Cuyahoga County
County of Cuyahoga
Cuyahoga County Courthouse in Downtown Cleveland
Official seal of Cuyahoga County
Etymology: Cuyahoga River
Interactive map of Cuyahoga County
Map of Cuyahoga County within Ohio
Map of Cuyahoga County within Ohio
Coordinates: 41°32′24″N 81°39′36″W / 41.54000°N 81.66000°W / 41.54000; -81.66000Coordinates: 41°32′24″N 81°39′36″W / 41.54000°N 81.66000°W / 41.54000; -81.66000
CountryUnited States
StateOhio
RegionNortheast Ohio
FoundedMay 1, 1810
Named forCuyahoga River
County seatCleveland
Government
 • County ExecutiveArmond Budish (D)
Area
 • Total1,246 sq mi (3,230 km2)
 • Land457 sq mi (1,180 km2)
 • Water788 sq mi (2,040 km2)
Elevation
653 ft (199 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total1,264,817
 • Estimate 
(2021)
1,249,387 Decrease
 • Density2,767.65/sq mi (1,068.60/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts9th, 11th, 14th, 16th Cuyahoga
Largest cityCleveland
Websitewww.cuyahogacounty.us

Cuyahoga County (/ˌk.əˈhɒɡə/ or /ˌk.əˈhɡə/[1][2][3][4]) is a large urban county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. It is situated on the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S.-Canada maritime border. As of the 2020 census, its population was 1,264,817,[5] making it the second-most-populous county in the state.

The county seat and largest city is Cleveland.[6] The county is bisected by the Cuyahoga River, after which it was named. "Cuyahoga" is an Iroquoian word meaning "crooked river".[7] Cuyahoga County is the core of the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area and of the Cleveland–Akron–Canton combined statistical area.

History

Cuyahoga County in 1874
Cuyahoga County in 1874

See also: History of Cleveland

The land that became Cuyahoga County was previously part of the French colony of Canada (New France), which was ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec. In the early 1790s, the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory, and it was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795. Cleveland was established one year later by General Moses Cleaveland near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River.[8]

Cuyahoga County was created on June 7, 1807, and organized on May 1, 1810.[9][10] Cleveland (then known as "Cleaveland") was selected as the county seat in 1809.[11] The county was later reduced in size by the creation of Huron, Lake, and Lorain counties.[12]

In 1831, former U.S. President James A. Garfield was born in what was at the time Cuyahoga County's Orange Township.[13]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,246 sq mi (3,230 km2), of which 457 sq mi (1,180 km2) are land and 788 sq mi (2,040 km2) (63%) are water.[14] It is the second-largest county in Ohio by area. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in the county's southeastern section.

Adjacent counties

Demographics

See also: Demographics of Cleveland

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18101,459—    
18206,328+333.7%
183010,373+63.9%
184026,506+155.5%
185048,099+81.5%
186078,033+62.2%
1870132,010+69.2%
1880196,943+49.2%
1890309,970+57.4%
1900439,120+41.7%
1910637,425+45.2%
1920943,495+48.0%
19301,201,455+27.3%
19401,217,250+1.3%
19501,389,532+14.2%
19601,647,895+18.6%
19701,721,300+4.5%
19801,498,400−12.9%
19901,412,140−5.8%
20001,393,978−1.3%
20101,280,122−8.2%
20201,264,817−1.2%
20211,249,387−1.2%
[15]
Source: U.S. Decennial Census[16]
1790-1960[17] 1900-1990[18]
1990-2000[19] 2010-2020[5]
Largest ancestries (2010) Percent
German 17.4%
Irish 13.0%
Italian 9.2%
Polish 8.6%
English 6.3%
Slovak 3.3%
Cuyahoga County population (Source: 2000 United States census)
Cuyahoga County population (Source: 2000 United States census)

As of the 2010 census, 1,280,122 people, 571,457 households, and 319,996 families were residing in the county. The population density was 2,800 people/sq mi (1,081/km2). The 621,763 housing units averaged 1,346 per sq mi (520/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 63.6% White, 29.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian (0.9% Indian, 0.7% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.2% Korean, 0.2% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese), 1.8% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. About 4.8% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race (3.1% Puerto Rican, 0.7% Mexican, 0.1% Dominican, 0.1% Guatemalan).[20] Further, 16.5% were of German, 12.8% Irish, 8.8% Italian, 8.1% Polish, 5.9% English, 3.7% Slovak, and 3.1% Hungarian heritage.

Sizable numbers of Russians (1.7%), French, (1.4%), Arabs (1.4%), Ukrainians (1.2%), and Greeks (0.7%) were residing in the county; as their first language, 88.4% spoke English, 3.7% Spanish, and 4.9% some other Indo-European language.[21] In addition, 7.3% of the population were foreign-born (of which 44.4% were born in Europe, 36.3% in Asia, and 12.1% in Latin America).[21][22]

Of the 571,457 households, 28.5% had children under 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were not families. About 32.8% of all households consisted of single individuals, and 12.1% consisted of someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.39, and the average family size was 3.06.

The age distribution in the county was as follows: 25.0% under 18, 8.0% between 18 and 24, 29.3% between 25 and 44, 22.2% between 45 and 64, and 15.6% who were 65 or older. The median age was 37 years old. For every 100 females, there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income in the county was $43,603 for a household and $58,631 and for a family. The county’s per capita income was $26,263. About 10.3% of families, 19.4% of those under age 18, and 9.3% of those age 65 or over, and 13.1% of the population as a whole was living below the poverty line.[23]

Government

Main articles: Cuyahoga County Council, Ohio county government, and Cuyahoga County Sheriff's Office

The Cuyahoga County Council and Executive exercise direct government over unincorporated areas of Cuyahoga County. As of 2012, this consisted of two small areas: Chagrin Falls Township and Olmsted Township.[24]

Cuyahoga County had long been led by a three-member Board of County Commissioners. In July 2008, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began raiding the offices of Cuyahoga County Commissioners and those of a wide range of cities, towns, and villages across Cuyahoga County. The investigation revealed extensive bribery and corruption across the area, affecting hundreds of millions of dollars in county contracts and business. The investigation led to the arrest of county commissioner Jimmy Dimora; county auditor Frank Russo; MetroHealth vice president John J. Carroll; former Strongsville councilman Patrick Coyne; former Ohio District Courts of Appeals judge Anthony O. Calabrese III; former Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas judge Bridget McCafferty; Cuyahoga County Sheriff Gerald McFaul; former Cleveland City Council member Sabra Pierce Scott; Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas judge Steven Terry; and a wide range of attorneys, building inspectors, consultants, contractors, school district employees, and mid and low level county workers.[25]

On November 3, 2009, county voters overwhelmingly approved the adoption of a new county charter, which replaced the three-commissioner form of county government with an elected county executive and county prosecutor, and an 11-member county council. Each council member represents a single geographic district, with no at-large districts. The elected offices of auditor, clerk of courts, coroner, engineer, recorder, sheriff, and treasurer were abolished. The county executive was given authority to appoint individuals to these offices, which became part of the executive branch of the county. Summit County is the only other Ohio county with this form of government.[26]

In the November 2, 2010, election, Lakewood Mayor Ed FitzGerald (D) defeated Matt Dolan (R) to become the first Cuyahoga County Executive.[27] The first Cuyahoga County Council was also elected, with Democrats winning eight seats, while Republicans won three.[28]

On September 25, 2018, Cuyahoga County passed legislation which specifically protects LGBTQ+ people in their anti-discrimination laws. The protections under the bill specify equal access for the LGBTQ+ community to employment, housing, and public accommodations. The County is one of 20 municipalities in Ohio with this specific protection. Alongside the new language, the legislation creates a three-person Commission of Human Rights for Cuyahoga County which would support citizens looking to file a discrimination complaint.[29] This legislation evokes the Ohio Fairness Act, a bill currently stalled in the House and Senate which would amend this anti-discrimination legislation on a state level.[30]

Politics

2020 Presidential Election by Township and City  Biden:       50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      80–90%      90–100%Trump:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%
2020 Presidential Election by Township and City
Biden:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      80–90%      90–100%
Trump:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%

Cuyahoga County is heavily Democratic in voter registration, with Republican candidates last having narrowly won the county with a plurality in 1972, and last having won an absolute majority in 1956.

Democratic strength is concentrated in the City of Cleveland and suburbs in eastern Cuyahoga County, such as Shaker Heights and Solon.

Republican strength is concetrated in the southern Cuyahoga County suburbs, such as Strongsville and North Royalton. Suburbs in western Cuyahoga County, such as North Olmsted and Westlake tend to be more moderate.

In recent elections, formerly Democratic working-class suburbs such as Middleburg Heights and Parma have trended to the GOP, while formerly GOP upscale suburbs such as Bay Village and Chagrin Falls have trended Democratic.[31]

United States presidential election results for Cuyahoga County, Ohio[32]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 202,699 32.32% 416,176 66.36% 8,285 1.32%
2016 184,212 30.25% 398,276 65.41% 26,391 4.33%
2012 190,660 29.55% 447,273 69.32% 7,329 1.14%
2008 199,880 29.95% 458,422 68.70% 8,997 1.35%
2004 221,600 32.89% 448,503 66.57% 3,674 0.55%
2000 192,099 33.42% 359,913 62.62% 22,770 3.96%
1996 163,770 29.15% 341,357 60.75% 56,765 10.10%
1992 187,186 29.24% 337,548 52.72% 115,507 18.04%
1988 249,439 41.02% 353,401 58.11% 5,277 0.87%
1984 284,094 43.60% 362,626 55.65% 4,913 0.75%
1980 254,883 41.47% 307,448 50.02% 52,351 8.52%
1976 255,594 41.01% 349,186 56.03% 18,442 2.96%
1972 329,493 49.94% 317,670 48.15% 12,588 1.91%
1968 238,791 35.44% 363,540 53.95% 71,508 10.61%
1964 196,436 28.50% 492,911 71.50% 0 0.00%
1960 288,056 40.17% 429,030 59.83% 0 0.00%
1956 353,474 53.72% 304,558 46.28% 0 0.00%
1952 329,465 50.34% 324,962 49.66% 0 0.00%
1948 214,889 43.80% 257,958 52.58% 17,781 3.62%
1944 217,824 39.71% 330,659 60.29% 0 0.00%
1940 209,070 37.59% 347,118 62.41% 0 0.00%
1936 128,947 27.12% 311,117 65.44% 35,354 7.44%
1932 166,337 44.89% 185,731 50.12% 18,510 4.99%
1928 194,508 53.42% 166,188 45.64% 3,412 0.94%
1924 130,169 49.29% 24,000 9.09% 109,897 41.62%
1920 148,857 64.36% 70,518 30.49% 11,904 5.15%
1916 51,287 39.78% 71,553 55.50% 6,080 4.72%
1912 14,176 13.81% 43,610 42.49% 44,838 43.69%
1908 56,344 55.39% 39,954 39.27% 5,431 5.34%
1904 57,367 62.86% 24,202 26.52% 9,687 10.62%
1900 45,299 50.55% 42,440 47.36% 1,870 2.09%
1896 42,993 52.76% 37,542 46.07% 955 1.17%
1892 26,657 45.63% 29,543 50.58% 2,214 3.79%
1888 25,994 50.92% 23,949 46.92% 1,103 2.16%
1884 24,052 55.15% 18,764 43.02% 797 1.83%
1880 22,123 58.66% 15,130 40.12% 463 1.23%
1876 18,198 55.21% 14,425 43.76% 340 1.03%
1872 14,451 63.75% 8,033 35.44% 184 0.81%
1868 12,582 61.33% 7,933 38.67% 0 0.00%
1864 10,009 63.06% 5,864 36.94% 0 0.00%
1860 8,686 62.45% 4,814 34.61% 408 2.93%
1856 6,360 57.29% 4,446 40.05% 296 2.67%


Education

Colleges and universities

Cuyahoga County is home to a number of higher-education institutions, including:

K-12 education

School districts include:[33]

Health

In 2014, Cuyahoga County ranked 65 out of 88 counties in Ohio for health outcomes. This ranking was based on multiple factors, including: premature death (7,975 years per 100,000 population, of potential life lost), adults who reported having poor or fair health (15%), average number of poor physical-health days reported in a 30-day period (3.3), average number of poor mental-health days reported in a 30-day period (4.1), and the percentage of births with low birth-weight (10.4%). Among these factors, Cuyahoga did worse than the Ohio average in premature death, poor mental-health days, and low birth-weight. Possible explanations as for why Cuyahoga County is lower in health outcomes than the average Ohio county include behavioral factors, access to clinical care, social and economic factors, and environmental factors.[34]

The leading causes of death and disability in Cuyahoga County are chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.[35] The cancer mortality rate for Cuyahoga is 192.7 per 100,000 people, the mortality rate due to heart disease is 204.2 per 100,000 people, and the percentage of adult residents who are obese is 26.2%.[36]

Community comparison of disparities

According to the Fox Chase Cancer Center, a health disparity can be defined as the existence of inequalities that prevent certain members of a population group from benefiting from the same health status as other groups.[37] Cuyahoga County has many health disparities when comparing cities and demographics. The Hough neighborhood of Cleveland and the suburb of Lyndhurst can be compared to illustrate some of the disparities. The communities are both in Cuyahoga County and are less than 10 miles apart. They also have similar populations, but a different racial breakdown according to the 2010 census. The Hough neighborhood's population was 16,359 (96.1% Black or African American and 2.1% White American) and the Lyndhurst's population was 14,001 (6.4% Black or African American and 90.3% White American). A 24-year disparity was seen in life expectancy between the communities.[38] Hough neighborhood residents have a life expectancy of 64 years and residents in Lyndhurst have a life expectancy of 88.5 years.[39] The annual median income in the Hough neighborhood is $13,630[38] while it is $52,272 in Lyndhurst. Data collected from the Center for Community Solutions indicated from 1990 to 2001, the rate of heart disease for residents of the Hough neighborhood was around four times that of Lyndhurst residents. The Lyndhurst rate of accidental deaths was nine times higher than the Hough neighborhood.[39]

Health facilities

Transportation

Airports

Cuyahoga County is served by international, regional, and county airports, including:

Major highways

Rail

Cuyahoga County receives intercity passenger service by Amtrak by way of Lakefront Station in Cleveland, with destinations such as Chicago, New York, Boston, Washington, DC, and many more.

The Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad offers scenic excursion service through the Cuyahoga Valley National Park by way of their Rockside Station in Independence.

Freight rail service is provided by Norfolk Southern, CSX Transportation, Wheeling and Lake Erie Railroad, Cleveland Commercial Railroad, and several other small companies. Norfolk Southern has the largest presence in the county, operating three different lines and several terminal yards.

Public transportation

The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, also known as RTA, provides public transportation to Cuyahoga County through a combination of conventional bus, rapid-transit bus, and rail transit services, as well as on-demand services. Several other county agencies also serve Cuyahoga County, mostly through downtown Cleveland.

Greyhound, Barons Bus Lines, and Megabus provide public transportation beyond Cuyahoga County to destinations across the United States.

Recreation

The Cleveland Metroparks system serves Cuyahoga County. Its 16 reservations provide more than 21,000 acres (8,500 ha) of green space and recreational amenities.[40] The county is home to part of Cuyahoga Valley National Park, which extends southward into Summit County.

Culture

Theaters

Classical music

Museums

Retail

Cuyahoga County has many options for shopping. Some of the well-known shopping areas include:

Communities

Map of Cuyahoga County, Ohio with Municipal and Township Labels
Map of Cuyahoga County, Ohio with Municipal and Township Labels

Cities

Villages

Townships

See also

References

  1. ^ Feran, Tom (February 13, 2004). "Shooing the hog out of Cuyahoga". The Plain Dealer.
  2. ^ Feran, Tom (June 2, 2006). "It's a Cleveland thing, so to speak". The Plain Dealer.
  3. ^ Siegel, Robert; Block, Melissa (June 23, 2009). "Letters: Cuyahoga River". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
  4. ^ McIntyre, Michael K. (June 28, 2009). "How to pronounce 'Cuyahoga' turns into a national debate: Tipoff". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
  5. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
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