Athletics (67th Tournament, Gifu Prefecture)
Karatedo competition ( 73rd competition, Fukui prefecture)

The National Sports Festival of Japan (国民体育大会, Kokumin Taiiku Taikai) is the national premier sports event of Japan. It consists of three stages. The skating and ice hockey stage takes place in January, the skiing stage takes place in February, and the main Autumn tournament takes place in September and October. Its name is often abbreviated to Kokutai (国体).[citation needed]


Okayama Prefecture receiving the Emperor's Cup at the closing ceremony of the 60th National Sports Festival

The predecessor to the tournament was the Meiji Shrine tournament held from 1924 until 1943, a period including the Pacific War. Since then there was a Summer tournament that focused on swimming, and an Autumn tournament that focused on track-and-field; however from the 61st tournament in 2006, the Summer and Autumn tournaments were combined. On 20 December 2006 the Japan Sports Association, as the committee for the tournament, decided that swimming was to be held before mid-September as of and beyond the 64th tournament in 2009, though this actually came into effect in the 63rd tournament, in 2008. This took into account the peculiar qualities of holding swimming events. Also the golf tournament was moved forward in the schedule.

The previous Summer and Autumn tournaments have fundamentally been held across one prefecture. The two winter tournaments also take place in the same prefecture, making up the entire tournament. It is often the case when a tournament is held in colder areas such as Hokkaido, Tōhoku, Kōshin'etsu and Hokuriku, that both autumn and tournaments are held in the same prefecture. It is very rare that the skating and ice hockey tournaments are held in separate areas. From the 56th tournament in 2001, the National Sports Festival for People with Disabilities was also held.

During the tournament, the official rankings change in accordance with the number of points earned with the final result being the sum of all four tournaments. The top placing prefecture for both men and women is awarded the Emperor's Cup. The top prefecture for just the women's score is awarded the Empress's Cup.

At first, the summer and autumn tournaments were planned to always be held in Kansai, but after the first tournament in 1946, Ishikawa prefecture were presented the opportunity to host the second tournament. The host prefecture was then rotated throughout Japan.

Entry Qualifications and Age Classifications

The official logo of the National Sports Festival of Japan

The logo was created for the 2nd tournament in 1947. The logo is a red torch leaning at a 30-degree incline to the right, wrapped in a blue Obi.

Opening Ceremony

Ever since the second tournament in 1947 the song Young Power (若い力, Wakai Chikara), written by Takao Saeki and composed by Shinichi Takada, has been played at the opening and closing ceremonies of all large-scale sporting events. Furthermore, it is played at an opening ceremony in which the Emperor and Empress are both in attendance. At the Autumn tournament there is a torch relay following which a main torch is lit and burns until the closing ceremony. Previously there was also an opening ceremony at the Winter tournament, but in line with changes to the tournament from 2010 it was changed to a smaller and simpler starting ceremony.

The torch, which is based on the Olympic flame, was first introduced at the 5th tournament in 1950, and the torch relay at the 12th tournament in 1957. From the 3rd tournament in 1948 a relay event had been held, though this was to carry the tournament's official flag, though this only remained until the 27th tournament in 1972. Afterwards, only the torch relay took place.

Scoring and awards

Points are awarded depending on the outcome of each individual event, with the sum of these points being the method of competing for the Emperor's and Empresses Cups. 10 points are given for participation in each game in the tournament (which includes block-tournaments). Points are not awarded for participation in a block-tournament if the entrant was eligible to participate in the main tournament. In the 64th tournament, the maximum number of participation points available was set at 400 points. The number of points awarded for victories differs depending on the event.

As well as the two main trophies, each event awards trophies and certificates to victorious athletes.

Criticism and Problems

Host Victory Principle

Ever since the 1964 tournament in Niigata, the host team winning the Emperor's Cup and Empress's Cup has generally become the norm. This is not simply down to that team's preliminary scores, but by a number of factors including the ability to field athletes in every competition and the ability to strengthen athletes with the funding going into newly institutions such as venues and event management. In fact, Nobu Nishimura, the lieutenant governor of Yamaguchi prefecture which hosted the 2011 tournament, said at a party "the hosts have an advantage in events with flagmen (events where the result is decided by officials)" and "even if there's "cheating" they will take first place". When he was criticised, he explained his position by saying "I meant the tendency where host prefectures have an advantage, not that it's ok to break the rules".[3]

In a move counter to this custom, as a result of then Kōchi prefecture governor, Daijirō Hashimoto, abolishing it at the 2002 Kochi hosted tournament, host prefecture Kōchi finished in 10th place with Tokyo winning overall. However, this is the only time such an occasion as occurred.

Large Scale Arena Constructions

Recently many host prefectures have built large-scale venues in which to host various events, with a large focus on appearance. Examples include Nagai Stadium, Miyagi Stadium, Ōita Bank Dome, Tohoku Electric Power Big Swan Stadium, Shizuoka Stadium and International Stadium Yokohama. These were generally acknowledged as being built for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, but in reality their construction purpose was to be the main arena of the tournaments (however the International Stadium Yokohama was built with the intention of potentially hosting an Olympic games, and Nagai Stadium was renovated rather than built from scratch). The aforementioned arenas are also sometimes used as a base for J. League football teams based within the prefecture, but other arenas are not used very often following the tournament. In spite of no large-scale events being anticipated as taking place there following the tournament, large amounts of tax payer money continues to go toward its maintenance.

Tournament History



On 26 December 1945 at the Kishi Memorial Gymnasium, Ryōzō Hiranuma (director of the Japan Sports Association), Izutarō Suehiro (chairman of the Japan Swimming Federation), Sanburō Kiyose, Tatsuo Hisatomi and Keijirō Ishida, who had all held important sporting administrative positions since before the war, proposed holding a national athletics event during talks about how sporting events could take place in the post war period.

In 1946, the group had informal talks with Hiromu Kasuga, the chairman of the Kansai Sports Federation, and formed a board of directors. After having their proposal examined and approval gained from GHQ, they received 400,000 yen from the government to help with costs, and the first tournament was held.

Tournament History

Awarding the Emperor's Cup and Empress's Cup has depend on the prefecture. In the first, second, and the special tournament in 1973, neither were awarded. In the 6th, 7th and 8th tournaments, the winter tournament was split from the summer and autumn tournament. In the 9th tournament, it was divided further by separating the swimming tournament.

Any prefecture that was able to host the winter, summer and autumn tournaments have a ☆ mark at the start of their tournament names.

The tournament names are generally a reference to the autumn tournament. It is possible that the winter tournaments had a different name, especially if they were held elsewhere.

Tournaments in blue show where the host did not win the Emperor's Cup.

Event Year Host Name Slogan Emperor's Cup Empress Cup
1 1946 Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe[note 1] 近畿国体 (Kinki Kokutai) None N/A
2 1947 Ishikawa[note 1] 石川国体 (Ishikawa Kokutai) None
3 1948 Fukuoka 福岡国体 (Fukuoka Kokutai) None Tokyo Kyoto
4 1949 Tokyo 東京国体 (Toukyou Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
5 1950 Aichi 愛知国体 (Aichi Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
6 1951 Hiroshima 広島国体 (Hiroshima Kokutai) None Hokkaido (Winter) Hokkaido (Winter)
Tokyo (Summer/Autumn) Tokyo (Summer/Autumn)
7 1952 Fukushima, Miyagi and Yamagata 東北3県国体 (Touhoku Sanken Kokutai) None Hokkaido (Winter) Hokkaido (Winter)
Tokyo (Summer/Autumn) Tokyo (Summer/Autumn)
8 1953 Ehime, Kagawa, Tokushima and Kochi 四国国体 (Shikoku Kokutai) None Hokkaido (Winter) Hokkaido (Winter)
Tokyo (Summer/Autumn) Tokyo (Summer/Autumn)
9 1954 Hokkaido 北海道国体 (Hokkaidou Kokutai) None Hokkaido (Winter) Hokkaido (Winter)
Nara (Swimming) Nara (Swimming)
Tokyo (Summer/Autumn) Tokyo (Summer/Autumn)
10 1955 Kanagawa 神奈川国体 (Kanagawa Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
11 1956 Hyogo 兵庫国体 (Hyougo Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
12 1957 Shizuoka 静岡国体 (Shizuoka Kokutai) None Shizuoka Tokyo
13 1958 Toyama 富山国体 (Toyama Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
14 1959 Tokyo[note 2] 東京国体 (Toukyou Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
15 1960 Kumamoto 熊本国体 (Kumamoto Kokutai) None Tokyo Tokyo
16 1961 Akita 秋田国体 (Akita Kokutai) 明るい国体 (Akarui Kokutai) Tokyo Tokyo
17 1962 Okayama 岡山国体 (Okayama Kokutai) 歴史をつくる岡山国体 (Rekishi wo Tsukuru Okayama Kokutai) Tokyo Tokyo
18 1963 Yamaguchi 山口国体 (Yamaguchi Kokutai) 友愛・奉仕・躍進 (Yuuai・Houshi・Yakushin) Tokyo Tokyo
19 1964 Niigata[note 3] 新潟国体 (Niigata Kokutai) 国体へ県民一致の力こぶ (Kokutai e Kenmin Icchi no Chikara Kobu) Niigata Niigata
20 1965 Gifu 岐阜国体 (Gifu Kokutai) 明るく つよく 美しく (Akaruku Tsuyoku Utsukushiku) Gifu Gifu
21 1966 Oita 剛健国体 (Gouken Kokutai) 剛健・友愛・信義 (Gouken・Yuuai・Shingi) Oita Tokyo
22 1967 Saitama 清新国体 (Seishin Kokutai) 成功させよう埼玉国体・まごころで迎えよう埼玉国体 (Seikousaseyou Saitama Kokutai・Magokoro de Mukaeyou Saitama Kokutai) Saitama Saitama
23 1968 Fukui 親切国体 (Shinsetsu Kokutai) 明るくきよくたくましく (Akaruku Kiyoku Takumashiku) Fukui Tokyo
24 1969 Nagasaki 創造国体 (Souzou Kokutai) あすをひらく創造国体 (Asu wo Hiraku Souzou Kokutai) Nagasaki Nagasaki
25 1970 Iwate みちのく国体 (Michinoku Kokutai) 誠実 明朗 躍進 (Seijitsu Meirou Yakushin) Iwate Osaka
26 1971 Wakayama 黒潮国体 (Kuroshio Kokutai) 明るく・豊かに・たくましく (Akaruku・Yutakani・Takumashiku) Wakayama Osaka
27 1972 Kagoshima 太陽国体 (Taiyou Kokutai) 明るく たくましく うるわしく (Akaruku Takumashiku Uruwashiku) Kagoshima Kagoshima
Sp. 1973 Okinawa [note 4] 若夏国体 (Wakanatsu Kokutai) 強く、明るく、新しく (Tsuyoku, Akaruku, Atarashiku) N/A
28 1973 Chiba 若潮国体 (Wakashio Kokutai) 輝く心 輝く力 輝く太陽 (Kagayaku Kokoro Kagayaku Chikara Kagayaku Taiyou) Chiba Tokyo
29 1974 Ibaraki 水と緑のまごころ国体 (Mizu to Midori no Magokoro Kokutai) None Ibaraki Ibaraki
30 1975 Mie 三重国体 (Mie Kokutai) None Mie Mie
31 1976 Saga 若楠国体 (Wakakusu Kokutai) さわやかに すこやかに おおらかに (Sawayakani Sukoyakani Oorakani) Saga Tokyo
32 1977 Aomori ☆あすなろ国体 (Asunaro Kokutai) 心ゆたかに力たくましく (Kokoro Yutakani Chikara Takumashiku) Aomori Aomori
33 1978 Nagano ☆やまびこ国体 (Yamagiko Kokutai) 日本の屋根に手をつなぐ (Nihon no Yane ni Te wo Tsunagu) Nagano Nagano
34 1979 Miyazaki 日本のふるさと宮崎国体 (Nihon no Furusato Miyazaki Kokutai) 伸びる心、伸びる力、伸びる郷土 (Nobiru Kokoro, Nobiru Chikara, Nobiru Gyoudo) Miyazaki Miyazaki
35 1980 Tochigi 栃の葉国体 (Tochinohana Kokutai) のびる力 むすぶ心 ひらくあした (Nobiru Chikara Musuba Kokoro Hiraku Ashita) Tochigi Tochigi
36 1981 Shiga びわこ国体 (Biwako Kokutai) 水と緑にあふれる若さ (Mizu to Midori ni Afureru Wakasa) Shiga Shiga
37 1982 Shimane くにびき国体 (Kunibiki Kokutai) このふれあいが未来をひらく (Kono Fureai ga Mirai wo Hiraku) Shimane Shimane
38 1983 Gunma ☆あかぎ国体 (Akagi Kokutai) 風に向かって走ろう (Kaze ni Mukatte Hashirou) Gunma Gunma
39 1984 Nara わかくさ国体 (Wakakusa Kokutai) 駆けよ大和路 はばたけ未来 (Kakeyo Yamato Michi Habatake Mirai) Nara Nara
40 1985 Tottori わかとり国体 (Wakatori Kokutai) 明日へ向かって はばたこう (Asu e Mukatte Habatakou) Tottori Tottori
41 1986 Yamanashi かいじ国体 (Kaiji Kokutai) ふれあいの場をひろげよう (Fureai no Ba wo Hirogeyou) Yamanashi Yamanashi
42 1987 Okinawa 海邦国体 (Mikuni Kokutai) きらめく太陽、ひろがる友情 (Kirameku Taiou, Hirogaru Yuujou) Okinawa Okinawa
43 1988 Kyoto 京都国体 (Kyouto Kokutai) 新しい歴史に向かって走ろう (Atarashii Rekishi ni Mukatte Hashirou) Kyoto Kyoto
44 1989 Hokkaido ☆はまなす国体 (Hamanasu Kokutai) 君よ今、北の大地の風となれ (Kimi Yo Ima, Kita no Daichi no Kaze to Nare) Hokkaido Hokkaido
45 1990 Fukuoka とびうめ国体 (Tobi Ume Kokutai) ときめき 出会い みなぎる力 (Tokimeki Deai Minagiru Chikara) Fukuoka Fukuoka
46 1991 Ishikawa 石川国体 (Ishikawa Kokutai) すばらしき 君の記録に わが拍手 (Subarashiki Kimi no Kiroku ni Waga Hakushu) Ishikawa Ishikawa
47 1992 Yamagata ☆べにばな国体 (Benibana Kokutai) 思いっきり躍動 21世紀の主役たち (Omoikkiri Yakudou 21 Seiki no Shuyakutachi) Yamagata Yamagata
48 1993 Kagawa and Tokushima 東四国国体 (Higashi Shikoku Kokutai) 出会い 競い そして未来へ (Deai Kisou Soshite Mirai e) Kagawa Kagawa
49 1994 Aichi わかしゃち国体 (Wakashicha Kokutai) いい汗キャッチ!生き生き愛知 (Ii Ase Kyacchi! Ikiiki Aichi) Aichi Aichi
50 1995 Fukushima ☆ふくしま国体 (Fukushima Kokutai) 友よほんとうの空にとべ! (Tomo Yo Hontou no Sora ni Tobe!) Fukushima Fukushima
51 1996 Hiroshima ひろしま国体 (Hiroshima Kokutai) いのちいっぱい、咲きんさい! (Inochippoi, Sakinsai!) Hiroshima Hiroshima
52 1997 Osaka なみはや国体 (Namihaya Kokutai) おおさか ふれ愛 夢づくり (Oosaka Fureai Yumedzukuri) Osaka Osaka
53 1998 Kanagawa かながわ・ゆめ国体 (Kanagawa・Yume Kokutai) おお汗 こ汗 (Oo Ase Ko Ase) Kanagawa Kanagawa
54 1999 Kumamoto くまもと未来国体 (Kumamoto Mirai Kokutai) 人、光る。 (Hito, Hikaru.) Kumamoto Kumamoto
55 2000 Toyama 2000年とやま国体 (2000 Nen Toyama Kokutai) あいの風 夢のせて (Ai no Kaze Yume Nosete) Toyama Toyama
56 2001 Miyagi 新世紀・みやぎ国体 (Shinseiki・Miyagi Kokutai) いいね!その汗、その笑顔 (Ii ne! Sono Ase, Sono Egao) Miyagi Miyagi
57 2002 Kochi よさこい高知国体 (Yosakoi Kouchi Kokutai) いしん前進 (Ishin Zenshin) Tokyo Tokyo
58 2003 Shizuoka NEW!!わかふじ国体 (NEW!! Wakafuji Kokutai) “がんばる”が好き ("Ganbaru" ga Suki) Shizuoka Shizuoka
59 2004 Saitama 彩の国まごころ国体 (Sai no Kuni Magokoro Kokutai) とどけ この夢 この歓声 (Todoke Kono Yume Kono Kansei) Saitama Saitama
60 2005 Okayama 晴れの国おかやま国体 (Hare no Kuni Okayama Kokutai) あなたがキラリ☆ (Anata ga Kirari) Okayama Okayama
61 2006 Hyogo のじぎく兵庫国体 (Nojigiku Hyougo Kokutai) “ありがとう”心から・ひょうごから ("Arigatou" Kokoro kara・Hyougo kara) Hyogo Hyogo
62 2007 Akita 秋田わか杉国体 (Akita Wakasugi Kokutai) 君のハートよ位置につけ (Kimi no Ha-to yo Ichi ni Tsuke) Akita Akita
63 2008 Oita チャレンジ!おおいた国体 (Charenji! Ooita Kokutai) ここから未来へ 新たな一歩 (Koko kara Mirai e Aratana Ippou) Oita Oita
64 2009 Niigata トキめき新潟国体 (Tokimeki Niigata Kokutai) トキはなて 君の力を 大空へ (Tokihanate Kimi no Chikara wo Oozora e) Niigata Niigata
65 2010 Chiba ゆめ半島千葉国体 (Yume Hantou Chiba Kokutai) 今 房総の風となり この一瞬に輝きを (Ima Fusafusa no Kaze to Nari Kono Isshun ni Kagayaki wo) Chiba Chiba
66 2011 Yamaguchi おいでませ!山口国体 (Oidemase! Yamaguchi Kokutai) 君の一生けんめいに会いたい (Kimi no Isshoukenmei ni Aitai) Yamaguchi Yamaguchi
67 2012 Gifu ☆ぎふ清流国体 (Gifu Seiryuu Kokutai) 輝け はばたけ だれもが主役 (Kagayake Habatake Daremo ga Shuyaku) Gifu Gifu
68 2013 Tokyo スポーツ祭東京2013 (Supo-tsu Matsuri Toukyou 2013) 東京に 多摩に 島々に 羽ばたけアスリート (Tokyo ni Tama ni Shimajima ni Habatake Athlete) Tokyo Tokyo
69 2014 Nagasaki 長崎がんばらんば国体 (Nagasaki Ganbaranba Kokutai) 君の夢 はばたけ今 ながさきから (Kimi no Yume Habatake Ima Nagasaki kara) Nagasaki Tokyo
70 2015 Wakayama 紀の国わかやま国体 (Ki no Kuni Wakayama Kokutai) 躍動と歓喜、そして絆 (Yakudou to Kanki, Soshite Kizuna) Wakayama Tokyo
71 2016 Iwate 希望郷いわて国体 (Kibou Sato Iwate Kokutai) 広げよう 感動。伝えよう 感謝 (Hirogeyou Kandou. Tsutaeyou Kansha) Tokyo Tokyo
72 2017 Ehime 愛顔つなぐえひめ国体 (Egao Tsunagu Ehime Kokutai) 君は風 いしづちを駆け 瀬戸に舞え (Kimi no Kaze Ishidzuchi wo Kake Seto ni Mae) Tokyo Tokyo
73 2018 Fukui 福井しあわせ元気国体 (Fukui Shiawase Genki Kokutai) 織りなそう 力と技と美しさ (Orinasou Chikara to Wagi to Utsukushisa) Fukui Fukui
74 2019 Ibaraki いきいき茨城ゆめ国体 (Iki-iki Ibaraki Yume Kokutai) 翔べ 羽ばたけ そして未来へ (Tobe Habatake Soshite Mirai e) Ibaraki Ibaraki
75 2020 Kagoshima 燃ゆる感動かごしま国体 (Moyuru Kandow Kagoshima Kokutai) 熱い鼓動 風は南から (Atsui Kodo Kaze ha Minami kara) cancelled, due to prevention measure of COVID-19, this event postpone to 2023.[citation needed]
76 2021 Mie 三重とこわか国体 (Mie Tokowaka Kokutai) ときめいて人 かがやいて未来 (Tokimeite Hito Kagayaite Mirai) cancelled, due to prevention measures of COVID-19, Sars cov-2, this event postpone date undecided[citation needed]
77 2022 Tochigi いちご一会とちぎ国体 (Ichigo Ichie Tochigi Kokutai) 夢を感動へ 感動を未来へ (Yume wo Kando e Kando wo Mirai e) To be confirmed To be confirmed
78 2023 Kagoshima 燃ゆる感動かごしま国体 (Moyuru Kandow Kagoshima Kokutai) 熱い鼓動風は南から (Atsui Kodo Kaze ha Minani kara) To be confirmed To be confirmed
79 2024 Saga SAGA2023 新しい大会へ。すべての人に、スポーツのチカラを。 (Atarashii Taikai e. Subete no Hito ni, Sports no Chikara wo.) To be confirmed To be confirmed
80 2025 Shiga To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
81 2026 Aomori To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
82 2027 Miyazaki To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
83 2028 Nagano To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
84 2029 Gunma To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
85 2030 Shimane To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
86 2031 To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
87 2032 To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
88 2033 Tottori To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
89 2034 Okinawa To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
  1. ^ a b For the first tournament, as the main schedule was designed to follow the fiscal year, the winter tournament schedule was designed right after the autumn tournament (so the order was to be summer → autumn → winter, but owing to a problem with participant transportation the winter tournament did not take place). This was similar schedule to the pre-war Meiji Shrine tournament. Owing to this, in the second tournament, from where a calendar system was used, there was no winter tournament. From the third tournament, the winter tournament came into action, giving the tournament order of winter → summer → autumn.
  2. ^ Due to the Isewan Typhoon, Aichi, Mie and Gifu did not participate.
  3. ^ As Tokyo was hosting the 1964 Summer Olympics, the autumn tournament was moved forward to June. Also the summer tournament was cancelled due to the 1964 Niigata earthquake which occurred right after.
  4. ^ Tournament to commemorate the return of Okinawa and other islands to Japan following the American occupation.

Commemorative Items

A commemorative stamp from the 12 tournament (1957)

With the exception of the first tournament, commemorative stamps have generally been issued for the autumn tournament. For the 2nd to 5th tournaments, 4 types of stamp were issued (only the third tournament had 5 types for the winter tournament as well). From the 6th to the 21st tournaments, there were two types of stamp issued, and ever since then there has been one type of stamp released for each tournament.

The regions railway company also issues commemorative items such as train tickets.

Mascot characters

Each tournament normally has a unique mascot character to help build support and encourage good PR. The first mascot was a nameless goat for the 30th tournament (1975) in Mie prefecture, though it was referred to as pet-mark.[citation needed] In the 38th tournament, hosted in Gunma in 1983, the first named character, a horse called Gunma-chan, was used. From then on, having a named character became the norm. There were no characters between from the 31st to the 37th tournaments.

Recently, owing to the "Yuru-chara" boom, mascot characters commonly become official mascots of the prefecture in some capacity. There are many mascots who were already established as prefectural mascots prior to the tournament itself.

Ceremonial Music

At the opening and closing ceremonies the ceremonial music used is produced for each tournament, with it being performed when the torch and athletes enter the arena.

In addition to this, it is often the case where a singer with a strong local connection will sing, along with songs which match the theme of the tournament.

Television Broadcasts


Events in bold have taken place since the first tournament.

Previous events

Exhibition Sporting Events

There are normally around 20 exhibition events held at the Autumn tournament. The trend is to hold events that make the best use of local features.

Boys and Girls Sports
Disabled sports

Future tournaments


See also


  1. ^ スポーツ伝説シリーズ4「箱根駅伝を知り尽くす タスキでつないだ激走の軌跡」 (Sports Legends Season 4 "Knowing all about the Hakone Ekiden - The tracks of flat out run with a tasuki") Baseball Magazine Sha Co., Ltd, 1999, p72 (in Japanese)
  2. ^ プロ参加容認の方向性 国体の中長期プロジェクト (The trend of professional participants' approval - National Sports Festival Mid-term Project) - 3 March 2005, Kyodo News (in Japanese)
  3. ^ 国体「インチキしてでも1位」山口県副知事 (National Sports Festival - Yamaguchi Lieutenant Governor "1st place, even if cheating") - 12 May 2010, Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese)