Games of New Emerging Forces
TypeSporting event organization
PurposeTo boycott the International Olympic Committee after the suspension of Indonesia from that organisation
HeadquartersJakarta, Indonesia
51 active members
Official language
and host country's official language when necessary
Federation cofounder
President of Indonesia

Games of New Emerging Forces also known as (GANEFO) were the games set up by Indonesia as a counter to the Olympic Games. Established for the athletes of the so-called "emerging nations" (mainly newly independent socialist states[citation needed]), GANEFO was the name given both to the games held in Jakarta in 1963 and the 36-member sporting federation established the same year.[1] A second GANEFO scheduled for Cairo in 1967 was cancelled and GANEFO had only one subsequent event, an "Asian GANEFO" held in Phnom Penh in 1966.

Sports and politics at GANEFO


Indonesia established GANEFO in the aftermath of IOC censure for the politically charged fourth edition of Asian Games in 1962 in Jakarta which Indonesia hosted and for which Taiwan and Israel were refused entry cards. This ran against the doctrine of the International Olympic Committee, which strove to separate politics from sport. The IOC's eventual reaction was to suspend Indonesia indefinitely from the IOC. Indonesia had “thrown down a challenge to all international amateur sports organizations, which cannot very well be ignored,” in the words of IOC president Avery Brundage. This was the first time the IOC suspended one of its members, although Indonesia was readmitted in time for the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.[2]

Indonesian president Sukarno responded that the IOC was itself political because it did not have the People's Republic of China or North Vietnam as members; the IOC was simply "a tool of the imperialists and colonialists."[1] In his words: “The International Olympic Games have proved to be openly an imperialistic tool… Now let’s frankly say, sports have something to do with politics. Indonesia proposes now to mix sports with politics, and let us now establish the Games of the New Emerging Forces, the GANEFO… against the Old Established Order.” [3] GANEFO itself would make it clear in its constitution that politics and sport were intertwined. The event was inspired by the anti-Western, anti-colonial movement and the ideas of the 1955 Bandung Conference.[4]

Ten countries (Cambodia, China, Guinea, Indonesia, Iraq, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam, and the USSR) announced plans to form GANEFO in April 1963, and another 36 signed on as members in November 1963.[1] Despite its doctrine of separating sports and politics, the IOC nevertheless decreed that the athletes attending GANEFO would be ineligible to participate in the Olympic Games.

Sukarno would later form, with Chinese support, a Conference of New Emerging Forces, or CONEFO (Conference of New Emerging Forces).[5]


1st Games of the New Emerging Forces
Participating states
Host cityJakarta, Indonesia
Opening10 November
Closing22 November
Opened bySukarno
President of Indonesia
Main venueGelora Bung Karno Main Stadium
President Sukarno extinguishing the GANEFO flame at the closing ceremony.

Participating states in 1st GANEFO

The first edition of GANEFO was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, on 10 to 22 November 1963. Athletes from 46 states dispatched about 2,700 athletes and seven nations sent staff and officials. In total, 51 states participated in the Games from Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America such as Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Chile, Ceylon, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, DPR Korea, the Dominican Republic, Finland, France, the German Democratic Republic, Guinea, Hungary, Indonesia, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Laos, Lebanon, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine (then divided to Jordanian West Bank and Egyptian Gaza Strip), People's Republic of China, the Philippines, Poland, Republic of Mali, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Thailand, Tunisia, Soviet Union, North Vietnam, the United Arab Republic, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, and one other state. Unlike the Olympics, there was also a team representing "Arab Palestine."[6]

No country, however, was represented officially by its national Olympics committee, for fear of IOC reprisals.[2] For instance, the Soviet Union, in a show of solidarity, sent athletes to the first GANEFO, but in order not to jeopardise their position in the IOC, the Soviet athletes were not of Olympic calibre. Japan let their athletes of non-Olympic calibre attend the first GANEFO to take account of the host nation's position of 1964 Summer Olympics. Nevertheless, in the lead-up to the first GANEFO, the Japanese NOC did receive a thinly-veiled threat from the American IOC President at the time, Avery Brundage, regarding Japanese participation in the first GANEFO.[7]

Commemorative stamps

A set of eight postage stamps were issued by Indonesia on November 10, 1963 to publicise the GANEFO.

Medal table at 1st GANEFO

In the first edition of GANEFO, China was the highest-ranking country with 68 gold medals, Soviet Union the second, followed by the United Arab Republic on the third, Indonesia the fourth, and North Korea the fifth.[8] In all, 48 countries reportedly won medals.[2]

This list of sports fixtures or results is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (October 2021)

  *   Host nation (Indonesia)

1 China (CHN)685845171
2 Soviet Union2721957
3 United Arab Republic (UAR)22181252
4 Indonesia (INA)*21253581
5 North Korea13152452
6 Argentina (ARG)5049
7 Japan4101428
Totals (7 entries)160147143450

2nd GANEFO (1st Asian GANEFO)

2nd Asian GANEFO
Participating states
Host cityPhnom Penh, Cambodia
Opening25 November 1966 (1966-11-25)
Closing6 December 1966 (1966-12-06)
Opened byPrince Sihanouk
Main venueOlympic Stadium, Phnom Penh

The second edition of GANEFO had been planned to be held in Cairo, United Arab Republic, in 1967, but this was cancelled for various political reasons.[4]

The second GANEFO was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, on 25 November – 6 December 1966.

Participating nations in 2nd GANEFO (1st Asian GANEFO)

About 2,000 athletes participated in the 2nd edition of GANEFO from 17 nations (Cambodia, Ceylon, China PR, Indonesia, Iraq, Japan, North Korea, Laos, Lebanon, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Palestine, Singapore, Syria, North Vietnam and Yemen). The games were opened by then Prince Sihanouk, the then Chief of State of Cambodia.

The second GANEFO was restricted to Asia, except Guinea which participated in the qualifying tournament in Pyongyang, North Korea, on 1–11 August 1965. Consequently, only 17 Asian countries participated in the second tournament in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, on 25 November – 6 December 1966 which was named '1st Asian GANEFO'.

Medal table at 2nd GANEFO (1st Asian GANEFO)

This list of sports fixtures or results is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (October 2021)

In the second edition of GANEFO, China PR was the highest-ranking country with 108 gold medals, North Korea the second, and the host nation, Cambodia, the third.

  *   Host nation (Cambodia)

1 China (CHN)1085734199
2 North Korea (PRK)304232104
3 Cambodia (CAM)*13421065
4 Japan (JPN)1012830
Totals (4 entries)16115384398

2nd Asian GANEFO

In September 1967 was announced a second Asian GANEFO to be held in Beijing, China, in 1970, but later Beijing dropped the plans to host the Games, which were then awarded to Pyongyang, North Korea. The Games never occurred, however, and the GANEFO organisation collapsed.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Modelski, George (1963). The New Emerging Forces. Canberra: Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies.
  2. ^ a b c Field, Russell (2011). The Olympic Movement's Response to the Challenge of Emerging Nationalism in Sport: An Historical Reconsideration of GANEFO. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
  3. ^ Jules Boykoff (2016). A Political History of the Olympics. Verso Books. ISBN 9781784780722.
  4. ^ a b Lutan, Rusli; Hong, Fan (September 2005). "The politicization of sport: GANEFO–A case study". Sport in Society. 8 (3): 425–439. doi:10.1080/17430430500260503. ISSN 1743-0437.
  5. ^ "Fakta Sejarah: CONEFO".
  6. ^ GANEFO opening ceremony footage on YouTube
  7. ^ Shuman, Amanda (2013-11-13). "Elite Competitive Sport in the People's Republic of China 1958–1966: The Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO)". Journal of Sport History. 40 (2): 258–283. doi:10.5406/jsporthistory.40.2.258. ISSN 2155-8450.
  8. ^ "Pembagian medal". Harian Rakyat. 23 November 1963.