Portage County
Portage County Courthouse
Portage County Courthouse
Flag of Portage County
Official seal of Portage County
Map of Ohio highlighting Portage County
Location within the U.S. state of Ohio
Map of the United States highlighting Ohio
Ohio's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°10′N 81°12′W / 41.17°N 81.2°W / 41.17; -81.2
Country United States
State Ohio
FoundedJune 7, 1808
Named forthe portage between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas Rivers
SeatRavenna
Largest cityKent
Area
 • Total504 sq mi (1,310 km2)
 • Land487 sq mi (1,260 km2)
 • Water17 sq mi (40 km2)  3.3%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total161,791
 • Density320/sq mi (120/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts13th, 14th
Websitewww.co.portage.oh.us

Portage County is a county in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2020 census, the population was 161,791.[1] Located in Northeast Ohio, Portage County is part of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area. Its county seat is Ravenna and its largest city is Kent.[2]

The county, named for the portage between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers (now in neighboring Summit County), was created in 1807 and formally organized in 1808.[3][4] In addition to the cities of Kent and Ravenna, Portage County also includes the cities of Aurora and Streetsboro, along with five villages, 18 civil townships, and several unincorporated places within those townships. Additionally, the county includes parts of the city of Tallmadge, and part of the village of Mogadore, both of which are mostly in neighboring Summit County.

History

The name "Portage" comes from an old Indian path called "Portage Path", which ran between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers, where travelers portaged their canoes. The location of the trail today is within the boundaries of neighboring Summit County.[5][6]

As of 1600, the area was likely almost entirely home to the Whittlesey Culture, a presumably Algonquian people who lived along the southern shore of Lake Erie, to the west of the Erie Nation, themselves.[7] They were a mixed culture people and also exhibited signs of picking up traits from both Fort Ancients and Iroquoians. The Erie may have also held a bit of the area, but this is unclear. During the Beaver Wars (approx. 1632-1701), the Whittlesey and Erie were already at war when the Erie decided to also declare war on the Iroquois for the atrocities being committed against allied tribes in Canada.[8] The Erie lost around 1650 and the Whittlesey were likely similarly subjugated afterwards, as the Iroquois conquered all the way to the shores of Lake Michigan by the 1670s.

The Iroquois placed a vassal tribe of captured Huron in the area who became known as the Wyandot, while they conquered further west.[9] Later, the French made it to the Mississippi River and volunteered to aid the Natives in that region to push the Iroquois back to New York. By the end of the Beaver Wars, the Wyandot had broken free of Iroquois control and reabsorbed surviving Hurons taking refuge all over the Great Lakes, but set aside the area roughly between the Cuyahoga River, the Mahoning River and the OH-PA border as a collective hunting ground, to be enjoyed by all the tribes of the region. The Lenape had a village around modern day Youngstown, established maybe during the 1690s, from which they and the Seneca and Shawnee from further south staged ventures into the region [10] and up in Ashtabula County, the Ottawas, or Mississaugas, from the western end of Lake Erie were allowed to maintain a village at Conneaut.[11] Ashtabula itself seems to come from the Algonquian name for the area and roughly translates to "Place with Enough for everyone."[12] The Lenape later lost rights to the eastern extremes of their territory between the Patomac River and the Mahoning River by a government proclamation in 1763,[13] but sources say they began relocating into Tuscarawas and Holmes Counties in 1758 in preparation for such an event.[14]

The region continued being used as such until around 1785,[15] when the newly formed United States tried issuing a treaty stripping the vast majority of what is now Ohio from Native control and began offering subsidies for people to move into the region, sparking the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795).[16] In the aftermath, the government issues the Treaty of Greenville,[17] which stripped even more land from the Natives than originally planned and opened up northeast Ohio for white settlement for the first time. That being said, most Natives did not leave and mixed tribal communities still existed all over the state for some time afterwards, with permanent Ottawa, Seneca and Wyandot villages still existing in what is now Portage and Geauga Counties,[18] but all written accounts of Natives seems to have ceased sometime around the War of 1812, which is also when the Shawnee War (1811-1813) was occurring.[19] The local government had its own land arrangements with the Natives, here, for a time. It's unclear where the Natives went, after that, but this may coincide with the New Madrid Earthquake, one of the most massive earthquakes to ever hit the east coast in recorded history, and was interpreted by many Ohio Natives that they should throw their support behind Shawnee cult leader, Tenskwatawa, at the Prophettown stronghold, which also coincides with the outbreak of the Shawnee War, later that year.[20] Most of the Eastern nations got sucked up into his cult and many Natives relocated to live near him.[21]

Portage County is also home to a burial Mound- Towner's Mound, on the outskirts of Kent- which outdates all the above mentioned cultures.[22] It was unique in structure to other types of burial mounds from the Adena, Hopewell and Fort Ancient cultures, but identical to two other excavated mounds in North Benton, OH and Warren, PA.

After the discovery of the New World, the land that became Portage County was originally part of the French colony of Canada (New France), which was ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed the Province of Quebec. In the late 18th century the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory, then was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795.

The first European settler in what is now Portage County was Abraham Honey in 1798 in the area now known as Mantua Township, followed by Asa Hall in what is now Atwater Township in April 1799. In June 1799, Benjamin Tappan, Jr. arrived and founded Ravenna, David Daniels came to what is now Palmyra Township, and Ebenezer Sheldon settled in what is now Aurora.[23] A family group of Huguenot refugees also eventually migrated to Portage County by 1804.[24]

1826 map of Portage County with 30 townships

When first settled, the area that presently constitutes Portage County was part of the original Jefferson County, which had been organized in 1797. In 1800, the area was made part of Trumbull County, which followed the boundaries of the Connecticut Western Reserve. In 1802, all of what is now Portage County was organized under the name of Franklin Township with other townships being formed later. On February 10, 1807, the Ohio state legislature passed the act to create Portage County from Trumbull County and it took effect June 7, 1807. Portage County remained attached to Trumbull County until June 8, 1808, when the first elections were held. Initially, the county included a large area of the Western Reserve that encompassed most of present-day Summit County, all of Medina and Huron counties, and parts of Lorain and Ashland counties. There were six organized townships in 1808: Franklin, Deerfield, Aurora, Hiram, Springfield, and Hudson with new townships organized later, reaching a maximum of 30. The present-day boundaries of Portage County were established in 1840 following the 1812 creation of Medina County, a slight boundary adjustment in 1827 with Cuyahoga County, and finally the creation of Summit County in 1840, which took 10 townships from Portage County along with 3 townships from Medina County and two from Stark County.[6]

What is referred to as the last great train robbery in US history occurred in Garrettsville in 1935.[25] The government sent in a massive team to investigate, whom the locals called the G-Men. A local school, today, has the G-Men as their team mascot.

Portage County was also the site of the Kent State incident in the 1970.[26]

Geography

Gazebo at Towner's Woods Park in Franklin Township, part of the county park system

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 504 square miles (1,310 km2), of which 487 square miles (1,260 km2) is land and 17 square miles (44 km2) (3.3%) is water.[27]

West Branch State Park is a very large state park in central Portage County, consisting of a large green surrounding the Michael J. Kirwan Dam and Reservoir. There are a number of smaller state and local parks.

Adjacent counties

Major highways

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18102,995
182010,095237.1%
183018,82686.5%
184022,96522.0%
185024,4196.3%
186024,208−0.9%
187024,5841.6%
188027,50011.9%
189027,8681.3%
190029,2464.9%
191030,3073.6%
192036,36920.0%
193042,68217.4%
194046,6609.3%
195063,98437.1%
196091,79843.5%
1970125,86837.1%
1980135,8567.9%
1990142,5855.0%
2000152,0616.6%
2010161,4196.2%
2020161,7910.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[28]
1790-1960[29] 1900-1990[30]
1990-2000[31] 2020 [1]

2000 census

As of the census[32] of 2000, there were 152,061 people, 56,449 households, and 39,175 families living in the county. The population density was 309 inhabitants per square mile (119/km2). There were 60,096 housing units at an average density of 122 units per square mile (47/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 94.40% White, 3.18% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 1.19% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.5% were of German, 11.0% Irish, 9.9% Italian, 9.7% English, 9.7% American and 5.2% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.1% spoke English and 1.2% Spanish as their first language.

There were 56,449 households, out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.60% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.70% under the age of 18, 14.30% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, and 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 95.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $44,347, and the median income for a family was $52,820. Males had a median income of $37,434 versus $26,232 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,428. About 5.90% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.90% of those under age 18 and 5.70% of those age 65 or over.

Using the Gini coefficient to measure household inequality, Portage County received a .43 in 2012.[33] In 2013 16.1% of the population, or 25,196 people, were poor or impoverished. The county saw an increase in its poor population, as this can be compared to a 9.3% poverty rate (13,395 people) in 1999.[34]

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 161,419 people, 62,222 households, and 40,757 families living in the county.[35] The population density was 331.2 inhabitants per square mile (127.9/km2). There were 67,472 housing units at an average density of 138.4 units per square mile (53.4 units/km2).[36] The racial makeup of the county was 92.3% white, 4.1% black or African American, 1.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.3% of the population.[35] In terms of ancestry, 30.7% were German, 17.1% were Irish, 11.5% were English, 11.0% were Italian, 6.6% were Polish, and 5.7% were American.[37]

Of the 62,222 households, 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families, and 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 37.4 years.[35]

The median income for a household in the county was $50,447 and the median income for a family was $65,306. Males had a median income of $46,014 versus $34,250 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,097. About 8.1% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.[38]

Politics

From 1992 to 2012, Portage County had been reliably Democratic but following a trend seen throughout large parts of Ohio, in 2016 Donald Trump won Portage County by 9.87 points and then again in 2020 by 12.44 points, becoming the first Republican in almost three decades to win the county, the last time being George H. W. Bush in 1988.

United States presidential election results for Portage County, Ohio[39]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 45,990 55.39% 35,661 42.95% 1,371 1.65%
2016 39,971 52.07% 32,397 42.20% 4,394 5.72%
2012 35,242 46.14% 39,453 51.65% 1,689 2.21%
2008 34,822 44.41% 41,856 53.39% 1,724 2.20%
2004 35,583 46.42% 40,675 53.07% 389 0.51%
2000 28,271 44.95% 31,446 49.99% 3,182 5.06%
1996 18,939 32.52% 29,441 50.55% 9,858 16.93%
1992 18,447 29.69% 26,325 42.37% 17,363 27.94%
1988 26,334 50.18% 25,607 48.79% 539 1.03%
1984 29,536 57.14% 21,719 42.02% 432 0.84%
1980 22,829 47.37% 20,570 42.69% 4,791 9.94%
1976 17,927 40.91% 24,417 55.72% 1,480 3.38%
1972 23,294 51.76% 20,769 46.15% 939 2.09%
1968 15,064 41.27% 16,348 44.78% 5,093 13.95%
1964 10,842 31.75% 23,308 68.25% 0 0.00%
1960 19,634 51.45% 18,528 48.55% 0 0.00%
1956 18,943 59.07% 13,128 40.93% 0 0.00%
1952 17,168 55.88% 13,553 44.12% 0 0.00%
1948 11,621 48.67% 11,987 50.21% 268 1.12%
1944 12,284 49.50% 12,533 50.50% 0 0.00%
1940 11,777 48.14% 12,687 51.86% 0 0.00%
1936 8,035 35.77% 13,798 61.43% 630 2.80%
1932 9,586 47.98% 9,662 48.36% 733 3.67%
1928 12,086 71.31% 4,756 28.06% 106 0.63%
1924 8,583 62.43% 2,994 21.78% 2,172 15.80%
1920 8,231 58.99% 5,405 38.74% 317 2.27%
1916 3,142 40.90% 4,269 55.56% 272 3.54%
1912 1,162 15.73% 2,855 38.65% 3,370 45.62%
1908 4,129 51.16% 3,625 44.91% 317 3.93%
1904 4,712 62.49% 2,486 32.97% 343 4.55%
1900 4,311 52.68% 3,651 44.61% 222 2.71%
1896 4,073 50.01% 3,995 49.05% 76 0.93%
1892 3,310 48.83% 2,953 43.57% 515 7.60%
1888 3,880 52.36% 3,260 43.99% 270 3.64%
1884 3,931 52.11% 3,273 43.39% 339 4.49%
1880 3,990 54.97% 3,147 43.35% 122 1.68%
1876 3,712 54.92% 3,006 44.47% 41 0.61%
1872 3,478 58.03% 2,438 40.68% 77 1.28%
1868 3,604 60.41% 2,362 39.59% 0 0.00%
1864 3,475 64.40% 1,921 35.60% 0 0.00%
1860 3,065 59.34% 1,970 38.14% 130 2.52%
1856 2,983 58.94% 2,072 40.94% 6 0.12%

Education

The county is served by multiple public school districts, private schools, and public libraries, and is home to two institutions of higher education.

Libraries

Kent Free Library in Kent

The Portage County Library Consortium is a library consortium consisting of Kent Free Library in Kent, Reed Memorial Library in Ravenna, and the five branches of the Portage County Library District, which are located in Aurora, Garrettsville, Randolph, Streetsboro, and Windham. The consortium allows patrons of any member library to use their library card at another consortium location or request materials housed at another library. Through the SearchOhio database, the consortium is connected to OhioLINK, which provides local access to the State Library of Ohio and dozens of university and college libraries across the state.[40][41]

The county is also home to the Kent State University Libraries in Kent, an academic library system with a collection of over 2.5 million volumes. The KSU system, one of three members of the Association of Research Libraries in Ohio, includes the 12-story main library and individual libraries for architecture, fashion, performing arts, and maps, on the main campus in Kent. It also includes individual libraries at each of the university's seven regional campuses in Northeast Ohio.[42]

Public school districts

Portage County is home to eleven public school districts.[43]

District Location Communities served
Aurora City School District Aurora Aurora, small part of Reminderville
Crestwood Local School District Mantua Mantua, Mantua Township, Hiram, most of Hiram Township, most of Shalersville Township
James A Garfield Local School District Garrettsville Garrettsville, Nelson Township, Freedom Township, part of Hiram Township, small part of Charlestown Township
Field Local School District Brimfield Most of Brimfield and Suffield Townships, parts of Tallmadge and Kent annexed from Brimfield
Kent City School District Kent Sugar Bush Knolls, most of Kent and Franklin Township, small portion of Streetsboro
Ravenna School District Ravenna Ravenna, Ravenna Township, small portion of Shalersville Township
Rootstown Local School District Rootstown Rootstown Township and small portion of Brimfield Township
Southeast Local School District Palmyra Edinburg Township, Palmyra Township, Paris Township, most of Charlestown Township, most of Deerfield Township
Streetsboro City School District Streetsboro most of Streetsboro
Waterloo Local School District Atwater Atwater Township, Randolph Township, small portion of Deerfield Township
Windham Exempted Village School District Windham Windham, Windham Township
Map of school districts in Portage County with township and municipal boundaries superimposed as of 2022.

In addition, there are parts of five neighboring districts which serve portions of Portage County residents.[43]

District Location Communities served in Portage County
Lake Local School District Uniontown small part of Suffield Township
Mogadore Local School District Mogadore Mogadore, small part of Suffield Township
Springfield Local School District Springfield small part of Suffield Township
Stow-Munroe Falls City School District Stow small part of Franklin Township
Tallmadge City School District Tallmadge small part of Tallmadge in Portage County
West Branch Local School District Beloit small part of Deerfield Township

Portage County also has two public schools that serve students from multiple districts:

Private schools

Higher education

Portage County is home to three institutions of higher learning:

Culture

Theater

Museums

Media

Communities

Map of Portage County municipal, township, and census-designated place labels

Portage County is arranged as a 4 x 5 grid of 20 rectangles and contains all or part of 18 unincorporated townships, five cities, and six villages. Under Ohio law, there are two types of incorporated municipal jurisdictions: cities and villages; and any territory within a county that is not part of an incorporated municipality is part of a township. Townships have limited local government and services.

In addition to the cities, village, and townships, the United States Census Bureau has four census-designated places (CDP) in Portage County. These CDPs are for statistical purposes only and have no government or official boundaries separate from the township they are located in. There are also 17 additional named places in the county. All 17 places are considered part of whatever jurisdiction they are located in (township or municipality) and have no formal boundaries or additional government of their own.

Camp James A. Garfield, formerly known as the Ravenna Training and Logistics Site and commonly known as the Ravenna Arsenal, occupies much of the land in Charlestown, Paris, and Windham townships, as well as a small part of Freedom Township. While the portions of Camp Garfield are still considered part of the various townships they cover, the land is under the jurisdiction of the US federal government.

Cities

Villages

Townships

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Notable people

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b 2020 census
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Ohio: Individual County Chronologies". Ohio Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  4. ^ "Portage County data". Ohio State University Extension Data Center. Retrieved April 28, 2007.[dead link]
  5. ^ Cherry, Peter Peterson (1911). The Portage Path. Akron, Ohio: The Western Reserve Company. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Brown, R.C.; Norris, J.E. (1972) [1885]. History of Portage County Ohio. Chicago, Illinois: Warner, Beers, and Company. pp. 192–196. Portage County received its name from the fact that the old Indian Portage Path, between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas Rivers, was, originally, within its limits, though now in Summit County.
  7. ^ "Whittlesey Culture - Ohio History Central". ohiohistorycentral.org. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  8. ^ Jesuit Relations
  9. ^ Indian Myths; Connelley, William Elsey
  10. ^ Charles Augustus Hanna, The Wilderness Trail: Or, The Ventures and Adventures of the Pennsylvania Traders on the Allegheny Path, Volume 2, Putnam's sons, 1911
  11. ^ "City of Conneaut, OH".
  12. ^ Mahr, August C. (November 1959). "Practical Reasons for Algonkian Indian Stream and Place Names". Ohio Journal of Science. 59 (6): 365–375. hdl:1811/4658. ISSN 0030-0950. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  13. ^ Linda Matys O'Connell and David Venditta (2006-11-27). "How peace was made". The Morning Call.
  14. ^ Ohio Annals: Historic Events in the Tuscarawas and Muskingum Valleys; Michener, C. H.
  15. ^ "Treaty of Fort McIntosh (1785) - Ohio History Central". ohiohistorycentral.org. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  16. ^ Barnes, Celia (2003). Native American Power in the United States, 1783–1795. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0838639580.
  17. ^ "Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1785". Oklahoma State University Libraries Tribal Treaties Database.
  18. ^ "About Streetsboro".
  19. ^ History of Trumbull and Mahoning Counties, vol. 3
  20. ^ John Ehle (1988). Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. pp. 102–4. ISBN 978-0-385-23954-7. (Page numbers may be for a different printing.)
  21. ^ R. David Edmunds (1985). The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 29
  22. ^ Bragg, Chloe E. (February 18, 2024). Towner Mound: Creating Content and Sparking Curiosity for the Portage County Parks (Thesis). Kent State University.
  23. ^ Brown and Norris, pp. 229–232
  24. ^ Calvin, Claude (1945). The Calvin Families. University of Wisconsin. pp. 67–68.
  25. ^ "America's Last Great Train Heist".
  26. ^ "These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims, but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down." Philip Caputo (May 4, 2005). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Archived from the original on May 16, 2020. Retrieved November 9, 2007.
  27. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  28. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  29. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  30. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  31. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  32. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  33. ^ "Portage County - Gini coefficient Portage County, Ohio". portage.oh.networkofcare.org. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
  34. ^ "The Ohio Poverty Report" (PDF). Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  35. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  36. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  37. ^ "DP02 Selected Social Characteristics in the United States – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  38. ^ "DP03 Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  39. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  40. ^ "SearchOhio and OhioLINK". Kent Free Library. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  41. ^ "About SearchOhio". SearchOhio. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  42. ^ "About University Libraries". Kent State University. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  43. ^ a b Exner, Rich (2008). "Property Tax 2007". Cleveland.com Business. The Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  44. ^ Bio-Med Science Academy
  45. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Crossroads Christian Academy. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  46. ^ "St. Joseph School". St. Joseph School. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  47. ^ "Classrooms". St. Patrick School. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  48. ^ "About Us". Valley Christian Academy. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  49. ^ "About - NEOMED". Northeast Ohio Medical University. 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  50. ^ "The Portager". Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  51. ^ "About Us". Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  52. ^ "Weekly Villager". Retrieved April 29, 2022.

41°10′N 81°12′W / 41.17°N 81.20°W / 41.17; -81.20