineBarbicantowards Edgware Road (via Aldgate) Hammersmith & City lineBarbicantowards Barking King's Cross St Pancrastowards Amersham, Chesham, Uxbridge or WatfordMetropolitan lineBarbicantowards Aldgate National Rail St Pancras InternationalThameslinkThameslinkCity Thameslink Elizabeth line Tottenham Court Roadtowards PaddingtonElizabeth lineLiverpool Streettowards Abbey Wood   Future developments   Elizabeth line Tottenham Court Roadtowards Reading or Heathrow AirportElizabeth lineLiverpool Streettowards Abbey Wood or Shenfield   Former services   London Underground King's Cross St Pancrastowards HammersmithMetropolitan lineHammersmith branch (1864–1990)Barbicantowards Barking   Abandoned plans   London Underground Clerkenwelltowards Hammersmith, Kensington (Addison Road),Uxbridge, Chesham, Verney Junction or Brill   Metropolitan Railway   AldersgateWhitechapel Disused railways National Rail King's Cross Thameslink(before December 2007)St. Pancras International(December 2007 – March 2009)   First Capital ConnectCity Widened Lines   Barbican King's Cross MetropolitanorKing's Cross York Road   British RailEastern RegionCity Widened Lines   Barbican

Connections

London Buses routes 40, 63, 341 and night route N63 serve the station.[43]

References

  1. ^ "Step free Tube Guide" (PDF). Transport for London. April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2021.
  2. ^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009.
  3. ^ a b "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures (2007–2017)". London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. January 2018. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Station Usage Data" (CSV). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2018. Transport for London. 21 August 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2019. Transport for London. 23 September 2020. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Station Usage Data" (XLSX). Usage Statistics for London Stations, 2020. Transport for London. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Estimates of station usage". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
  8. ^ Hardy, Brian, ed. (March 2011). "How it used to be – freight on The Underground 50 years ago". Underground News. London Underground Railway Society (591): 175–183. ISSN 0306-8617.
  9. ^ a b Historic England. "Farringdon (1298047)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  10. ^ Rose, Douglas (1999). The London Underground: A diagrammatic history. Capital Transport Publishing. ISBN 1-85414-219-4.
  11. ^ "The Farringdon Wards of the City of London ... some notes on their history" p5: T Sharp 2000
  12. ^ "Train times 22 March – 16 May 2009 Thameslink route" (PDF). First Capital Connect. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2009.
  13. ^ "Four Lines Modernisation". Transport for London. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  14. ^ Londonist Ltd (9 April 2015), New Thameslink Trains Revealed, archived from the original on 21 December 2021, retrieved 21 March 2017
  15. ^ "Whats happening at Farringdon?". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011.
  16. ^ "The new Farringdon station". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012.
  17. ^ Network Rail (2004a) – pg.27, paragraph 2.6.5
  18. ^ "Thameslink 2000 Environmental Statement: Addendum" (PDF). Network Rail. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. See page 15, paragraph 2.2.1
  19. ^ Network Rail (2004a) – page 27, paragraph 2.6.3
  20. ^ Network Rail (2004a) – pg.27, paragraph 2.6.4
  21. ^ Network Rail (2005a) – pg.9, paragraph 2.1.1
  22. ^ a b Network Rail (2005a) – pg.9, paragraph 2.1.5
  23. ^ "Farringdon" (PDF). Crossrail. 28 October 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007.
  24. ^ a b "Farringdon Station". Crossrail. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011.
  25. ^ "Crossrail project: New Elizabeth line stations revealed". BBC News. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  26. ^ "Elizabeth line: Delayed £18bn Crossrail finally opens". BBC News. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  27. ^ Aplin, Lucy (24 May 2022). "Why you need to switch Crossrail trains and when Elizabeth line opens in full". inews.co.uk. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  28. ^ Network Rail – 'Kent & Sussex Sectional Appendix', LOR S0280, Seq 001, "Farringdon to City Thameslink" (last updated 31 December 2010)
  29. ^ "City Thameslink ('Powered Up' section)". Thameslink Programme FAQ. Archived from the original on 9 November 2008.
  30. ^ "Accident at Farringdon Street on 5th January 1867".
  31. ^ "Accident at Farringdon Street – Kings Cross on 5th January 1892".
  32. ^ "Accident at Farringdon Street on 26th November 1907".
  33. ^ "Accident at Farringdon on 1st May 1939".
  34. ^ "Three Killed in Crash – Lorry Falls from Bridge to Railway". The Times. No. 52939. 24 May 1954. p. 4. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  35. ^ "Accident at Farringdon on 22nd May 1954".
  36. ^ a b "Circle and Hammersmith & City line WTT" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2016.
  37. ^ "CULG – Metropolitan Line". www.davros.org. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  38. ^ a b "Metropolitan line WTT" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2016.
  39. ^ Table 24, 25, 26, 52, 173, 175, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 195, 196, 201 National Rail timetable, May 2022
  40. ^ "First Capital Connect timetables". Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  41. ^ "Elizabeth line timetable: Paddington to Abbey Wood" (PDF). Transport for London. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  42. ^ "Elizabeth line to open on 24 May 2022". Crossrail Ltd. 4 May 2022.
  43. ^ "Buses from Farringdon" (PDF). TfL. 1 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.