LGBT rights in Ohio
StatusLegal since 1974
Gender identityState does since December 2020, allow change of sex on birth certificates for transgender people[1]
Discrimination protectionsProtections in employment; several municipalities have passed further protections
Family rights
Recognition of relationshipsSame-sex marriage since 2015
AdoptionSame-sex couples allowed to adopt[2]

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the U.S. state of Ohio have most of the rights non-LGBT residents have. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in Ohio, and same-sex marriage has been legally recognized since June 2015 as a result of Obergefell v. Hodges.[2] Ohio statutes do not address discrimination on account of sexual orientation and gender identity; however, the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Bostock v. Clayton County established that employment discrimination against LGBT people is illegal in 2020. In addition, a number of Ohio cities (including Athens, Columbus, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dayton and Toledo) have passed anti-discrimination ordinances providing protections in housing and public accommodations. Conversion therapy is also banned in a number of cities. In December 2020, a federal judge invalidated a law banning sex changes on an individual's birth certificate within Ohio.[1]

Recent opinion polls have shown that LGBT rights enjoy popular support in the state. A 2016 Public Religion Research Institute survey showed that 61% of Ohio residents supported same-sex marriage. Another survey by the same pollster in 2019 showed that 71% of respondents favored non-discrimination laws protecting LGBT people.[3]

History and legality of same-sex sexual activity

As part of the Northwest Territory, Ohio passed the "buggery" law, which provided the death sentence for homosexual sexual activity. In 1804, shortly after statehood, the law was repealed and sodomy was legalized.[4] Despite several court decisions and newspaper articles acknowledging sodomy as legal, the Ohio General Assembly made no effort to overturn these decisions or enact a new law over the following decades.[5][6][7] However, the Ohio cities of Cincinnati, Dayton, and Columbus were some of the first to pass laws against "indecent behavior" in 1819, 1842, and 1848 respectfully. Cincinnati and Dayton also passed laws in 1849 prohibiting "obscene publications and immoral plays", and Columbus passed a law in 1848 prohibiting men from cross dressing in women's clothing, and vice versa.[8]

Ohio adopted its first sodomy law in 1885, stating that anyone who has "carnal copulation against nature, with another human being or with a beast," is guilty of sodomy, and when convicted, shall be imprisoned in a penitentiary for "not more than twenty years".[9] This was revised to include fellatio (oral sex) in 1889.[10] It applied to private, consensual activity as well, and led to police raids on "establishments with a known gay clientele".[11] In April 1886, the Supreme Court of Ohio ruled in Foster et al v. State that sodomy, or "copulation against nature", required the presence of a male, meaning that lesbian sexual activity was exempt from prosecution and thus legal, whereas homosexual and heterosexual sodomy were both punished by up to 20 years' imprisonment.[12]

A 1906 text on state law stated that sodomy could be committed "between two human beings, as between two men, a man and a woman, a man and a boy, a man and a girl, two boys or a boy and a girl where of that age when capable of the crime". Over the following years, numerous court cases dealt with the issue of sodomy, including one in 1915, where a man was sent to the State Reformatory for having engaged in masturbation. In 1929, Ohio law was changed to make sodomy, said to include "any form of unnatural copulation", an offense without possibility of parole.[13][14] In 1939, the Ohio General Assembly passed a "psychopathic offender" law, under which those convicted of sodomy could be sentenced to life in a mental health institution and were not permitted to be released, even if they were "cured", until the expiration of the minimum term for which, if he or she had been imprisoned, the prisoner would be eligible for parole. An appellate court, ruling in 1944 in State v. Forquer, held that cunnilingus fell out of the sodomy statute's scope.[15] In 1945, State v. Walhenmaier, an Ohio Circuit Court stated that sodomy could be "evidenced by medical examination results".[16]

A landmark 1957 case (Johnston v. Johnston) resulted in married couples being exempt from prosecution for sodomy: "the private moral relationship between husband and wife are concerned (as to either cunnilingus or fellation [sic],) it is certainly one that rests entirely in the minds of the two of them"; Ohio being the first state in the U.S. to do so.[5] Ohioans were also subscribing to ONE magazine in record numbers, and others were collating in drinking establishments such as lesbian bars.[17][18] In 1963, Ohio adopted a sex offender registry law, which "disproportionately affected" the LGBTQ community in the state.[19] One year prior, police in Mansfield, Ohio had arrested men in a bathroom they "found having sex" and spied on others who "simply stopped to use the restroom" with a hidden camera.[20][21] The United States Supreme Court declined to hear appeals for sodomy convictions in Mansfield, Ohio in Poyer v. Mayer (1964) and Chamberlain v. Ohio (1966).[22][23]

In 1972, Ohio became the eighth state to repeal its sodomy statute.[24][25] Nevertheless, it remained a misdemeanor to express romantic or sexual interest to another person of the same sex, even though Ohio was "one of the earliest states to decriminalize homosexuality".[5][26][27] The law was part of a criminal code which was the first in the U.S. to have "gender-neutral sexual assault laws".[28] There were also successful challenges to laws aimed against cross dressing in the state, beginning in the 1970s.[29]

The Ohio Supreme Court, in 1974, upheld the refusal of the Ohio Secretary of State, arguing that the promotion of homosexuality as a valid lifestyle is contrary to the public policy of this state", to deny the incorporation of Greater Cincinnati Gay Society for a nonprofit corporation, even though sodomy was no longer illegal.[30][31] In 1979's State v. Phipps, the Supreme Court of Ohio narrowed the sodomy statute's provision to cover only cases in which the proposition was "unwelcome".[32][33][34] In a somewhat related case, in August 1997, Lambda Legal filed a friend-of-the-court legal brief in support of a Jeremy Bird, in Ohio v. Bird, a HIV-positive man "convicted of committing assault with a deadly weapon" after accused of "spitting at a police officer" and spreading HIV. In May 1998, the Ohio Supreme Court affirmed the conviction but did not reach issue on "whether HIV can be transmitted via saliva."[35]

The broad discriminatory nature of the application of Ohio's law was illustrated in State v. Thompson. In 1999, Eric Thompson had made a sexual pass at a jogger and, after the jogger declined, continued on his way.[36][37][38] The jogger contacted the police, however, and Thompson was arrested and sentenced to 6 months in jail.[36][37][38] In December 2000, the Ohio Eleventh District Court of Appeals reluctantly upheld the trial court decision.[39] In its decision, the Ohio Eleventh rules that it was not clear why the law only applied to "same sex solicitation and not to opposite sex solicitation" and argued it was "inherently inconsistent for the Ohio legislature to now criminalize homosexual solicitation after it has chosen to decriminalize homosexual conduct between consenting adults."[39]

In May 2002, the Supreme Court of Ohio unanimously overturned Thompson's conviction,[36][37][38] writing that the law was "facially invalid" under the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and Section 2, Article I of the Ohio Constitution.[37] As part of a 2003 overhaul to the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Law (SORN), Ohio repealed its anti-gay importuning law.[40] Apart from this case, other litigation which affected LGBTQ people in Ohio included Gajovski v. Gajovski (1991) and Equality Foundation of Greater Cincinnati v. City of Cincinnati (1994).[41] On June 26, 2003, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Lawrence v. Texas to abolish all remaining sodomy laws and statutes nationwide.[42][43][44]

Recognition of same-sex relationships

Map of Ohio counties, cities, and villages that offer marriage and/or domestic partner benefits either county-wide or in particular cities.
  City or village offers marriage and/or domestic partner benefits
  Marriage and/or county-wide partner benefits through domestic partnership
  Marriage only. County, city, or village does not offer domestic partner benefits

Marriage

Main article: Same-sex marriage in Ohio

In 2003, Representative Bill Seitz introduced the Defense of Marriage Act in the state House of Representatives in 2003. It passed the House by a vote of 73–23 in December 2003 and the Senate in an 18–15 vote in January 2004.[45] It was opposed by eleven Democrats and four Republicans in the Senate. Governor Bob Taft signed the legislation on February 6, 2004.[33] The legislation was enacted in the aftermath of the Goodridge decision on November 18, 2003 in Massachusetts.[6] Ballot Issue 1 of 2004 was a constitutional amendment initiated by the General Assembly and approved by a margin of 61%–38%. It amended Article XV, Section 11 of the Ohio Constitution to define marriage as being between "a man and a woman", thus excluding same-sex couples.[46][47][48]

The amendment was supported by the groups Ohio Campaign to Protect Marriage and the Traditional Marriage Crusade, and opposed by the group Ohioans for Fairness.[49] Additionally, both Governor Taft and Representative Bill Seitz opposed the amendment on the grounds that it was too vague. These laws came at the same time other states passed similar measures in voter referendums.[50][51] The LGBT rights organization Equality Ohio was founded in response to the passage of Issue 1.[52] The amendment was criticized by legal scholar Wilson Huhn as unconstitutional because it violated "the fundamental right of marriage" and creates "different rules for different people", while enacting opinions against same-sex marriage into law and does not affect opposite-sex and same-sex couples equally.[53][54] In 2009, constitutional law scholar Tiffany G. Graham noted there was "inherent ambiguity...built into the amendment",[55] and the executive director of Equality Ohio, Sue Doerfer, stated in 2017 that the amendment "legitimized discrimination" against same-sex couples in the state and "adversely" affected gay people.[56]

In July 2007, the Ohio Supreme Court ruled in Ohio v. Carswell that Issue 1 amendment did not effect the state's domestic violence law.[57][58] Following the decision, Metro Weekly argued that the decision was a "small victory" even though Issue 1 amendment remained in place, and constitutional law expert Marc Spindelman criticized the legal strategy of Lambda Legal in the case.[59] Constitutional law scholar Tiffany G. Graham argued that the court's decision limited the amendment's reach only to same-sex marriage and civil unions, but failed when determining who had legal status, and erred in not declaring the amendment unconstitutional.[60] In April 2014, Judge Timothy Black declared Ohio's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional and stated that Ohio was required to recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions.[61][62]

On June 26, 2015, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that Ohio (along with Michigan, Kentucky and Tennessee) could not deny same-sex couples the right to marry, or refuse to recognize their marriages performed elsewhere; protected under the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. This ruling reversed a November 2014 decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage in those states and nationwide.[63][64][65] This ruling also invalidated the Issue 1 amendment to Ohio's Constitution.[66][67][68] Same-sex marriage has been legal in Ohio since June 2015.[69]

Domestic partnerships and custody

Main article: Domestic partnership in Ohio

Presently, several jurisdictions in the U.S. state of Ohio, such as the village of Yellow Springs, and the counties of Cuyahoga and Franklin, have established domestic partnerships for same-sex couples. The fate of these partnerships remains uncertain since marriage has become available to all couples.[70]

In November 2007, Ohio legislator Tom Brinkman and Alliance Defending Freedom declined to appeal their lawsuit against the domestic partner benefits program of Miami University to Ohio Supreme Court, following a dismissal of the lawsuit by the Ohio Court of Appeals in August 2007 and Butler County Court of Common Pleas in November 2006.[71][72] In the case of In the Matter of J.D. Fairchild, in December 2008, the Ohio Supreme Court affirmed the "enforceability of the court-approved custody agreement" between two lesbian parents,[73] despite the Ohio amendment prohibiting same-sex marriage.[74] This ruling was later used by Lambda Legal to support their defense of a lesbian parent in the case of In re S.J.L. and J.K.L..[75] The Ohio Court of Appeals ruled, in In re S.J.L. and J.K.L., in August 2010, that the state's 2004 constitutional amendment did not affect the ability of Ohio courts to "order shared custody between former same-sex partners".[76][77]

In October 2010, the Ohio Court of Appeals sided with Lambda Legal in Cleveland Taxpayers v. Cleveland, retained the city's domestic partnership registry for "same-sex couples and their families".[78] Scholar Daniel R. Pinello stated that the rulings in Cleveland Taxpayers v. Cleveland and In re S.J.L. and J.K.L. reinforced the message that those governments which violate Issue 1, and favor same-sex partners, will be sued.[79] The Ohio Supreme Court, in July 2011, in the case of In the Matter of L.K.M. ruled 4-3 against a non-biological mother seeking "shared custody and visitation rights".[80][81] Lambda Legal, which represented the mother in this case and in the partners In re S.J.L. and J.K.L.,[82] criticized the ruling as a "tragedy for the child" and said that all families in Ohio families should be "alarmed" by the decision.[83]

Adoption and parenting

Currently, Ohio does not offer "second parent adoption" for unmarried couples, have LGBTQ-inclusive family leave laws, or recognize parents using assisted production, but does recognize "de facto parents".[84][85][86]

Ohio permits single LGBT individuals,[87] as well as married same-sex couples to adopt.[88] Lesbian couples have access to assisted reproduction services such as in vitro fertilization. State law recognizes the non-genetic, non-gestational mother as a legal parent to a child born via donor insemination, but only if the parents are married.[84] While there are no specific surrogacy laws in Ohio, the courts have ruled that the practice is legal and surrogacy contracts can be recognized as legally valid. Both gestational and traditional contracts are recognized, though the latter may result in potential legal conflicts and more litigation than the former. The state treats different-sex and same-sex couples equally under the same terms and conditions.[89]

Discrimination protections

2017 Cincinnati Pride parade
Cleveland Pride parade 2017

Further information: LGBT employment discrimination in the United States

Ohio state statutes do not address discrimination on account of sexual orientation and gender identity.[90][91] Discrimination based on sexual orientation is prohibited in state employment under an executive order issued by Governor John Kasich on January 21, 2011.[92][93][94] He issued a new executive order on December 19, 2018 to include gender identity or expression, in one of his last actions as governor.[95][96]

In January 1974, Columbus, Ohio, passed a law protecting "housing and public accommodations" rights for homosexuals.[97] Ohio also prohibited sexual orientation discrimination in state employment in 1983.[98] In October 1998, the United States Supreme Court declined to hear a case about a ballot measure which repealed the anti-discrimination law in Cincinnati,[99] even though litigation challenging anti-LGBTQ employment discrimination in the state later failed.[100]

On March 7, 2018, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (covering Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee) ruled that discrimination on the basis of transgender status is tantamount to discrimination on the basis of "sex", as defined by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It also ruled that employers may not use the Religious Freedom Restoration Act to justify discrimination against LGBT people. Aimee Stephens, a transgender woman from Michigan, began working for a funeral home and presented as male. In 2013, she told her employer that she was transgender and planned to transition. She was promptly fired by her employer.[101] The court held that the dismissal was discriminatory and violated federal law. An appeal to the case was heard by the Supreme Court in the 2019 term, concurrently to Bostock v. Clayton County and Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda, under R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. On June 15, 2020, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that discrimination in the workplace on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity is discrimination on the basis of sex, and Title VII therefore protects LGBT employees from discrimination.[102][103][104]

33 Ohio cities and counties presently have anti-discrimination ordinances[105] prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in employment, housing and public accommodations. Gambier,[106] Golf Manor,[107] Reynoldsburg,[108] University Heights,[109] and Portsmouth[110] passed ordinances to this effect in 2020. Previously, in 2019, Worthington, [111] Westerville,[112] and Medina,[113] passed similar laws. In 2017 and 2018, similar ordinances passed in Akron,[114] Athens,[115] Oxford,[115] Kent,[116] Beachwood,[117] South Euclid,[118][119] Sandusky,[120] Youngstown,[121] Olmsted Falls,[122][123] and Cuyahoga County.[124] Prior to this, Lakewood passed a similar law in 2016,[125] as did Newark[126] and Cleveland,[127] Bexley in 2015,[128][129] and Yellow Springs in 1979.[130] Hilliard,[131] Columbus,[132] Springfield,[133] Toledo[134] Shaker Heights,[135] Bowling Green,[136] Cleveland Heights,[137] Coshocton,[138] Dayton,[139] Cincinnati,[140] and East Cleveland[141] have similar laws on the books.

Canton bans unfair discrimination against LGBT people in employment and housing, but in not public accommodations, and Oberlin only does so in housing.[90] Other jurisdictions, specifically Amberley, Brook Park, Cuyahoga Heights, Euclid, Garfield Heights, Linndale, Lorain, Maple Heights, Newburgh Heights, North Olmsted, Oberlin, Reminderville, Sheffield Lake, Steubenville, Warrensville Heights and Wickliffe, ban discrimination based on sexual orientation in housing.[84] Wood county, the cities of Dublin, Gahanna, Hamilton, and Lima, and the village of Laura, have protections but only for city/county employees only.[105] In January 2023, Human Rights Campaign gave Ohio, and 23 other states, the highest rating, of "High Priority to Achieve Basic Equality".[142] The HRC also stated that cities in Ohio are leaders in "LGBTQ-friendly policy and legislation" nationwide.[143]

Freedom of expression

In 2012, 16-year-old high school student Maverick Couch, represented by Lambda Legal, sued the Waynesville Local School District after being told he could not come to school wearing a T-shirt with the words "Jesus is not a homophobe". The school board argued that they had the "right to limit clothing with sexual slogans...in order to protect its students and enhance the educational environment" and stated that the school principal, Randy Gebhardt, had the authority to request that remove his T-shirt and refrain from wearing it.[144][145][146] The suit ended in a judgement in federal court in Cincinnati agreed to by all parties to the suit that affirmed Couch's right to wear the shirt to school and ordered the school district to pay $20,000 in damages and legal fees.[147] Upon the announcement of the decision, Lambda Legal attorney Christopher Clark stated that the ruling provided that "First Amendment rights apply to all students on every day of the year" and that efforts to "silence LGBT youth will not go unchallenged."[148]

Transgender rights

Further information: Transgender rights in the United States

Birth certificates

There are procedures for changing name and gender on an Ohio birth certificate.[149]

Following a 1987 court case, In re Ladrach, Ohio did not allow persons born in the state to amend the gender marker on their birth certificate following sex reassignment surgery.[150] This policy was revised in 2016.[151] In March 2018, four transgender Ohioans sued the Department of Health, seeking to have In re Ladrach overruled and be issued birth certificates reflecting their gender identity. At the time the lawsuit was filed, and supported by ACLU and Lambda Legal,[152] Ohio was one of just three states where transgender people were banned from amending their birth certificates.[153] Following such legal challenges,[154][155] like in Ray v. McCloud[156] in December 2020, federal judge Michael H. Watson invalidated it as unconstitutional.[157][158] After June 1, 2021, Ohio, officially and legally, allowed transgender individuals to update their birth certificate, as the Ohio Department of Health did not appeal Watson's ruling.[154] However, some counties continue to refuse birth corrections for transgender individuals.[159]

Driver's licenses

Transgender people can change their legal name and gender on their driver's license or other ID card. In order for them to do so, they must submit to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles a court order certifying the name change and/or a "Declaration of Gender Change" form signed by a physician, nurse practitioner, social worker, therapist or psychologist certifying the applicant's gender identity.[160] Since April 2022, Ohio driver's licenses offer an "X" option alongside "M" and "F".[161]


Gender-affirming healthcare

In 1975, an assembly worker at the Lordstown, Ohio, plant for General Motors took leave to undergo gender-affirming surgery (GAS), also known as sex reassignment surgery (SRS) or gender confirmation surgery (GCS), and returned to work as Joni Christian, confronting hostile co-workers and supervisors. Christian later sued GM for invasion of her privacy and won a "satisfactory settlement".[162] The Washington Post reported, in July 2019, that officials from Ohio were not following policies that excluded Medicaid coverage for SRS, but it was "not...in writing yet."[163] In October 2021, Ohio representatives Gary Click and Diane Grendell introduced a law that would have prohibited GAS for minors, along with Medicaid coverage and public money toward healthcare providers which conduct GAS.[164][165] The law was opposed by groups including the Ohio Counseling Association,[166] Equality Ohio,[167] TransOhio,[168] Human Rights Campaign[168] and Ohio Senator Nickie Antonio,[167] while the Center for Christian Virtue[169] and Family Research Council[168] supported the measure. The bill received five hearings and was assigned to the Ohio House Committee on Families, Aging, and Human Services.[170]

In November 2022, the Ohio House Committee on Family, Aging, and Human services, heard a bill to outlaw hormone therapy, puberty blockers, and gender-affirming surgeries for minors.[171] The bill also mandated that any other forms of gender affirming care or counseling only be given after a two year long screening period, in which any comorbidities, defined to include anxiety, depression, ADHD, and autism, had to be “treated and stabilized” for an additional two years, and would mandate what some have described as “a type of registry” for trans kids, in which the exact name of the patient would not be included, but other identifying details would that would make it possible to identify the trans child.[172]

Restrictions on youth and adult care

On December 13, 2023, the Ohio Legislature passed the Saving Adolescents from Experimentation (SAFE) Act (HB68), mostly along party lines. It would have banned gender-affirming puberty blockers, hormones, and surgery for people under 18, and it would have banned transgender girls and women from playing on women's sports teams in high school and college.[173][174][175] However, on December 29, Governor Mike DeWine vetoed the bill.[176]

The following week, DeWine signed into law an executive order banning gender affirming surgeries for minors, and announced new rules regarding access to care for both adults and minors. These rules required that in order for any trans patient to access gender affirming healthcare, they must:

Additionally, if the patient is under 21 years of age:

The rules also require that all healthcare providers in Ohio report all cases of gender dysphoria to the state within 30 days.[177][178][179][180]

Conversion therapy

See also: List of U.S. jurisdictions banning conversion therapy

In February 2015, a bill to prohibit the use of conversion therapy on LGBT minors in Ohio was introduced by Senator Charleta Tavares,[181][182] who had introduced a similar bill in October 2013[183][184][185] The bill died without any legislative action. In April 2016, Tavares testified against conversion therapy, arguing that LGBTQ youth should not be subject to "treatments that reinforce...futile and obsolete practices".[186] In their 2018 scorecard about LGBTQ issues and the Ohio legislature, Equality Ohio called for a state-wide ban on conversion therapy to prevent "great mental, emotional, spiritual, and physical harm to young people" and noted their role in advocating for bans on conversion therapy "in several Ohio cities".[187] In November 2018, Tavares criticized the Ohio General Assembly for "inaction" on the issue.[188][189] In 2021, Ohio legislators Mary Lightbody, Nickie Antonio, and Tina Maharath introduced bills in the Ohio General Assembly to ban conversion therapy, but the efforts stalled.[190][191] A similar bill was introduced in February 2020 by Rep. Lightbody.[192][193][194]

Seven Ohio cities have banned conversion therapy on minors, but there is no state law or policy on conversion therapy, according to the Movement Advancement Project.[195] In December 2015, Cincinnati[196] banned the practice, followed by Toledo,[197] Columbus[198][199] Dayton,[200] and Athens[201] in 2017. Lakewood and Kent banned the practice in 2018.[202][203][204] Cleveland,[205] Cleveland Heights,[206] Akron,[207] and Reynoldsburg[208] legally banned conversion therapy in 2022.

Public opinion

A 2017 Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) opinion poll found that 61% of Ohioans supported same-sex marriage, while 33% opposed it and 6% were unsure.[3] The same poll found that 69% of Ohioans supported an anti-discrimination law covering sexual orientation and gender identity. 25% were opposed.[209] Furthermore, 60% were against allowing public businesses to refuse to serve LGBT people due to religious beliefs, while 34% supported allowing such religiously-based refusals.[210]

Public opinion for LGBT anti-discrimination laws in Ohio
Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin of
error
% support % opposition % no opinion
Public Religion Research Institute January 2-December 30, 2019 2,160 ? 71% 23% 6%
Public Religion Research Institute January 3-December 30, 2018 2,065 ? 68% 26% 6%
Public Religion Research Institute April 5-December 23, 2017 2,750 ? 69% 25% 6%
Public Religion Research Institute April 29, 2015-January 7, 2016 3,349 ? 69% 26% 5%

Summary table

Same-sex sexual activity legal Yes (Since 1974)
Equal age of consent Yes
Anti-discrimination laws for sexual orientation No/Yes (In employment; otherwise varies by city or county for housing and public accommodations)
Anti-discrimination laws for gender identity No/Yes (In employment; otherwise varies by city or county for housing and public accommodations)
Same-sex marriages Yes (Since 2015)
Stepchild adoption by same-sex couples Yes (Since 2015)
Joint adoption by same-sex couples Yes (Since 2015)
Lesbian, gay and bisexual people allowed to serve openly in the military Yes (Since 2011)
Transgender people allowed to serve openly in the military Yes/No (Most Transgender personnel allowed to serve openly since 2021)[211]
Transgender people allowed to serve openly in the military No[212]
Intersex people allowed to serve openly in the military X/Yes (Current DoD policy bans "Hermaphrodites" from serving or enlisting in the military)[212]
Conversion therapy banned on minors No/Yes (Some cities only)
Right to change legal gender Yes (Since 2020)[1]
Equal access to IVF for lesbian couples Yes
Surrogacy arrangements legal for gay male couples Yes
MSMs allowed to donate blood Yes/No (Since 2020; 3-month deferral period)[213]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Court Rules Ohio Must Allow Gender Changes on Birth Certificates". December 16, 2020. Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  2. ^ a b Price, Rita (July 5, 2015). "Ohio Marriage and Stepparent law". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Public opinion on same-sex marriage by state: Ohio". Public Religion Research Institute. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023.
  4. ^ Ross, Jecoa (January 2016). ""That utterly confused category": Defining Sodomy in Texas, 1860-1943". "Only steers and queers come from Texas": The Texas Sodomy Statutes and the Making of an Other, 1860-1973 (Masters). University of Texas at El Paso. p. 28. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  5. ^ a b c Painter, George (August 10, 2004). "The Sensibilities of Our Forefathers: The History of Sodomy Laws in the United States--Ohio". Gay & Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest. Archived from the original on June 1, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  6. ^ a b "LGBTQ Rights in Cleveland". Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western University. January 14, 2023. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  7. ^ "Legal Cases Appealed: 1800 through 1899". OutHistory. December 15, 2021. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  8. ^ Megan E. Springate, ed. (2016). LGBT America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer History (PDF) (Report). National Park Service. p. 19-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 21, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  9. ^ Brief Amicus Curiae of the Center for the Original Intent of the Constitution in Support of Respondent at A-15, Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003) (No. 02-102).
  10. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-7.
  11. ^ Feingold, Eric. "The David Zimmer Collection". Gay Ohio History Initiative. Ohio History Connection. Archived from the original on September 25, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  12. ^ Foster et al v. State, 1 Ohio Cir. Dec. 261 (Supreme Court of Ohio April 1886).
  13. ^ Leahman, Harry J.; Norris, Alan E. (1974). "Some Legislative History and Comments on Ohio's New Criminal Code". Cleveland State Law Review. 23 (1): 25. Archived from the original on March 22, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  14. ^ Boyer, Mark N. (1963). "Decoy Enforcement of Homosexual Laws". University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 112 (259): 261. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  15. ^ State v. Forquer, 74 Ohio App. 293 (Ohio Court of Appeals March 13, 1944).
  16. ^ Boyer, "Decoy Enforcement of Homosexual Laws," 278.
  17. ^ Stein, Marc. "Introduction to Canada in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-64". OutHistory. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  18. ^ Nestle, Joan (2008). "The Kiss, 1950s-1990s". OutHistory. Archived from the original on January 29, 2023. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  19. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-13.
  20. ^ Fussell, Sidney (June 29, 2019). "How Stonewall Reversed a Long History of Justifying Police Surveillance". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on July 3, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  21. ^ Bieber, Katherine; Dalton, Derek (December 2009). "Making Art from Evidence: Secret Sex and Police Surveillance in the Tearoom". Crime, Media, Culture. 5 (3): 243–251, 253, 255, 259–260, 262–263. doi:10.1177/1741659009346048. S2CID 145096893. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  22. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-17, 19-18.
  23. ^ Stein, Marc (June 2020). "Historical Landmarks and Landscapes of LGBTQ Law". In Crawford-Lackey, Katherine; Springate, Megan E. (eds.). Communities and Place: A Thematic Approach to the Histories of LGBTQ Communities in the United States. New York City: Berghahn Books. p. 135. ISBN 978-1789207095.
  24. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-23.
  25. ^ "History of Sodomy Laws and the Strategy that Led Up to Today's Decision". ACLU. Archived from the original on December 4, 2022. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  26. ^ Resnick, Eric (February 22, 2002). "Sodomy Repeal May Have Led to Ohio's Importuning Law". Gay & Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest. Gay People’s Chronicle. Archived from the original on July 31, 2022.
  27. ^ Lyke, Sheldon Bernard (April 2009). "Lawrence as an Eighth Amendment Case: Sodomy and the Evolving Standards of Decency". William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law. 15 (3): 658. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  28. ^ "Sodomy Laws--Ohio". Gay & Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest. Gay People’s Chronicle. February 22, 2002. Archived from the original on July 14, 2022.
  29. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-24.
  30. ^ Jon Steinberg (January 1978). Homosexuality: An Introduction to the Debate (PDF) (Report). Minnesota House of Representatives. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
  31. ^ Jon Steinberg (January 1978). Homosexuality: An Introduction to the Debate (PDF) (Report). Minnesota House of Representatives. p. 45. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
  32. ^ Eskridge, William N. (2008). Dishonorable Passions: Sodomy Laws in America, 1861-2003. NY: Viking Penguin. pp. 49, 50, 180. ISBN 9780670018628.
  33. ^ a b "50 Years After Stonewall, Where is Ohio?". Equality Ohio. June 13, 2019. Archived from the original on September 30, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  34. ^ State v. Phipps, 58 Ohio St. 2d 271 (Supreme Court of Ohio June 6, 1979).
  35. ^ "Ohio v. Bird". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  36. ^ a b c State v. Thompson, 95 Ohio St. 3d 264 (Supreme Court of Ohio May 15, 2002).
  37. ^ a b c d "Supreme Court Invalidates Same-Sex Importuning Law". The Supreme Court of Ohio & The Ohio Judicial System. May 15, 2002. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  38. ^ a b c "Ohio high court overturns same sex law". UPI. May 15, 2002. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  39. ^ a b "Ohio 'Importuning' Law May Face State Supremes". Datalounge. Gay & Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest. May 4, 2001. Archived from the original on December 19, 2022. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  40. ^ Heth, Mandy (August 11, 2003). "Law alters sexual offender policies". The Lantern. Archived from the original on April 5, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  41. ^ Andersen, Ellen Ann (2006). "Table of Cases" (PDF). Out of the Closets and into the Courts: Legal Opportunity Structure and Gay Rights Litigation. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-472-03171-9.
  42. ^ "Lawrence v. Texas". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 20, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  43. ^ Andersen, Ellen Ann (2006). "Sodomy Reform from Stonewall to Bowers" (PDF). Out of the Closets and into the Courts: Legal Opportunity Structure and Gay Rights Litigation. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. pp. 58–97. ISBN 978-0-472-03171-9.
  44. ^ Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (United States Supreme Court June 26, 2003).
  45. ^ "Sub. H.B. 272". Legislative Service Commission. Ohio General Assembly. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007.
  46. ^ "Election 2004 - Ballot Measures". CNN. Archived from the original on November 11, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  47. ^ Graham, Tiffany C. (2009). "Exploring the Impact of the Marriage Amendments: Can Public Employers Offer Domestic Partner Benefits to Their Gay and Lesbian Employees?". Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law. 73 (1): 95, 110, 130–131, 140. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  48. ^ "Ohio citizens approve Issue 1". The Post. Ohio University. November 3, 2004. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
  49. ^ O'Connell, Susan (June 12, 2006). "The Money Behind the 2004 Marriage Amendments". National Institute on Money in State Politics. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012.
  50. ^ Peterson, Kavan (November 3, 2004). "50-state rundown on gay marriage laws". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  51. ^ Graham, "Exploring the Impact of Marriage Amendments", 114-115
  52. ^ Glassman, Anthony (March 11, 2005). "Out of Issue 1, a new statewide group is born". Gay People's Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 18, 2005. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  53. ^ Huhn, Wilson (2009). "Ohio Issue 1 Is Unconstitutional". North Carolina Central Law Review. 73 (1): 1–31. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  54. ^ Graham, "Exploring the Impact of Marriage Amendments", 88
  55. ^ Graham, "Exploring the Impact of Marriage Amendments", 137
  56. ^ Pinello, Daniel R. (2017). America's War on Same-Sex Couples and their Families: And How the Courts Rescued Them. New York City: Cambridge University Press. pp. 74–75, 104–105. ISBN 978-1107123595.
  57. ^ "Ohio v. Carswell". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  58. ^ Graham, "Exploring the Impact of Marriage Amendments", 122
  59. ^ Rosendall, Richard J. (August 1, 2007). "Small Victory in Ohio". Metro Weekly. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  60. ^ Graham, "Exploring the Impact of Marriage Amendments", 130, 132-136
  61. ^ Memmott, Mark (April 4, 2014). "Federal Judge Says He'll Require Ohio To Recognize Same-Sex Marriages". NPR. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  62. ^ "12 states still ban sodomy a decade after court ruling". USA Today. Associated Press. April 21, 2014. Archived from the original on September 16, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  63. ^ "The Latest: Same-sex marriages underway in Ohio". Fox 19 Now. June 26, 2015. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  64. ^ "Obergefell v. Hodges / Henry v. Hodges". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on November 7, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  65. ^ "Obergefell v. Hodges". ACLU. January 16, 2014. Archived from the original on December 20, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  66. ^ Goellner, Ryan (May 22, 2014). "Obergefell, Bourke, and "Fundamental Rights": Gradually Bringing Same-Sex Marriage to Ohio and Kentucky". University of Cincinnati Law Review. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  67. ^ Aguilera, Jasmine (December 14, 2022). "What Will Happen to Same-Sex Marriage Around the Country if Obergefell Falls". Time. Archived from the original on February 3, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  68. ^ Richardson, Jamie (May 10, 2022). "Here are the U.S. states where same-sex marriage could be banned if Obergefell v. Hodges were overturned". Xtra Magazine. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  69. ^ "Obergefell, et al. v. Hodges - Freedom to Marry in Ohio". ACLU. Archived from the original on December 14, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  70. ^ Bernard, Tara Siegel (June 28, 2015). "Fate of Domestic Partnerships in Question". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 16, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  71. ^ "Brinkman v. Miami University, et al". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  72. ^ Graham, "Exploring the Impact of Marriage Amendments", 86-87, 117
  73. ^ "In the Matter of J.D. Fairchild". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  74. ^ Kaczorowski, Craig (2015). "Custody Litigation" (PDF). glbtq.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 16, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  75. ^ "Lambda Legal defends lesbian mother in Ohio custody matter". Proud Parenting. January 26, 2009. Archived from the original on June 26, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  76. ^ "In re S.J.L. and J.K.L." Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  77. ^ Sroka, Jennifer (2013). "A Mother Yesterday, but Not Today: Deficiencies of the Uniform Parentage Act for Non-Biological Parents in Same-Sex Relationships". Valparaiso Law Review. 47 (2): 739. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  78. ^ "Cleveland Taxpayers v. Cleveland". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on April 1, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  79. ^ Pinello, America's War on Same-Sex Couples and their Families, 67-69.
  80. ^ "In the Matter of L.K.M." Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on September 1, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  81. ^ Stroka, "A Mother Yesterday, but Not Today," 571.
  82. ^ Polikoff, Nancy (2012). "The New Illegitimacy: Winning Backward in the Protection of the Children of Lesbian Couples". Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law. 20 (3): 739. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  83. ^ Rodan, Eric (July 12, 2011). "Lambda Legal Disappointed In Ohio Supreme Court Ruling Against Lesbian Mother in Long-Disputed Custody Case" (Press release). New York City: Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  84. ^ a b c "Ohio Equality Profile". Movement Advancement Project. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  85. ^ Stroka, "A Mother Yesterday, but Not Today," 538, 541, 550-551, 563, 573, 584.
  86. ^ James Angelini; Jason Peterson (November 7, 2011). The Federal and State Taxation Of Domestic Partner Benefits (PDF) (Report). Tax Analysts. pp. 380, 384. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  87. ^ "Ohio Adoption Law Human Rights Campaign". Human Rights Campaign. December 14, 2009. Archived from the original on May 18, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2013.
  88. ^ "Ohio Stepparent Adoption law". Columbus Dispatch. July 5, 2015. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  89. ^ "What You Need to Know About Surrogacy in Ohio". American Surrogacy. Archived from the original on October 2, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  90. ^ a b "Anti-Discrimination Ordinances". ACLU Ohio. ACLU. July 23, 2019. Archived from the original on November 9, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  91. ^ Amira Hasenbush; Christy Mallory (January 2014). Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Ohio (PDF) (Report). The Williams Institute. pp. 1, 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  92. ^ Sexton, Nicole Kim (August 21, 2015). "Is John Kasich Actually a Moderate on LGBT Rights?". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 28, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  93. ^ "Ohio Gov. John Kasich Signs Order Protecting Trans State Workers". The Advocate. December 21, 2018. Archived from the original on August 14, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  94. ^ "Kasich signs executive orders establishing anti-discrimination, domestic violence, and ethics policies". The Highland County Press. January 25, 2011. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  95. ^ "Gov. Kasich Issues New Executive Order to Protect all LGBTQ State Employees" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Equality Ohio. December 17, 2018. Archived from the original on November 8, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  96. ^ Borchardt, Jackie (December 19, 2018). "One of John Kasich's last moves as Ohio governor? Protect transgender state employees from discrimination". Cincinnati.com. Cincinnati Enquirer. Archived from the original on September 18, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  97. ^ Jon Steinberg (January 1978). Homosexuality: An Introduction to the Debate (PDF) (Report). Minnesota House of Representatives. p. 43. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
  98. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-25.
  99. ^ "October". The Advocate. Los Angeles: Pride Media. January 19, 1999. p. 16. Retrieved February 6, 2023.
  100. ^ LGBT America, National Park Service, 19-28.
  101. ^ "Businesses Can't Fire Trans Employees for Religious Reasons, Federal Appeals Court Rules in Landmark Decision". Slate. March 7, 2018. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  102. ^ Biskupic, Joan (June 16, 2020). "Two conservative justices joined decision expanding LGBTQ rights". CNN. Archived from the original on December 25, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  103. ^ "US Supreme Court backs protection for LGBT workers". BBC News. June 15, 2020. Archived from the original on December 5, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  104. ^ Liptak, Adam (June 15, 2020). "Civil Rights Law Protects Gay and Transgender Workers, Supreme Court Rules". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  105. ^ a b Amira Hasenbush & Christy Mallory, "Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Ohio", 6.
  106. ^ "Gambier makes history by passing LGBTQ-inclusive anti-discrimination legislation". knoxpages. May 6, 2020. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  107. ^ "Golf Manor Adopts Nondiscrimination Ordinance". PRIZM. January 28, 2020. Archived from the original on February 16, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  108. ^ Youman, Kelley (June 25, 2020). "Reynoldsburg broadens anti-discrimination ordinance". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on February 23, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  109. ^ "University Heights council passes anti-discrimination law pertaining to sexual orientation". Cleveland.com. June 5, 2020. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  110. ^ "Portsmouth city leaders pass mask mandate, anti-discrimination ordinance". WSAZ. July 14, 2020. Archived from the original on August 29, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  111. ^ "Non-Discrimination Ordinance". Worthington Government. Archived from the original on October 7, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  112. ^ "Christian group challenges new Westerville LGBTQ anti-discrimination law". NBC4i. November 26, 2019. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  113. ^ "Medina City Council passes legislation prohibiting LGBTQ discrimination". Cleveland.com. July 9, 2019. Archived from the original on August 14, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  114. ^ "Akron, Ohio Enacts LGBT Non-Discrimination Protections as Supportive Legislation Is Introduced Statewide" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Freedom for All Americans. March 28, 2017. Archived from the original on December 1, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  115. ^ a b Vitale, Bob (November 13, 2018). "The State of Ohio Won't Protect Its LGBTQ+ Residents — So Its Cities Are Rising to the Occasion". Them. Archived from the original on December 5, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  116. ^ "Kent Becomes 19th Ohio City to Pass LGBTQ Non-Discrimination Ordinance" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Freedom for All Americans. July 28, 2017. Archived from the original on November 8, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  117. ^ Piorkowski, Jeff (November 6, 2018). "Beachwood passes anti-discrimination law; Pasch recounts visit to Pittsburgh synagogue memorial service". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  118. ^ "South Euclid Catholic school suing the city over anti-discrimination law". News5. April 3, 2019. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  119. ^ "The Lyceum v. City of South Euclid". ACLU Ohio. ACLU. August 2019. Archived from the original on August 5, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  120. ^ Vucovich, Lynanne (October 29, 2019). "Discrimination laws may include sexual orientation and gender identity". Sandusky Register. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  121. ^ "Youngstown Passes Housing and Employment Protections for People in the LGBT Community". ideastream. January 17, 2017. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  122. ^ "Olmsted Falls passes LGBT rights ordinance, will consider more comprehensive bill". Cleveland.com. February 15, 2017. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  123. ^ Santoscoy, Carlos (March 30, 2017). "Olmsted Falls Becomes 18th Ohio City To Approve LGBT Protections". On Top Magazine. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  124. ^ Rodriguez, Aaron (September 25, 2018). "Victory! Cuyahoga County Council Passes LGBTQ-Inclusive Non-Discrimination Ordinance" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on January 4, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  125. ^ Geiselman, Bruce (June 21, 2016). "Lakewood adopts anti-discrimination ordinance protecting LGBT community". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  126. ^ Matthews, Megan (August 16, 2016). "Newark city council passes LGBT anti-discrimination law". WBNS-TV. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  127. ^ "Mayor Jackson Signs Ordinance No. 1446-13". Cleveland City Government. July 22, 2016. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  128. ^ "Bexley, Ohio Passes Non-Discrimination Ordinance". Human Rights Campaign. June 24, 2015. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  129. ^ Bethea, Jesse (June 24, 2015). "Bexley Council Passes New LGBT Protections". Columbus Underground. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  130. ^ Conine, Pat (July 5, 2022). "VOICES: What message is Ohio sending to LGBTQ youth?". Dayton Daily News. Archived from the original on September 30, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  131. ^ Oliver, Emily (June 16, 2021). "Newark city council passes LGBT anti-discrimination law". WBNS-TV. Archived from the original on June 25, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  132. ^ "Discrimination and Protected Classes in Columbus". City of Columbus, Ohio. Archived from the original on October 24, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  133. ^ Cooper, Michael (January 31, 2018). "Sexual orientation added to Springfield non-discrimination ordinance". Springfield News Sun. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  134. ^ "Legal Discrimination". ACLU Ohio. ACLU. January 9, 2017. Archived from the original on August 20, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  135. ^ Jewell, Thomas (May 22, 2019). "Shaker Heights to expand anti-discrimination laws for employment and public accommodations". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on September 17, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  136. ^ Kirby, Caylee (November 8, 2022). "Bowling Green City Council adopts anti-discrimination amendment to protect reproductive rights". WTOL. Archived from the original on November 8, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  137. ^ Cleveland, Freshwater (June 28, 2022). "After (powerful) visual displays, Cleveland Heights enacts (even more powerful) LGBTQ+ equity laws". The Buckeye Flame. Archived from the original on December 9, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  138. ^ "Cities and Counties with Non-Discrimination Ordinances that Include Gender Identity". Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on January 30, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  139. ^ "Civil Rights Enforcement". Human Relations Council City of Dayton. Archived from the original on December 6, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  140. ^ Weldon, Casey (May 28, 2022). "Cincinnati adds military, breastfeeding status to 'more inclusive' nondiscrimination law". Spectrum News 1. Archived from the original on May 30, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  141. ^ Riley, John (September 26, 2018). "Cuyahoga County, Ohio, passes LGBTQ nondiscrimination ordinance". Metro Weekly. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  142. ^ Rodriguez, Aaron (January 26, 2023). "Human Rights Campaign Foundation State Equality Index: 91% of Anti-LGBTQ+ Bills in 2022 Failed to Become Law" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on February 1, 2023. Retrieved February 5, 2023.
  143. ^ Johnson, Zaria (January 13, 2023). "Ohio cities are leaders in LGBTQ-friendly policy, according to new survey". WOSU. Archived from the original on January 13, 2023.
  144. ^ Martin, Shawn (April 4, 2012). "Ohio teen Maverick Couch takes school to court over 'Jesus is not a homophobe' shirt". ABC15. Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  145. ^ Koeninger, Kevin (April 5, 2012). "Jesus T-Shirt Is not Indecent, Student Insists". Courthouse News. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  146. ^ "Ohio School changes position in Lambda Legal t-shirt case". Windy City Times. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  147. ^ Budd, Lawrence (May 4, 2012). "District proposes T-shirt case settlement". The Western Star. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  148. ^ Roldan, Eric (May 21, 2012). "Ohio School Admits to Wrong-Doing in Lambda Legal Case: Maverick Wins Right to Wear T-Shirt" (Press release). New York City: Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on September 28, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  149. ^ "Legal Name and Gender Marker Changes". LGBTQ at Ohio State. Ohio State University. Archived from the original on October 11, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  150. ^ Levi, Jennifer L.; Monnin-Browder, Elizabeth E., eds. (2012). Transgender Family Law: A Guide to Effective Advocacy. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse. pp. 59n58. ISBN 9781468554533.
  151. ^ Knight, Cameron (December 16, 2020). "Federal judge slams Ohio's policy against transgender birth certificate changes in ruling". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Archived from the original on September 28, 2021. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  152. ^ Rodan, Eric (March 29, 2018). "Lambda Legal and ACLU File Lawsuit to Challenge Ohio's Discriminatory Birth Certificate Policy" (Press release). New York City: Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on January 15, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  153. ^ Moreau, Julie (April 3, 2018). "Four transgender people sue Ohio over state's birth certificate policy". NBC News. Archived from the original on September 16, 2022. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  154. ^ a b "Ohio to allow trans people to change birth certificate gender". NBC News. April 23, 2021. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023.
  155. ^ "Identity Document Laws and Policies". Movement Advancement Project. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023.
  156. ^ "Ray v. McCloud". Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on December 3, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  157. ^ Smyth, Julie Carr (December 16, 2020). "Court Rules Ohio Must Allow Gender Changes On Birth Certificates". HuffPost. Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 14, 2023. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  158. ^ Rodan, Eric (December 16, 2020). "Victory! Federal Court Strikes Down Ohio's Anti-Transgender Birth Certificate Policy" (Press release). New York City: Lambda Legal. Archived from the original on July 1, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  159. ^ Trau, Morgan (November 23, 2022). "Birth certificate gender changes for trans Ohioans are at discretion of judges in each county". WEWS-TV. Retrieved February 24, 2023.
  160. ^ "ID Documents Center: Ohio". National Center of Transgender Equality. Archived from the original on November 28, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  161. ^ Compton, Karen (April 2, 2022). "PA, Ohio have gender neutral option for drivers licenses; US passports to follow". WTRF. Archived from the original on February 12, 2023. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  162. ^ "Working-Class LGBTQ+ U.S. History Chronology". Gay & Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest. Gay People’s Chronicle. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023. Retrieved February 7, 2023.
  163. ^ Ollove, Michael (July 19, 2019). "States are all over the map when it comes to transgender health care". Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 22, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  164. ^ Emma Carroll (February 15, 2022). H.B. 454 Bill Analysis. Ohio Legislative Service Commission (Report). Ohio Legislature. pp. 1–6. Archived from the original on August 19, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  165. ^ Evans, Nick (October 21, 2021). "Ohio representatives file new anti-trans bill, targeting health care providers". Ohio Capital Journal. Archived from the original on October 18, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  166. ^ "The Ohio Counseling Association (OCA) Strongly Opposes Ohio House Bill 454" (PDF) (Press release). Broadview Heights, Ohio: Ohio Counseling Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 17, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  167. ^ a b Sprayregen, Molly (October 22, 2021). "Ohio Republicans Are Trying to Let Citizens Sue Doctors Who Care for Trans Youth". Them. Archived from the original on November 28, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  168. ^ a b c Haines, Jim (February 22, 2022). "Proposed Ohio law would block gender transition for youth". WCPO. Journal-News. Archived from the original on May 29, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  169. ^ Hancock, Laura (October 19, 2021). "Republican lawmakers in Ohio unveil bill prohibiting transgender kids from beginning transition". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on November 27, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  170. ^ "Legislation & Ordinances". Planned Parenthood Advocates of Ohio. Planned Parenthood. Archived from the original on December 8, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  171. ^ Staver, Anna. "Jeopardy! champion Amy Schneider opposes Ohio bill to ban treatments for transgender youth". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on January 29, 2023. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  172. ^ Trau, Morgan (November 16, 2022). "Ohio bill limiting healthcare for LGBTQ+ youth would create a type of registry of trans kids, activist says". News5. Archived from the original on January 29, 2023. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  173. ^ Kaur, Anumita; Shin, Annys (December 14, 2023). "Ohio legislators pass ban on gender-affirming care for minors, sending bill to governor". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 15, 2023.
  174. ^ "Gov. DeWine: Veto HB 68 — Don't Let Anti-Transgender Discrimination Take Over Ohio". Human Rights Campaign. December 13, 2023. Retrieved December 15, 2023.
  175. ^ Villarreal, Daniel (December 14, 2023). "Ohio passes bans on trans youth in sports & gender-affirming care". LGBTQ Nation.
  176. ^ Kaur, Anumita (December 29, 2023). "Ohio governor vetoes ban on gender-affirming care for minors". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 29, 2023.
  177. ^ "DeWine signs executive order banning gender transition surgery for minors, HB-68 position still stands". NBC local.
  178. ^ "Gov. DeWine signs executive order banning transgender surgery on minors". Cleveland.com.
  179. ^ "Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine bans gender transition surgery on minors after House Bill 68 veto". Columbus Dispatch.
  180. ^ (PDF) https://mha.ohio.gov/static/AboutUs/RulesandRegulations/DraftRules/5122-26-19-Final_01052024.pdf. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  181. ^ "Dem lawmakers discuss legislation to prohibit the practice of conversion therapy on minors". Democrat Newsroom (Press release). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio House of Representatives. November 21, 2015. Archived from the original on September 25, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  182. ^ "Some Ohio legislators want to ban conversion therapy for gay, transgender teens". The Columbus Dispatch. June 15, 2015. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  183. ^ "Ohio lawmaker introduces bill to ban conversion therapy on minors". LGBTQ Nation. October 9, 2013. Archived from the original on December 6, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  184. ^ McDonough, Kate (October 7, 2013). "Ohio may be next state to ban gay conversion therapy". Salon. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  185. ^ "Ohio Dem plans conversion therapy ban". Washington Blade. October 9, 2013. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  186. ^ "Senator Tavares Testifies Against Conversion Therapy" (Press release). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Senate. April 13, 2016. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  187. ^ LGBTQ Issues and the State Legislature (PDF) (Report). Equality Ohio. 2018. pp. 4–5, 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  188. ^ Crary, David (January 5, 2019). "More states likely to ban conversion therapy". The Columbus Dispatch. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 27, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  189. ^ Tavares, Charleta [@SenatorTavares] (November 7, 2018). "Ohio's youth shouldn't continue to suffer the devastating effects of conversion therapy. I am glad to see that our state boards are carrying this movement, regardless of the inaction by our General Assembly" (Tweet). Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023 – via Twitter.
  190. ^ Schneck, Kevin (August 20, 2022). "As statewide efforts to outlaw conversion therapy stall, local Ohio municipalities opt to ban it themselves". The Buckeye Flame. Archived from the original on September 30, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  191. ^ Johnson, Tonisha (June 30, 2021). "Bill to ban conversion therapy in Ohio on hold". Spectrum News 1. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  192. ^ "Ohio House bill would ban gay conversion therapy". Cleveland.com. February 11, 2020. Archived from the original on November 5, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  193. ^ Ingles, Jo (February 12, 2020). "Bill Would Ban Conversion Therapy In Ohio". StateNews. Archived from the original on July 2, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  194. ^ "Rep. Lightbody introduces bill to ban conversion therapy". Mary Lightbody News (Press release). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio House of Representatives. February 11, 2020. Archived from the original on November 29, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  195. ^ "Conversion Therapy Laws". Movement Advancement Project. Archived from the original on February 10, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  196. ^ "Council votes to ban gay 'conversion' therapy in Cincinnati". Cincinnati.com. December 9, 2015. Archived from the original on February 6, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  197. ^ "Toledo City Council approves conversion therapy ban". Toledo Blade. February 7, 2017. Archived from the original on November 29, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  198. ^ "Columbus Bans 'Ex-Gay' Therapy To Minors". On Top Magazine. March 28, 2017. Archived from the original on December 4, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  199. ^ "Columbus Council Bans Conversion Therapy by Mental Health Professionals". Associated Press. March 28, 2017. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  200. ^ Frolik, Cory (June 30, 2017). "Dayton looks to ban gay-conversion therapy for youth". WHIO. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  201. ^ "Conversion Therapy Banned in Athens". WOUB. August 23, 2017. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  202. ^ "Ordinance No. 2019-77". The City of Kent, Ohio. July 17, 2019. Archived from the original on May 9, 2020.
  203. ^ Shaw, Courtney (October 15, 2018). "Lakewood City Council passes measure to protect LGBTQ youth from conversion therapy". WEWS-TV. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019.
  204. ^ Benson, John (September 19, 2018). "Lakewood City Council considering ordinance banning conversion therapy". Cleveland.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2019.
  205. ^ "Cleveland City Council bans conversion therapy for LGBTQ youth". Cleveland.com. October 10, 2022. Archived from the original on December 29, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  206. ^ Cleveland, Freshwater (June 28, 2022). "As statewide efforts to outlaw conversion therapy stall, local Ohio municipalities opt to ban it themselves". The Buckeye Flame. Archived from the original on December 9, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  207. ^ Rodriguez, Aaron (October 24, 2022). "Human Rights Campaign Praises Akron City Council for Passing Ordinance to Ban Conversion Therapy" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on December 8, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  208. ^ Rees, David (June 28, 2022). "Reynoldsburg bans conversion therapy for LGBTQ+ youth". NBC4i. Archived from the original on February 11, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  209. ^ "Public opinion on LGBT nondiscrimination laws by state: Ohio". Public Religion Research Institute. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023.
  210. ^ "Public opinion on religiously based refusals to serve gay and lesbian people by state: Ohio". Public Religion Research Institute. Archived from the original on February 8, 2023.
  211. ^ "Biden reverses Trump ban on transgender people in military". Associated Press. April 20, 2021.
  212. ^ a b "Medical Conditions That Can Keep You from Joining the Military". May 10, 2021.
  213. ^ McNamara, Audrey (April 2, 2020). "FDA eases blood donation requirements for gay men amid "urgent" shortage". CBS News.