An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that one habitually consumes. Dieting is the practice of attempting to achieve or maintain a certain weight through diet. People's dietary choices are often affected by a variety of factors, including ethical and religious beliefs, clinical need, or a desire to control weight.
Not all diets are considered healthy. Some people follow unhealthy diets through habit, rather than through a conscious choice to eat unhealthily. Terms applied to such eating habits include "junk food diet" and "Western diet". Many diets are considered by clinicians to pose significant health risks and minimal long-term benefit. This is particularly true of "crash" or "fad" diets – short-term, weight-loss plans that involve drastic changes to a person's normal eating habits.
Only diets covered on Wikipedia are listed under alphabetically sorted headings.
Some people's dietary choices are influenced by their religious, spiritual or philosophical beliefs.
Jain diet: Due to how the Jain faith interprets ahisma,vegetarianism is considered mandatory for followers; a lacto-vegetarian diet or vegan diet in particular is considered appropriate for Jains. Most Jains also abstain from consuming root vegetables in order to prevent harming insects, worms and microorganisms when they are uprooted. Most also partake in some form of fasting. Some variants of Jainism further discourage or forbid the consumption of honey, fungi, alcoholic beverages and fermented foods.
Islamic diet: Muslims follow a diet consisting solely of food that is halal – permissible in Islam. The opposite of halal is haraam, food that is Islamically Impermissible. Haraam substances include alcohol, carnivores, pork and other non-ruminant animals, and any meat from an animal which was not killed through the Islamic method of ritual slaughter (Dhabiha). If an otherwise Halal animal was subject to torture by humans, its meat can still be considered non-permissible for Muslims.
I-tal: A set of principles which influences the diet of many members of the Rastafari movement. One principle is that natural foods should be consumed. Emphasis is put on consuming produce that is fresh, organic and ideally grown at home or locally. Another principle involves avoiding "unclean" types of food; the definition which is influenced by Biblical teachings. In order to preserve "life energy" Rastafarians encourage teetotalism, and many Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate vegetarianism or veganism as well. Many followers do view seafood as an acceptable addition to an I-tal diet but they restrict which kinds they permit; fish over a foot long are typically avoided and all shellfish are eschewed as they are not Kosher animals—unlike finned-fish with scales.
Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut, the set of Jewish dietary laws, is said to be Kosher. Some foods and food combinations are non-Kosher, and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher.
Seventh-day Adventist diet: Combines the Kosher food rules of Judaism with prohibitions against alcoholic beverages and (sometimes) caffeinated beverages. There is emphasis on consuming whole foods. Meat-consumption is heavily discouraged but not necessarily disallowed; about half of Adventists are lacto-ovo-vegetarians.Vegan and pescetarian diets are also more popular among Adventists compared to the general public but other Adventists are still willing to eat Kosher meats.
Word of Wisdom diet: The name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of scripture accepted by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Dietary advice includes (1) wholesome plants "in the season thereof", (2) eating meat sparingly and only "in times of winter, or of cold, or famine", and (3) grain as the "staff of life". Unlike injunctions against tobacco, alcohol, coffee and tea—compliance with meat-avoidance has always remained optional among the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and emphasis on refraining from meat has largely been dropped. An official church publication states, "modern methods of refrigeration now make it possible to preserve meat in any season".
Remba/Lemba diet: Lemba people or Remba people are found in Southern Africa and their diet is based on their culture. Their day includes meats and carbohydrates but the meat is slaughtered in a specific way so as to drain maximum blood from the animal. They pay particular attention to cleanliness of the person handling and preparing as well as the utensils used for food. Their diet excludes pork.
A desire to lose weight is a common motivation to change dietary habits, as is a desire to maintain an existing weight. Many weight loss diets are considered by some to entail varying degrees of health risk, and some are not widely considered to be effective. This is especially true of "crash" or "fad" diets.
Many of the diets listed below could fall into more than one subcategory. Where this is the case, it is noted in that diet's entry.
The Hacker's Diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker's Diet by John Walker. The book suggests that the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully monitoring calories consumed and used.
Nutrisystem diet: The dietary element of the weight-loss plan from Nutrisystem, Inc. Nutrisystem distributes low-calorie meals, with specific ratios of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
Weight Watchers diet: Foods are assigned point values; dieters can eat any food with a point value provided they stay within their daily point limit.
Very low calorie diets
A very low calorie diet is consuming fewer than 800 calories per day. Such diets are normally followed under the supervision of a doctor. Zero-calorie diets are also included.
Inedia (breatharian diet): A diet in which no food is consumed, based on the belief that prana but not food is necessary for human subsistence.
KE diet (feeding tube diet): A diet in which an individual feeds through a feeding tube and does not eat anything.
Atkins diet: A low-carbohydrate diet, popularized by nutritionist Robert Atkins in the late-20th and early-21st centuries. Proponents argue that this approach is a more successful way of losing weight than low-calorie diets; critics argue that a low-carb approach poses increased health risks. The Atkins diet consists of four phases (Induction, Balancing, Fine-Tuning and Maintenance) with a gradual increase in consumption of carbohydrates as the person goes through the phases.
Dukan Diet: A multi-step diet based on high protein and limited carbohydrate consumption. It starts with two steps intended to facilitate short term weight loss, followed by two steps intended to consolidate these losses and return to a more balanced long-term diet.
Kimkins: A heavily promoted diet for weight loss, found to be fraudulent.
South Beach Diet: Diet developed by the Miami-based cardiologist Arthur Agatston, who says that the key to losing weight quickly and getting healthy is not cutting all carbohydrates and fats from the diet, but choosing the right carbs and the right fats.
Stillman diet: A carbohydrate-restricted diet that predates the Atkins diet, allowing consumption of specific food ingredients.
McDougall's starch diet is a high calorie, high fiber, low fat diet that is based on starches such as potatoes, rice, and beans which excludes all animal foods and added vegetable oils. John A. McDougall draws on historical observation of how many civilizations around the world throughout time have thrived on starch foods.
Crash diets are very-low-calorie diets used for the purpose of very fast weight loss. They describe diet plans that involve making extreme, rapid changes to food consumption, but are also used as disparaging terms for common eating habits which are considered unhealthy. This diet is dangerous and can lead to sudden death when not done in a medically supervised setting. Several diets listed here are weight-loss diets which would also fit into other sections of this list. Where this is the case, it will be noted in that diet's entry.
Beverly Hills Diet: An extreme diet which has only fruits in the first days, gradually increasing the selection of foods up to the sixth week.
Grapefruit diet: A fad diet, intended to facilitate weight loss, in which grapefruit is consumed in large quantities at meal times.
Monotrophic diet: A diet that involves eating only one food item, or one type of food, for a period of time to achieve a desired weight reduction.
Subway diet: A crash diet in which a person consumes Subway sandwiches in place of higher calorie fast foods. Made famous by convicted sex offender and former obese student Jared Fogle, who lost 245 pounds after replacing his meals with Subway sandwiches as part of an effort to lose weight.
Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered unhelpful or harmful. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colorings or preservatives, taking supplements, or drinking large amounts of water. The latter practice in particular has drawn criticism, as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause hyponatremia.
Juice fasting: A form of detox diet, in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices. The health implications of such diets are disputed.
Master Cleanse: A modified juice fast that substitutes tea and lemonade for food.
Diets followed for medical reasons
People's dietary choices are sometimes affected by intolerance or allergy to certain types of food. There are also dietary patterns that might be recommended, prescribed or administered by medical professionals for people with specific medical needs.
Diabetic diet: An umbrella term for diets recommended to people with diabetes. There is considerable disagreement in the scientific community as to what sort of diet is best for people with diabetes.
Elemental diet: A medical, liquid-only diet, in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion.
Elimination diet: A method of identifying foods which cause a person adverse effects, by process of elimination.
Gluten-free, casein-free diet: A gluten-free diet which also avoids casein, a protein commonly found in milk and cheese. This diet has been researched for efficacy in treatment of autism spectrum disorder.
Healthy kidney diet: This diet is for those impacted with chronic kidney disease, those with only one kidney, those who have a kidney infection and those who may be suffering from some other kidney failure. This diet is not the dialysis diet, which is completely different. The healthy kidney diet restricts large amounts of protein, which are hard for the kidney to break down, but especially limits potassium and phosphorus-rich foods and beverages. Liquid intake is often limited as well.
Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. It is used as a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy.
Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. May be administered by clinicians for medical reasons, such as after a gastric bypass or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike.
Low-FODMAP diet: A diet that consists in the global restriction of all fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs).
A fad diet is a diet that is popular for a time, similar to fads in fashion, without being a standard dietary recommendation, and often promising unreasonably fast weight loss or nonsensical health improvements. There is no single definition of what a fad diet is, encompassing a variety of diets with different approaches and evidence bases, and thus different outcomes, advantages and disadvantages, and it is ever-changing. Generally, fad diets promise short-term changes with little efforts, and thus may lack educating consumers about whole-diet, whole lifestyle changes necessary for sustainable health benefices. Fad diets are often promoted with exaggerated claims, such as rapid weight loss of more than 1 kg/week or improving health by "detoxification", or even dangerous claims.
Since the "fad" qualification varies over time, social, cultural and subjective view, this list cannot be exhaustive, and fad diets may continue or stop being fads, such as the mediterranean diet. Some of them have therapeutic indications, such as epilepsy or obesity, and there is no one-size-fits-all diet that would be a panacea for everyone to lose weight or look better. Dieteticians are a regulated profession that can distinguish nutritionally sound diets from unhealthy ones.
Food combining diet: A nutritional approach where certain food types are deliberately consumed together or separately. For instance, some weight control diets suggest that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
Fit for Life diet: Recommendations include not combining protein and carbohydrates, not drinking water at meal time, and avoiding dairy foods.
Vegan diet: In addition to the abstentions of a vegetarian diet, vegans do not use any product produced by animals, such as eggs, dairy products, or honey. The vegan philosophy and lifestyle is broader than just the diet and also includes abstaining from using any products tested on animals and often campaigning for animal welfare and animal rights.
Semi-vegetarianism: A predominantly vegetarian diet, in which meat is occasionally consumed. This includes "flexitatian", reducetarian and demitarian diets  Sometimes semi-vegetarian and flexitarian diets are defined as distinct from one another, where the former is defined as abstaining from red meat while the latter simply entails only eating meat infrequently.
Kangatarian: A diet originating from Australia. In addition to foods permissible in a vegetarian diet, kangaroo meat is also consumed. The name is a protologism that may have started out as a joke rather than a dietary term or identifying label that was ever intended to be taken seriously or used unironically.
Planetary health diet: Dietary paradigms that have the following aims: to feed a growing world's population, to greatly reduce the worldwide number of deaths caused by poor diet, and to be environmentally sustainable as to prevent the collapse of the natural world.
Plant-based diet: A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. Under some definitions a plant-based diet is fully vegetarian; under others it is possible to follow a plant-based diet whilst occasionally consuming meat.
Eat-clean diet: Focuses on eating foods without preservatives, and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates.
Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine, the diet is low salt, low fat and vegetarian, and also involves taking specific supplements. It was developed by Max Gerson, who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic, degenerative diseases. These claims have not been scientifically proven, and they can cause serious illness and death.
The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the 19th century.
Hay diet: A food-combining diet developed by William Howard Hay in the 1920s. Divides foods into separate groups, and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. Not to be confused with low-carb diets, where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates.
Sharing of frozen, aged walrus meat among Inuit families
Inuit diet: Inuit traditionally consume food that is fished, hunted or gathered locally, predominantly meat and fish.
Jenny Craig: A weight-loss program from Jenny Craig, Inc. It includes weight counselling among other elements. The dietary aspect involves the consumption of pre-packaged food produced by the company.
Locavore diet: a neologism describing the eating of food that is locally produced, and not moved long distances to market. An example of this was explored in the book 100-Mile Diet, in which the authors only consumed food grown within 100 miles of their residence for a year. People who follow this type of diet are sometimes known as locavores.
Prison loaf: A meal replacement served in some United States prisons to inmates who are not trusted to use cutlery. Its composition varies between institutions and states, but as a replacement for standard food, it is intended to provide inmates with all their dietary needs.
Raw foodism: A diet which centres on the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food. Often associated with a vegetarian diet, although some raw food dieters do consume raw meat.
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^"Top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018". British Dietetic Association. 7 December 2017. The British Dietetic Association (BDA) today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in 2018. The line-up this year includes Raw Vegan, Alkaline, Pioppi and Ketogenic diets as well as Katie Price's Nutritional Supplements.
^DeBruyne L, Pinna K, Whitney E (2011). Chapter 7: Nutrition in practice — fad diets. Nutrition and Diet Therapy (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 209. ISBN978-1-133-71550-4. 'a fad diet by any other name would still be a fad diet.' And the names are legion: the Atkins Diet, the Cheater's Diet, the South Beach Diet, the Zone Diet. Year after year, 'new and improved' diets appear ...
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