Sardis Synagogue (3rd century, Turkey) had a large community of God-fearers and Jews integrated into the Roman civic life.

God-fearers (Koinē Greek: φοβούμενοι τὸν Θεόν, phoboumenoi ton Theon)[1] or God-worshippers (Koinē Greek: θεοσεβεῖς, Theosebeis)[1] were a numerous class of Gentile sympathizers to Hellenistic Judaism that existed in the Greco-Roman world,[2][3][4][5] which observed certain Jewish religious rites and traditions without becoming full converts to Judaism.[1][2][3][5][6][7][8] The concept has precedents in the proselytes of the Hebrew Bible.

Many of these Greco-Roman sympathizers to Hellenistic Judaism, which had a monotheistic or henotheistic Pagan background, were worshippers of Caelus (the Roman name/equivalent to Yahweh).[9] Some modern scholars of Judaic studies, such as A. Thomas Kraabel, believe the God-fearers named in the New Testament (such as Cornelius the Centurion) to be a fictional invention of the Acts of the Apostles.[2] More generally, God-fearing has come to mean someone who is honestly religious.


Origin, history, status and diffusion

See also: History of the Jews in the Roman Empire and Second Temple Judaism

Since the mid-1980s, a growing number of scholars of Judaic studies and history of Judaism became interested in the subject of God-fearers and their relationship with Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity.[1][10] According to the popular opinion,[11] Jews that lived in the Greco-Roman world during the Hellenistic and Roman period were not involved in active missionary efforts of mass conversion among Pagans,[12][13] although many historians disagree.[11][14][15][16]

As Jews emigrated and settled in the Roman provinces of the Empire, Judaism became an appealing religion to a number of Pagans, for many reasons;[6][7][15] God-fearers and proselytes that underwent full conversion were Greeks or Romans, and came from all social classes: they were mostly women[14] and freedmen[14] (liberti), but there were also artisans, soldiers and few people of high status, like patricians and senators.[14] Despite their allegiance to Judaism, the God-fearers were exempted from paying the "Jewish tax" (fiscus Judaicus).[8]

Martin Goodman stated that Jews converted non-Jews by passively living by example. Non-Jews were given a choice on how to respond. But he notes that some Jews, like the Pharisees, were mostly interested in converting other Jews.[17]

The class of God-fearers existed between the 1st[15] and the 3rd century CE.[18][19] They are mentioned in Latin and Greek literature, Flavius Josephus' and Philo's historical works, rabbinic literature, early Christian writings, and other contemporary sources such as synagogue inscriptions from Diaspora communities[6][7][19] (Palestine,[14] Rome,[2] and Asia Minor).[6][7][14]

In the Ancient Greek theatre of Miletus, some sitting places seem to have been reserved for the God fearer.[20]


Hebrew Bible

In the Hebrew Bible, there is some recognition of Gentile monotheistic worship as being directed toward the God of the Jews. This forms the category of yir’ei HaShem/yir’ei Shamayim (Hebrew: יראי השם, meaning "Fearers of the Name"/"Fearers of Heaven",[1][4][19] "the Name" being a Jewish euphemism for Yahweh, cf. Psalm 115:11).[21][22] This was developed by later rabbinic literature into the concept of Noahides, i. e. Gentiles that follow the Seven Laws of Noah, which rabbinic writings assigned to the Noahic Covenant.[8][23]

In inscriptions, texts and papyri

The Greek and Latin terms that refer to God-fearers (theosebeis, sebomenoi, phoboumenoi, metuentes)[4][19][24] are found in ancient literature (Greek, Roman, and Jewish) and synagogue inscriptions discovered in Aphrodisias,[6][8][19][25] Panticapaeum, Tralles, Sardis, Venosa, Lorium (in Rome), Rhodes, Deliler (Philadelphia) and Miletus.[6][7]

Judging from the distinctions in the Acts of the Apostles, it is thought that they did not become gerim tzedekim,[26] which required circumcision,[3][27] although the evidence across the centuries varies widely and the meaning of the term may have included all kinds of sympathetic Gentiles, proselytes or not.[28] There are also around 300 text references (4th century BCE to 3rd century CE) to a sect of Hypsistarians, some of whom practiced Sabbath and which many scholars see as sympathizers with Judaism related to God-fearers.[29]

In early Christian writings

See also: Christianity in the 1st century, Historical background of the New Testament, and Origins of Christianity

In the New Testament and early Christian writings, the Greek terms God-fearers and God-worshippers are used to indicate those Pagans who attached themselves in varying degrees to Hellenistic Judaism without becoming full converts,[1][3][5] and are referred to primarily in the Gospel of Luke (7:1–10)[1] and more extensively in the Acts of the Apostles,[1][30][31] which describes the Apostolic Age of the 1st century.

So Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said: "Men of Israel, and you that fear God (οἱ φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν), listen".

— Acts 13:16 (RSV)

Brethren, sons of the family of Abraham, and those among you that fear God (ἐν ὑμῖν φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν), to us has been sent the message of this salvation.

— Acts 13:26 (RSV)

Role in 1st-century Christianity

See also: Christianity in the 1st century, Pauline Christianity, and Paul the Apostle and Jewish Christianity

Judaizing Gentiles and God-fearers are considered by modern scholars to be of significant importance to the growth of early Christianity;[32][33] they represented a group of Gentiles who shared religious ideas and practices with Jews, to one degree or another.[4][5][6][8] However, the God-fearers were only "partial" converts, engaged in certain Jewish rites and traditions without taking a step further to actual conversion to Judaism, which would have required full adherence to the 613 Mitzvot (including various prohibitions such as kashrut, circumcision, Shabbat observance, etc.) that were generally unattractive to would-be Gentile (largely Greek) converts.[6][8] The rite of circumcision was especially unappealing and execrable in Classical civilization[33][34][35] because it was the custom to spend an hour a day or so exercising nude in the gymnasium and in Roman baths, therefore Jewish men did not want to be seen in public deprived of their foreskins.[34][35] Hellenistic and Roman culture both found circumcision to be cruel and repulsive.[34][35]

The Apostle Paul in his letters fiercely criticized the Judaizers that demanded circumcision for Gentile converts, and opposed them;[33][36][37][38][39][40] he stressed instead that faith in Christ constituted a New Covenant with God,[40] a covenant which essentially provides the justification and salvation for Gentiles from the harsh edicts of the Mosaic Law, a New Covenant that did not require circumcision[33][38][39][40] (see also Justification by faith, Pauline passages supporting antinomianism, Abrogation of Old Covenant laws). Lydia of Thyatira, who became Paul's first convert to Christianity in Europe, is described in the New Testament as "a worshipper of God" (Acts 16:14); the Roman soldier Cornelius and the Ethiopian eunuch are also considered by modern scholars as God-fearers who converted to Christianity.[32][41][42]

In Paul's message of salvation through faith in Christ as opposed to submission under the Mosaic Law,[33][36][37] many God-fearers[1] found an essentially Jewish group to which they could belong without the necessity of their accepting Jewish Law.[1] Aside from earning Paul's group a wide following, this view was generalized in the eventual conclusion that converts to Christianity need not first accept all Jewish Law (see Apostolic Decree), a fact indispensable to the spread of the early Christians which would eventually lead to the distinction between Judaism and Christianity as two separate religions.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sim, David C. & MacLaren, James S. (2013). "Gentiles, God-fearers and proselytes (Chapter 1): God-Fearers (Section 3)". Attitudes to Gentiles in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 9–27. ISBN 978-0-56763-766-6.
  2. ^ a b c d Kraabel, A. T. (1981). "The Disappearance of the 'God-Fearers'". Numen. 28 (2). Leiden: Brill Publishers: 113–126. doi:10.1163/156852781X00160. eISSN 1568-5276. ISSN 0029-5973. JSTOR 3270014. LCCN 58046229. OCLC 50557232.
  3. ^ a b c d Feldman, Louis H.; Reinhold, Meyer, eds. (1996). ""Sympathizers" (God-fearers)". Jewish Life and Thought among Greeks and Romans. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. pp. 137–145. ISBN 0-567-08525-2.
  4. ^ a b c d Marcus, Ralph (1952). "The Sebomenoi in Josephus". Jewish Social Studies. 14 (3). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press: 247–250. JSTOR 4465081. We know from Pagan, Christian, and Jewish sources that during the Hellenistic and early Roman periods some Gentiles were so strongly attracted to Judaism that they became converts and undertook to observe Jewish laws and customs in the same manner as did the Jews themselves. [...] It is also commonly assumed that there were some Gentiles who did not go so far as to become converts but indicated their belief in monotheism and gave up the worship of Pagan gods. How far they went in openly dissociating themselves from Paganism and in associating themselves with Judaism we do not know. These Gentile sympathizers are commonly thought to be referred by the terms sebomenoi or phoboumenoi ton theon and metuentes in Greek and Latin sources, and yir᾿ê shamayim "fearers of Heaven" (i.e. God-fearers) in some early Rabbinic passages.
  5. ^ a b c d Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1986). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Vol. 3 (Fully Revised ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. p. 1010. ISBN 0-8028-3783-2. Many scholars see a parallel between the "God-fearers" in rabbinic literature and the "God-fearers" in the New Testament (NT). In rabbinic literature the ger toshab was a Gentile who observed the Noachian commandments but was not considered a convert to Judaism because he did not agree to circumcision. [...] some scholars have made the mistake of calling the ger toshab a "proselyte" or "semiproselyte." But the ger toshab was really a resident alien in Israel. Some scholars have claimed that the term "those who fear God" (yir᾿ei Elohim/Shamayim) was used in rabbinic literature to denote Gentiles who were on the fringe of the synagogue. They were not converts to Judaism, although they were attracted to the Jewish religion and observed part of the law.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Trebilco, Paul (2001). "I «Timorati di Dio»". In Lewin, Ariel (ed.). Gli ebrei nell'Impero romano: saggi vari (in Italian). Florence: La Giuntina. pp. 161–193. ISBN 88-8057-120-6.
  7. ^ a b c d e Trebilco, Paul (2006). "The Jews in Asia Minor, 66-c. 235 CE". In Davies, William David; Finkelstein, Louis; Katz, Steven T. (eds.). The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 80–82. ISBN 978-0-521-77248-8.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Goodman, Martin (2007). "Identity and Authority in Ancient Judaism". Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays. Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Vol. 66. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 30–32. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004153097.i-275.7. ISBN 978-90-04-15309-7. ISSN 1871-6636. LCCN 2006049637. S2CID 161369763.
  9. ^ Florus, Epitome 1.40 (3.5.30): "The Jews tried to defend Jerusalem; but he [Pompeius Magnus] entered this city also and saw that grand Holy of Holies of an impious people exposed, Caelum under a golden vine" (Hierosolymam defendere temptavere Iudaei; verum haec quoque et intravit et vidit illud grande inpiae gentis arcanum patens, sub aurea vite Caelum). Finbarr Barry Flood, The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Brill, 2001), pp. 81 and 83 (note 118). The Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 1985 reprinting), p. 252, entry on caelum, cites Juvenal, Petronius, and Florus as examples of Caelus or Caelum "with reference to Jehovah; also, to some symbolization of Jehovah."
  10. ^ Kraemer, Ross S. (2016). "Giving Up the Godfearers (Chapter 7)". In Stratton, Kimberly B.; Lieber, Andrea (eds.). Crossing boundaries in early Judaism and Christianity: Ambiguities, complexities, and half-forgotten enemies - Essays in honor of Alan F. Segal. Leiden: Brill. pp. 169–199. ISBN 9789004334496. ... in 1975, a large stele had actually been found in Carian Aphrodisias that does, in fact, use theosebeis as some sort of technical category, at least on one face, if not on both. After the formal publication of the inscription in 1987, the already considerable bibliography on 'Godfearers' proliferated, and many studies of the Roman period now seem regularly to presume the presence of such persons throughout the ancient Mediterranean, over a period of at least half a millennium.
  11. ^ a b Sand, Shlomo; Ilany, Ofri (21 March 2008). "Shattering a 'National Mythology'". Haaretz. Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2020. The people did not spread, but the Jewish religion spread. Judaism was a converting religion. Contrary to popular opinion, in early Judaism there was a great thirst to convert others. The Hasmoneans were the first to begin to produce large numbers of Jews through mass conversion, under the influence of Hellenism. The conversions between the Hasmonean Revolt and Bar Kochba's rebellion are what prepared the ground for the subsequent, wide-spread dissemination of Christianity. After the victory of Christianity in the fourth century, the momentum of conversion was stopped in the Christian world, and there was a steep drop in the number of Jews. Presumably many of the Jews who appeared around the Mediterranean became Christians. But then Judaism started to permeate other regions – pagan regions, for example, such as Yemen and North Africa. Had Judaism not continued to advance at that stage and had it not continued to convert people in the pagan world, we would have remained a completely marginal religion, if we survived at all.
  12. ^ Dunn, James D. G. (Autumn 1993). Reinhartz, Adele (ed.). "Echoes of Intra-Jewish Polemic in Paul's Letter to the Galatians". Journal of Biblical Literature. 112 (3). Society of Biblical Literature: 462. doi:10.2307/3267745. ISSN 0021-9231. JSTOR 3267745. Galatians 2:14: "how is it that you compel the Gentiles to judaize?" "To judaize" was a quite familiar expression, in the sense "to live like a Jew", "to adopt a distinctively Jewish way of life"–with reference to Gentiles taking up Jewish customs like observance of the sabbath. [...] Judaism at that time was notably uninterested in evangelism, though open and accepting of Gentile God-fearers and proselytes.
  13. ^ Hezser, Catherine (2011). Jewish Travel in Antiquity. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism. Vol. 144. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. p. 438. ISBN 978-3-16-150889-9.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Louis H. Feldman, "The Omnipresence of the God-Fearers" Archived 2022-11-28 at the Wayback Machine, Biblical Archaeology Review 12, 5 (1986), Center for Online Judaic Studies.
  15. ^ a b c Shaye J. D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah (1989), pp. 55–59, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-25017-1.
  16. ^ A. T. Kraabel, J. Andrew Overman, Robert S. MacLennan, Diaspora Jews and Judaism: essays in honor of, and in dialogue with, A. Thomas Kraabel (1992), Scholars Press, ISBN 978-15-55406-96-7. "As pious gentiles, the God-fearers stood somewhere between Greco-Roman piety and Jewish piety in the synagogue. In his classic but now somewhat outdated study titled Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, Harvard scholar George Foot Moore argued that the existence of the God-fearers provides evidence for the synagogue's own missionary work outside of Palestine during the first century C.E. The God-fearers were the result of this Jewish missionary movement."
  17. ^ Goodman, Martin (2006). Judaism in the Roman World. Brill. ISBN 978-90-47-41061-4.
  18. ^ Robert F. Tannenbaum, "Jews and God-Fearers in the Holy City of Aphrodite", Biblical Archaeology Review 12, 5 (1986), Center for Online Judaic Studies.
  19. ^ a b c d e Louis H. Feldman (1992). ""Sympathizers" with Judaism". In Attridge, Harold W.; Hata, Gohei (eds.). Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 389–395. ISBN 0-8143-2361-8.
  20. ^ "Jewish Inscription at Miletus Theater". Leon's Message Board. 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  21. ^ Islam and Global Dialogue: Religious Pluralism and the Pursuit of Peace. ed. Roger Boase, Hassan Bin (FRW) Talal . Ashgate. 2010 Page 203 "Nevertheless, by late biblical times Israelites realised that there were other people in the world who worshipped the one, unseen God. Such people form the category of yir'ei Hashem (God-fearers, cf. Psalm 115:11); perhaps it is to ..."
  22. ^ Jeffrey M. Cohen 500 questions and answers on Chanukah 2006 "Hence the references to them in Jewish sources such as Sebomenoi or Yir'ei Hashem (God-fearers). Many of them accepted monotheism, though held back from many other basic ritual precepts."
  23. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 56a, 56b.
  24. ^ Pieter W. van der Horst, God-fearers (theosebeis) (2015), Oxford Classical Dictionary.
  25. ^ McKnight, Scot; Osborne, Grant R., eds. (2004). The Face of New Testament Studies: A Survey of Recent Research. Ada, Michigan: Baker Academic. pp. 418–424. ISBN 978-08-01-02707-9.
  26. ^ Jacobs, Joseph; Hirsch, Emil G. (1906). "Proselyte". Jewish Encyclopedia. Kopelman Foundation. Retrieved 11 April 2020. In contradistinction to the ger toshab, the full proselyte was designated as "ger ha-ẓedeḳ," "ger ha-berit" (a sincere and righteous proselyte, one who has submitted to circumcision; see Mek., Mishpaṭim, 18; Gerim iii.). The common, technical term for "making a convert" in rabbinical literature is "ḳabbel" (to accept), or "ḳareb taḥat kanfe ha-Shekinah" (to bring one near, or under the wings of, the Shekinah). This phrase plainly presupposes an active propaganda for winning converts (comp. Cant. R. v. 16, where God is referred to as making propagandic efforts). In fact, that proselytes are welcome in Israel and are beloved of God is the theme of many a rabbinical homily (Ruth R. iii.; Tan., Wayiḳra [ed. Buber, 3]; see also Mek., Mishpaṭim, 18; Tosef., Demai, ii. 10; Bek. 32a).
  27. ^ Lake, Kirsopp (1979) [1933]. "Proselytes and God-fearers". In Lake, Kirsopp; Foakes-Jackson, F. J. (eds.). The Beginnings of Christianity: The Acts of the Apostles. Vol. 1. London: Macmillan Publishers. pp. 74–96. ISBN 978-15-92-44073-3.
  28. ^ Todd C. Penner, In praise of Christian origins: Stephen and the Hellenists, p. 226, 2004: "The category of Theosebes is notoriously difficult to delineate. It is debatable whether or not the term was ever a widely recognized technical designation of a Gentile "hanger-on," and much of the evidence is difficult to date".
  29. ^ James D. Arvila, p. 29.
  30. ^ Bernard, David K. (2019) [2016]. "Monotheism in Paul's Rhetorical World". The Glory of God in the Face of Jesus Christ: Deification of Jesus in Early Christian Discourse. Journal of Pentecostal Theology: Supplement Series. Vol. 45. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 53–82. ISBN 978-90-04-39721-7. ISSN 0966-7393.
  31. ^ Journal of Biblical Studies: Godfearer, by J. Brian Tucker Archived 2010-11-25 at the Wayback Machine: "The traditional understanding of God-fearers, i. e. F. F. Bruce, “God-fearers were Gentiles who attached themselves in varying degrees to the Jewish worship and way of life without as yet becoming full proselytes.”"
  32. ^ a b Dunn, James D. G. (2009). Beginning from Jerusalem: Christianity in the Making. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-8028-3932-9.
  33. ^ a b c d e Bisschops, Ralph (January 2017). "Metaphor in Religious Transformation: 'Circumcision of the Heart' in Paul of Tarsus" (PDF). In Chilton, Paul; Kopytowska, Monika (eds.). Language, Religion and the Human Mind. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–30. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190636647.003.0012. ISBN 978-0-19-063664-7. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  34. ^ a b c Rubin, Jody P. (July 1980). "Celsus' Decircumcision Operation: Medical and Historical Implications". Urology. 16 (1). Elsevier: 121–124. doi:10.1016/0090-4295(80)90354-4. PMID 6994325. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  35. ^ a b c Broydé, Isaac; Friedenwald, Aaron; Jacobs, Joseph; Hirsch, Emil G.; Kohler, Kaufmann (1906). "Circumcision: In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature". Jewish Encyclopedia. Kopelman Foundation. Contact with Grecian life, especially at the games of the arena [which involved nudity], made this distinction obnoxious to the Hellenists, or antinationalists; and the consequence was their attempt to appear like the Greeks by epispasm ("making themselves foreskins"; I Macc. i. 15; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 5, § 1; Assumptio Mosis, viii.; I Cor. vii. 18; Tosef., Shab. xv. 9; Yeb. 72a, b; Yer. Peah i. 16b; Yeb. viii. 9a). All the more did the law-observing Jews defy the edict of Antiochus Epiphanes prohibiting circumcision (I Macc. i. 48, 60; ii. 46); and the Jewish women showed their loyalty to the Law, even at the risk of their lives, by themselves circumcising their sons.; Hodges, Frederick M. (2001). "The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics and Their Relation to Lipodermos, Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration, and the Kynodesme" (PDF). Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 75 (Fall 2001). Johns Hopkins University Press: 375–405. doi:10.1353/bhm.2001.0119. PMID 11568485. S2CID 29580193. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  36. ^ a b Dunn, James D. G. (Autumn 1993). Reinhartz, Adele (ed.). "Echoes of Intra-Jewish Polemic in Paul's Letter to the Galatians". Journal of Biblical Literature. 112 (3). Society of Biblical Literature: 459–477. doi:10.2307/3267745. ISSN 0021-9231. JSTOR 3267745.
  37. ^ a b Thiessen, Matthew (September 2014). Breytenbach, Cilliers; Thom, Johan (eds.). "Paul's Argument against Gentile Circumcision in Romans 2:17-29". Novum Testamentum. 56 (4). Leiden: Brill Publishers: 373–391. doi:10.1163/15685365-12341488. eISSN 1568-5365. ISSN 0048-1009. JSTOR 24735868.
  38. ^ a b Dunn, James D. G., ed. (2007). "'Neither circumcision nor uncircumcision, but...'". The New Perspective on Paul: Collected Essays. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. Vol. 185. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 314–330. ISBN 978-3-16-149518-2. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  39. ^ a b Thiessen, Matthew (2016). "Gentile Sons and Seed of Abraham". Paul and the Gentile Problem. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 105–115. ISBN 978-0-19-027175-6. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  40. ^ a b c Acts 15:1–2, 15:6–10; Galatians 5:2–3, 5:6–12, 6:12–15; Philippians 3:2–3; 1 Corinthians 7:17–21; Romans 2:17–29, 3:9–28, 5:1–11; Titus 1:10–16.
  41. ^ Hurtado, Larry W. (2005). "How on Earth Did Jesus Become a God? Approaches to Jesus-Devotion in Earliest Christianity". How on Earth Did Jesus Become a God? Historical Questions about Earliest Devotion to Jesus. Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, UK: Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 15, 38–39, 41–42. ISBN 978-0-8028-2861-3.
  42. ^ Fredriksen, Paula (2018). When Christians Were Jews: The First Generation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-300-19051-9.