In recent decades, new high temperature records have substantially outpaced new low temperature records on a growing portion of Earth's surface.[1] Comparison shows seasonal variability for record increases.

This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[2]

Temperature

Increasingly, record temperatures have been warm record temperatures.[3]
2023 saw the highest global average surface temperature in recorded history.[4]

Measuring conditions

The standard measuring conditions for temperature are in the air, 1.25 metres (4.1 ft) to 2.00 metres (6.6 ft) above the ground,[5] and shielded from direct sunlight intensity (hence the term x degrees "in the shade").[6] The following lists include all officially confirmed claims measured by those methods.

Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C (54 to 90 °F).[6] The highest natural ground surface temperature ever recorded may have been an alleged reading of 93.9 °C (201.0 °F) at Furnace Creek, California, United States, on 15 July 1972.[7] In 2011, a ground temperature of 84 °C (183.2 °F) was recorded in Port Sudan, Sudan.[8] The theoretical maximum possible ground surface temperature has been estimated to be between 90 and 100 °C (194 and 212 °F) for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity.[9]

Satellite measurements of ground temperature taken between 2003 and 2009, taken with the MODIS infrared spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite, found a maximum temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), which was recorded in 2005 in the Lut Desert, Iran. The Lut Desert was also found to have the highest maximum temperature in five of the seven years measured (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2009). These measurements reflect averages over a large region and so are lower than the maximum point surface temperature.[6]

Satellite measurements of the surface temperature of Antarctica, taken between 1982 and 2013, found a coldest temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) on 10 August 2010, at 81°48′S 59°18′E / 81.8°S 59.3°E / -81.8; 59.3. Although this is not comparable to an air temperature, it is believed that the air temperature at this location would have been lower than the official record lowest air temperature of −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).[10][11]

Hottest

Highest temperatures ever recorded

Main articles: Highest temperature recorded on Earth and Heat wave

A world map showing areas with Köppen B classification (dry climates). The temperatures of the hot variants (BWh, BSh) of these climates have the potential to exceed 50 °C (122 °F) during the hottest seasons.

According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the highest temperature ever recorded was 134.06 on 10 July 1913 in Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), California, United States,[12] but the validity of this record is challenged as possible problems with the reading have since been discovered. Christopher C. Burt, a weather historian writing for Weather Underground, believes that the 1913 Death Valley reading is "a myth", and is at least 2.2 or 2.8 °C (4 or 5 °F) too high.[13] Burt proposes that the highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth could still be at Death Valley, but is instead 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) recorded on 30 June 2013.[14] This is lower than a 1931 record of 55 °C (131 °F) recorded in Kebili, Tunisia[15] and is matched by a 1942 record of 54 °C (129 °F) from Tirat Zvi, Israel.[16] 2016 and 2017 readings in Kuwait and Iran have also matched the 2013 Death Valley record, while readings in 2020 and 2021 also at Furnace Creek went even higher, up to 54.4 °C (129.9 °F), however, they have not yet been validated by WMO.[17] The WMO has stated they stand by the 1913 record pending any future investigations.

The former highest official temperature on Earth, 57.8 °C (136.0 °F), measured in ʽAziziya, Libya on 13 September 1922, was reassessed in July 2012 by the WMO which published a report that invalidated the record.[15] There have been other unconfirmed reports of high temperatures, but these temperatures have never been officially validated by national weather services/WMO, and are currently considered to have been recorder's errors,[18] thus not being recognised as world records.[19]

Highest global average temperature

The warmest day on record for the entire planet was 6 July 2023, when the highest global average temperature was recorded at 17.08 °C (62.74 °F).[20] The month of July 2023 was the hottest month on record globally.[21]

Table

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
 Algeria 51.3 °C (124.3 °F) Ouargla, Ouargla Province 5 July 2018[22]
 Botswana 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Maun 7 January 2016[23][24]
 Burkina Faso 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Dori 1984[25]
 Chad 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) Faya-Largeau 25 May 2023[26]
 Comoros 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) Hahaya International Airport 15 November 2017[27]
 Egypt 51.0 °C (123.8 °F) Aswan 4 July 1918[28][better source needed]
 Eswatini (Swaziland) 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Lavumisa ?[29]
 Gambia 49.0 °C (120.2 °F) Jenoi 2001[30]
 Ghana 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) Navrongo 26 March 2017[27]
 Guinea 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Koundara, Boké Region 29 March 2017[27]
 Guyana 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) Ebini 26 September 2023[31]
 Madagascar 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) Ejeda, Atsimo-Andrefana ?[32]
 Morocco 50.4 °C (122.7 °F) Agadir (Inezgane Airport) 11 August 2023[33]
 Niger 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) Diffa 7 September 1978[34]
 Nigeria 46.4 °C (115.5 °F) Yola 3 April 2010[citation needed]
 Réunion 36.9 °C (98.4 °F) Le Port 6 March 2004[35]
 South Africa (then the  Union of South Africa) 50.0 °C (122.0 °F) Dunbrody, Eastern Cape 3 November 1918[36][note 1]
 Sudan 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) Dongola 25 June 2010[26]
 Tunisia (then  French protectorate of Tunisia) 55 °C (131 °F) Kebili 7 July 1931[38][note 2]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (then the  Spanish Sahara) 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Semara 13 July 1961[39]
 Zambia 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Mfuwe, Eastern Province 13 October 2010[26]
 Antarctica 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) Signy Research Station, Signy Island 30 January 1982[40]
 Abkhazia 37.0 °C (98.6 °F) Sukhumi ?
 Afghanistan (then,  Islamic Republic of Afghanistan) 49.9 °C (121.8 °F) Farah August 2009[41]
 Bangladesh 45.1 °C (113.2 °F) Rajshahi 30 May 1972[42]
 Bhutan 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) Phuentsholing 27 August 1997[43]
 Cambodia 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) Preah Vihear 15 April 2016[44]
 China 52.2 °C (126.0 °F) Sanbao Township, Turpan, Xinjiang 16 July 2023[45]
 Hong Kong 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) Sheung Shui 31 May 2023[46]
 India 51.0 °C (123.8 °F) Phalodi, Rajasthan 19 May 2016[47]
 Indonesia 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 16 August 1997[48][49]
 Iran 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) Ahvaz Airport (OIAW) 29 June 2017
[50]
 Iraq 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) Basra 22 July 2016[51][52]
 Israel (then  Mandatory Palestine) 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) Tirat Zvi 21 June 1942[16][note 3]
 Japan 41.1 °C (106.0 °F) Kumagaya, Saitama
Hamamatsu, Shizuoka
23 July 2018[54][55]
17 August 2020[55]
 Jordan 50.0 °C (122.0 °F) Jordan University Agriculture Research Center 6 September 2002[56]
 Kazakhstan 49.1 °C (120.4 °F) Turkistan ?[57]
 Kuwait 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) Mitribah 21 July 2016[58][note 4]
 Kyrgyzstan 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) Jangy-Jer July 1944[59]
 Laos 43.5 °C (110.3 °F) Luang Prabang 6 May 2023[60]
 Lebanon

44.3 °C (111.7 °F)

Houche Al Oumara September 2020[61]
 Macau 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) Coloane 22 August 2017[27]
 Malaysia 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) Chuping 9 April 1998[62]
 Maldives 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) Hanimaadhoo 16 April 2016[44]
 Mongolia 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Khongor, Darkhan-Uul Province 24 July 1999[63]
 Myanmar 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Myinmu 14 May 2010[64][65]
   Nepal 46.4 °C (115.5 °F) Ataria 16 June 1995[66]
 Oman 51.6 °C (124.9 °F) Joba 16 June 2021[67]
 Pakistan 53.7 °C (128.7 °F) Mohenjo-daro
Turbat
26 May 2010[68]
28 May 2017[58]
 Philippines (first recorded under the United States Insular Government) 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley 12 April 1912
11 May 1969[69]
 Qatar 50.4 °C (122.7 °F) Doha 14 July 2010[26]
 Saudi Arabia 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Jeddah 22 June 2010[70][26]
 Singapore 37.0 °C (98.6 °F) Tengah
Ang Mo Kio
17 April 1983[71]
13 May 2023[72]
 South Korea 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) Hongcheon, Gangwon Province 1 August 2018[73]
 Sri Lanka 39.8 °C (103.6 °F) Trincomalee 13 May 1890 [74]
11 April 2019[75]
 Syria 49.4 °C (120.9 °F) Al-Hasakah 30 July 2000 [76][77]
 Taiwan 41.6 °C (106.9 °F) Fuyuan 21 August 2022[78]
 Tajikistan 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) Panji Poyon ?[79]
 Thailand 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) Tak 15 April 2023[80]
 Turkey 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) Sarıcakaya, Eskişehir Province 15 August 2023[81]
 Turkmenistan (then the  Turkmen SSR,  Soviet Union) 50.1 °C (122.2 °F) Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, Karakum Desert 28 July 1983[82][83]
 United Arab Emirates 52.1 °C (125.8 °F) Al Jazeera Border Gate July 2002[84][85]
 Vietnam 44.2 °C (111.6 °F) Tương Dương District,
Nghệ An Province
7 May 2023[86]
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia 34.0 °C (93.2 °F) RAF Akrotiri,
Dhekelia
?[87][88]
 Albania 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Kuçovë 25 July 2023[89]
 Andorra 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) Borda Vidal 28 June 2019[90]
 Armenia 43.7 °C (110.7 °F) Meghri
Yerevan
1 August 2011[91][92]

12 July 2018[93]

 Austria 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) Bad Deutsch-Altenburg 8 August 2013[94]
 Azerbaijan 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Julfa and Ordubad 1 July 2018
 Belarus 38.9 °C (102.0 °F) Gomel 7 August 2010[26]
 Belgium 41.8 °C (107.2 °F) Begijnendijk, Flemish Brabant[note 5] 25 July 2019[95]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (then  Austria–Hungary-occupied Bosnia Vilayet,  Ottoman Empire) 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) Mostar 31 July 1901[96][97]
 Bulgaria 45.2 °C (113.4 °F) Sadovo, Plovdiv Province 5 August 1916[98]
 Croatia (then the  SR Croatia,  SFR Yugoslavia) 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) Ploče 5 August 1981[99]
 Cyprus 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) Nicosia, Visitor Center Athalassa 4 September 2020[100]
 Czech Republic 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) Dobřichovice, Prague-West District 20 August 2012[101]
 Denmark 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) Holstebro, Midtjylland 10 August 1975[102]
 Estonia 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Võru 11 August 1992[103]
 Finland 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) Joensuu Airport, Liperi 29 July 2010[104][26]
 France 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Vérargues, Hérault 28 June 2019[97]
 Germany 41.2 °C (106.2 °F) Duisburg-Baerl, North Rhine-Westphalia and Tönisvorst, North Rhine-Westphalia[note 5] 25 July 2019[105]
 Greece 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) Elefsina, Attica 10 July 1977[106]
 Hungary 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) Kiskunhalas 20 July 2007[107]
 Iceland (then the  Kingdom of Iceland) 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur 22 June 1939[108][109]
 Ireland (then part of the  United Kingdom) 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny 26 June 1887[110]
 Italy 48.8 °C (119.8 °F) Floridia, Sicily 11 August 2021[111]
 Latvia 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) Ventspils 4 August 2014[112][113]
 Liechtenstein 37.4 °C (99.3 °F) Ruggell 13 August 2003[114][115]
 Lithuania 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) Zarasai, Utena County 30 July 1994[116]
 Luxembourg 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Steinsel, Luxembourg and Remich, Remich[note 5] 25 July 2019[117][118]
 Malta 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) Malta International Airport 9 August 1999[119][120]
 Moldova 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Fălești 7 August 2012[121]
 Monaco 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) Monaco 20 July 2022[122]
 Montenegro 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) Podgorica
Danilovgrad
16 August 2007
8 August 2012[123]
 Netherlands 40.7 °C (105.3 °F) Gilze en Rijen, North Brabant[note 5][note 6] 25 July 2019[125]
 North Macedonia 45.7 °C (114.3 °F) Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija 24 July 2007[126]
 Norway 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Nesbyen, Buskerud 20 June 1970[127]
 Poland 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Prószków[note 7] 29 July 1921[129]
 Portugal 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Amareleja, Beja 1 August 2003[130]
 Romania 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) Ion Sion, Brăila County 10 August 1951[131]
 Russia 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) Utta, Kalmykia 12 July 2010[132]
 San Marino 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Serravalle 3 August 2017
9 August 2017[27]
 Serbia 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje 24 July 2007[133]
 Slovakia 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Hurbanovo 20 July 2007[134]
 Slovenia 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Cerklje ob Krki 8 August 2013[135]
 Spain 47.6 °C (117.7 °F) La Rambla, Cordoba (as La Rambla Privilegio) 14 August 2021[136]
 Sweden 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Ultuna, Uppsala County
Målilla, Kalmar County
9 July 1933
29 June 1947[137]
  Switzerland 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) Grono, Moesa District 11 August 2003[138]
 Ukraine 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) Luhansk 12 August 2010[139][26]
 United Kingdom 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Coningsby, Lincolnshire 19 July 2022[140]
 Vatican City 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Vatican City 28 June 2022[141]
 Anguilla 34.2 °C (93.6 °F) The Valley 12 September 2015[142]
 Antigua and Barbuda 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, St. John's 12 August 1995[143][144]
 British Virgin Islands 35.0 °C (95.0 °F) Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport 22 July 2016[145]
 Canada 49.6 °C (121.3 °F) Lytton, British Columbia 29 June 2021[146][147][148][149][150]
 Cayman Islands 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman 21 August 2016[145]
 Cuba 39.7 °C (103.5 °F) Veguitas (Granma Province) 12 April 2020[151]
 Dominican Republic 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) Mao 31 August 1954[152]
 Greenland 30.1 °C (86.2 °F) Ivittuut 23 June 1915[153][154][155]
 Guatemala 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Estanzuela, Zacapa 12 May 1998[156][157]
 Martinique 36.5 °C (97.7 °F) Saint-Pierre 6 October 2010[158]
 Mexico 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Mexicali area 28 July 1995[159][160]
 Panama 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) San Francisco 20 March 1998[161]
 Puerto Rico 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) Mona Island 2 July 1996[162]
 United States 56.7 °C (134.0 °F) Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California 10 July 1913[13][163][14]
 United States Virgin Islands 37.2 °C (99 °F) Saint Thomas
Cruz Bay
4 August 1994 and 23 June 1996[162]
31 July 1988[162]
 Australia 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Oodnadatta, South Australia
Onslow, Western Australia
2 January 1962[164][165][166]
12 January 2022[167][168][169]
 Marshall Islands 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Utirik Atoll 24 August 2016[145]
 Nauru 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) Yaren District ?[citation needed]
 New Zealand 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Rangiora, Canterbury 7 February 1973[170]
 Palau 35.0 °C (95.0 °F) Koror 22 March 2018[171]
 Samoa 35.3 °C (95.5 °F) Asau 24 December 1968[172]
 Solomon Islands 36.1 °C (97.0 °F) Honiara, Guadalcanal Province 1 February 2010[26]
 Tonga 35.5 °C (95.9 °F) Niuafoou 1 February 2016[145]
 Vanuatu 36.2 °C (97.2 °F) Lamap Malekula 8 February 2016[145]
 Wallis and Futuna 35.8 °C (96.4 °F) Futuna Airport 10 January 2016[145]
 Argentina 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) Rivadavia, Salta Province[note 8] 11 December 1905[173][174][175]
 Bolivia 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) Villamontes, Tarija Department 29 October 2010[26][note 9]
 Brazil 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) Araçuaí, Minas Gerais 19 November 2023[176]
 Chile 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Quillón, Biobio Region[note 10] 26 January 2017[177][178]
 Colombia 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca 29 December 2015[179]
 French Guiana 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni 27 September 2016[145]
 Paraguay 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) Las Palmas 10 December 2022[180]
 Peru 41.6 °C (106.9 °F) Iñapari 7 October 2023[181]
 Uruguay 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Paysandú, Paysandú Department

Florida, Florida Department

20 January 1943[182][183]
14 January 2022[184]
 Venezuela 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) Santa Ana de Coro, Falcón 29 April 2015[142]

Other high-temperature records

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date Record Info
 Australia 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) Marble Bar, Western Australia 31 October 1923 to 7 April 1924 (160 days) Most consecutive days above 37.8 °C (100 °F)[185] -
 USA ( California) 93.9 °C (201.0 °F) Death Valley 15 July 1972 Highest natural ground surface temperature[7] -
 USA ( California) 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) Death Valley 9 July 1917 to 17 August 1917 (40 days) Most consecutive days above 48.9 °C (120 °F)[186] -

Humidity

Coldest

Lowest temperatures recorded

Main articles: Lowest temperature recorded on Earth and Cold wave

The lowest temperature recorded is −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), in Antarctica.

Table

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
 Algeria −13.8 °C (7.2 °F) Mécheria 28 January 2005[199]
 Burkina Faso 5.0 °C (41.0 °F) Markoye January 1975[25]
 Egypt −18.0 °C (−0.4 °F) Gabal Katrina at elevation of 2,629 m
While −6 °C in Saint Katherine City at 1,586 m. Sinai Peninsula is geologically part of the African Plate, yet geographically it's considered to be in Asia.
?[200][201]
 Botswana −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) Tsabong ?[202]
 Eswatini (Swaziland) −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) Big Bend ?[29]
 Gambia 4.0 °C (39.2 °F) Jenoi 2003[30]
 Ghana 11.0 °C (51.8 °F) Kumasi, Tafo ?[203]
 Guinea 2.5 °C (36.5 °F) Bareing 2 January 1982[204]
 Lesotho −21.0 °C (−5.8 °F) ?[205]
 Madagascar −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Antsirabe, Vakinankaratra ?[32]
 Morocco (then the French protectorate in Morocco) −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) Ifrane 11 February 1935[206]
 Niger −2.4 °C (27.7 °F) Bilma 13 January 1995[34]
 Réunion −5.0 °C (23.0 °F) Gite de Bellecome 10 September 1975[35]
 South Africa −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape 23 August 2013[207]
 Spain ( Canarias) −14.5 °C (5.9 °F) Teide, Tenerife 29 January 2018[208]
 Sudan −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Zalingei December 1961
January 1962[209]
 Antarctica −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) Vostok Station 21 July 1983[210][211][note 12]
 Afghanistan −52.2 °C (−62.0 °F) Shahrak January 1964[41]
 Armenia (then the  Armenian SSR,  Soviet Union) −42.0 °C (−43.6 °F) Paghakn and Ashocq 1961[91]
 Azerbaijan −33.0 °C (−27.4 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[212]
 Bangladesh (then the Bengal Presidency of British India) 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) Dinajpur 3 February 1905[213]
 China −53.0 °C (−63.4 °F) Mohe City, Heilongjiang 22 January 2023[214][215][216]
 Cambodia 7.0 °C (44.6 °F) Mondulkiri, Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear 29 January 2007[217]
 Hong Kong −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Tai Mo Shan 24 January 2016
 India −45.0 °C (−49.0 °F) Dras, Ladakh 9 January 1995[218]
 Indonesia −9.0 °C (15.8 °F) Dieng Plateau 24 June 2019[219]
 Iran −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Saqqez 1972[220]
 Israel(Syrian territory occupied by Israel) −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) Merom Golan 10 January 2015[221]
 Japan −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Asahikawa, Hokkaidō 25 January 1902[55]
 Jordan −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Shoubak 15 December 2013[56]
 Kazakhstan −57.0 °C (−70.6 °F) Atbasar ?[57]
 Kuwait −4.8 °C (23.4 °F) Salmy 3 January 2009[222][223]
 Kyrgyzstan −53.6 °C (−64.5 °F) Fergana Valley ?[224]
 Lebanon

−6.4 °C (20.5 °F)

Houche Al Oumara weather station January 2016[225]
 Malaysia 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) Cameron Highlands 1 February 1978[62]
 Maldives 17.2 °C (63.0 °F) Hulhulé Island, located at Ibrahim Nasir International Airport 11 April 1978[226]
 Mongolia −55.3 °C (−67.5 °F) Züüngovi, Uvs Province 31 December 1976[63][227]
 Myanmar −5.0 °C (23.0 °F) Hakha 30 December 1990[228][26]
   Nepal −45.0 °C (−49.0 °F) Sagarmatha ?[66]
 North Korea (then Japanese Korea) −43.6 °C (−46.5 °F) Chunggangjin 12 January 1933[229]
 Oman −9.7 °C (14.5 °F) Jabel Shams January 2015[230]
 Pakistan −24.0 °C (−11.2 °F) Skardu 7 January 1995[231]
 Philippines 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) Baguio 18 January 1961[69][232] [note 13]
 Qatar 1.5 °C (34.7 °F) Abu Samra 5 February 2017[27]
 Russia (first in the  Russian Empire, then in the  Russian SFSR,  Soviet Union) −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
15 January 1885

5,7 February 1892
6 February 1933
[234]

 Saudi Arabia −12.0 °C (10.4 °F) Turaif ?[235]
 Singapore 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) Paya Lebar 14 February 1989[71]
 South Korea −32.6 °C (−26.7 °F) Yangpyeong 5 January 1981[236]
 Sri Lanka −2.6 °C (27.3 °F) Nuwara Eliya 14 January 1929[237]
 Syria −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Idlib January 1951[238]
 Taiwan −18.4 °C (−1.1 °F) Yushan 31 January 1970[239][240]
 Thailand −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) Sakon Nakhon 2 January 1974[241]
 Turkey −46.4 °C (−51.5 °F) Çaldıran, Van Province 9 January 1990[81]
 Turkmenistan −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Daşoguz Region ?[82]
 United Arab Emirates −5.4 °C (22.3 °F) Jebel Jais 3 February 2017[27]
 Vietnam (then DR Vietnam) −6.1 °C (21.0 °F) Sa Pa 4 January 1974[242]
 Albania −29.0 °C (−20.2 °F) Shtylle 9 January 2017[243]
 Austria −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) Grünloch doline 19 February 1932[244]
 Belarus (then the  Byelorussian SSR,  Soviet Union) −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Slavnom, Vitebsk Region 17 January 1940[245]
 Belgium −30.1 °C (−22.2 °F) Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort 20 January 1940[246]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (then the  SR Bosnia and Herzegovina,  SFR Yugoslavia) −42.5 °C (−44.5 °F) Igman in Sarajevo Canton 24 January 1963[247]
 Bulgaria −38.3 °C (−36.9 °F) Tran 25 January 1947[98]
 Croatia −34.6 °C (−30.3 °F) Gračac 13 January 2003[248][note 14]
 Cyprus −12.8 °C (9.0 °F) Trikoukia, Prodromos 30 January 1964[249]
 Czech Republic (then part of  Czechoslovakia) −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Litvínovice 11 February 1929[101]
 Denmark −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region 8 January 1982[102]
 Estonia −43.5 °C (−46.3 °F) Jõgeva, Jõgeva County 17 January 1940[103]
 Finland −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) Pokka, Kittilä, Lapland 28 January 1999[104][250]
 France −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Mouthe, Doubs 17 January 1985[251]
 Germany −45.9 °C (−50.6 °F) Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria 24 December 2001[252]
 Greece −27.8 °C (−18.0 °F) Ptolemaida 27 January 1963[253]
 Hungary −35.0 °C (−31.0 °F) Görömbölytapolca 16 February 1940[107]
 Iceland (then Danish Iceland) −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F) Grímsstaðir 21 January 1918[108]
 Ireland (then part of the  United Kingdom) −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) Markree Castle, County Sligo 16 January 1881[110]
 Italy −49.6 °C (−57.3 °F) Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino 10 February 2013[254]
 Latvia −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) Daugavpils 8 February 1956[112]
 Lithuania −42.9 °C (−45.2 °F) Utena, Utena County 1 February 1956[116]
 Luxembourg −20.2 °C (−4.4 °F) 2 February 1956[255]
 Malta 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) Malta International Airport 29 January 1981[119][120]
 Moldova −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) Brătușeni, Edineț District 20 January 1963[121]
 Monaco −5.2 °C (22.6 °F) Monaco 10 February 1986[256]
 Netherlands (then Nazi-occupied Netherlands) −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) Winterswijk, Gelderland 27 January 1942[257]
 North Macedonia (then the  SR Macedonia,  SFR Yugoslavia) −31.5 °C (−24.7 °F) Berovo, Berovo Municipality 27 January 1954[258]
 Norway (then part of  Sweden–Norway) −51.4 °C (−60.5 °F) Karasjok, Finnmark 1 January 1886[127]
 Poland (then Nazi-occupied Poland) −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship 11 January 1940[129]
 Portugal −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
16 January 1945 and 5 February 1954[259]
 Romania −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) Bod, Brașov County 25 January 1942[260]
 Serbia −39.8 °C (−39.6 °F) Karajukića Bunari, Zlatibor District 26 January 2006[261]
 Slovakia (then  Czechoslovakia) −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Vígľaš-Pstruša 11 February 1929[134]
 Slovenia (then  SR Slovenia,  SFR Yugoslavia) −34.5 °C (−30.1 °F) Babno Polje 15 February 1956
16 February 1956
13 January 1968[note 15][262]
 Spain −32.0 °C (−25.6 °F) Estany Gento (Province of Lleida)[note 16] 2 February 1956[263]
 Sweden −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) Vuoggatjålme, Lappland 2 February 1966[137]
  Switzerland −41.8 °C (−43.2 °F) La Brévine 12 January 1987[138]
 Ukraine (then the  Ukrainian SSR,  Soviet Union) −41.9 °C (−43.4 °F) Luhansk 8 January 1935[139][264]
 United Kingdom −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
11 February 1895
10 January 1982
30 December 1995[265]
 Antigua and Barbuda 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, Antigua 31 December 1974 and 28 January 1976[143][144]
 Canada −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F) Snag, Yukon 3 February 1947[210][266]
 Cayman Islands 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman ?[267]
 Cuba 0.6 °C (33.1 °F) Bainoa, Mayabeque Province 18 February 1996[268]
 Dominican Republic −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) Valle Nuevo, La Vega Province 17 January 1983[269]
 Greenland −69.6 °C (−93.3 °F) Klinck Automated Weather Station, Greenland Ice Sheet 22 December 1991[193]
 Guatemala −11.5 °C (11.3 °F) Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango Department ?[156]
 Martinique 14.1 °C (57.4 °F) Le Lamentin 25 December 1964[158]
 Mexico −25.1 °C (−13.2 °F) Madera, Chihuahua 27 December 1997[270]
 Panama 2.0 °C (35.6 °F) Bajo Grande, Chiriquí Province 20 February 1995[161]
 Puerto Rico 4.4 °C (40 °F) Aibonito
San Sebastián
9 March 1911
24 January 1966[162]
 US Virgin Islands 10.6 °C (51 °F) Anna's Hope, Saint Croix 31 January 1954[162]
 United States
( Alaska)
−62.2 °C (−80 °F) Prospect Creek, Alaska 23 January 1971[271]
 United States
(contiguous)
−56.7 °C (−70 °F) Rogers Pass, Montana 20 January 1954[272]
 Argentina −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) Sarmiento, Chubut Province 1 June 1907[273][note 17]
 Brazil −14.0 °C (6.8 °F) Caçador, Santa Catarina 11 June 1952[274][275]
 Chile −28.5 °C (−19.3 °F) Balmaceda, Aysen Region 16 June 1958[276]
 Colombia −11.0 °C (12.2 °F) Páramo de Berlín, Tona, Santander 11 December 1974[277]
 Curaçao 18.9 °C (66.0 °F) Willemstad 12 December 2017[278]
 French Guiana 16.9 °C (62.4 °F) Maripasoula 23 January 1964[279]
 Paraguay −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 13 July 2000[280]
 Peru −25.2 °C (−13.4 °F) Mazo Cruz, Puno Region 30 June 1966[281]
 Uruguay −11.0 °C (12.2 °F) Melo, Cerro Largo Department 14 June 1967[182][183]
 Australia −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 29 June 1994[282][283]
 United States
( Hawaii)
−11.1 °C (12.0 °F) Mauna Kea, Hawaii 17 May 1979[284]
 Nauru 20.0 °C (68.0 °F) Yaren District ?[citation needed]
 New Zealand −25.6 °C (−14.1 °F) Ranfurly, Central Otago 18 July 1903[285]
 Samoa 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Afiamalu 29 September 1971[172]
 Solomon Islands 17.0 °C (62.6 °F) Rennell
Tingoa
Early June 2016
30 June 2016[286]

Other low-temperature records

Record extreme temperature differences

Precipitation

Rain

Snow

Wind speeds

Tornadoes

Main article: Tornado records

The Tri-State Tornado holds many records, including the longest known tornado track, fastest speed for a significant tornado, and the deadliest tornado outside of Bangladesh.

Deadliest in history

Outbreaks

Tropical cyclones

Main article: List of tropical cyclone records

Most intense (by minimum surface air pressure)

Most precipitation

Main article: List of wettest tropical cyclones

Other severe weather

A picture of the Aurora, Nebraska hailstone, measured at 47.6 cm (18.75 in) in circumference

Hail

Main article: List of costly or deadly hailstorms

Lightning

Ultraviolet index

Other categories

See also: List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe

The highest adjusted-to-sea-level barometric pressure ever recorded (below 750 meters) was at Agata, Evenkiyskiy, Russia (66°53′N 93°28′E / 66.883°N 93.467°E / 66.883; 93.467, elevation: 261 m (856.3 ft)) on 31 December 1968 of 1083.3 hectopascals (hPa) (31.99 inHg).[323]
The discrimination is due to the problematic assumptions (assuming a standard lapse rate) associated with reduction of sea level from high elevations.[322][323]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A reading of 50.1 °C (122.2 °F) in Vioolsdrif on 28 November 2019 was declared invalid by the South African Weather Service.[37]
  2. ^ According to Christopher Burt, Africa's hottest reliably measured temperature is 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Semara, Western Sahara on 13 July 1961.[39] This value was surpassed on 5 July 2018 when 51.3 °C (124.3 °F) was recorded at Ouargla, Algeria.[22]
  3. ^ The temperature has been reported as 54.0 °C (129.2 °F), however weather historian Christopher Burt argues that the thermograph trace was misread.[53]
  4. ^ According to the World Meteorological Organization, the reported temperature is the highest recorded in Asia.[58]
  5. ^ a b c d Part of the July 2019 European heat wave
  6. ^ A disputed record temperature of 42.9 °C (109.2 °F) was measured on 24 July 2019 in Deelen, Gelderland.[124]
  7. ^ Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0 °C.[128]
  8. ^ According to Christopher Burt, South America's hottest reliably measured temperature is 47.3 °C (117.1 °F) at Campo Gallo, Argentina on 16 October 1936.[39] Another record, of 49.1 °C (120.4 °F), registered in Villa de María del Río Seco, Córdoba Province, on 2 January 1920, is disputed and considered dubious.
  9. ^ Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
  10. ^ This record is disputed because of the forest fires that occurred around the town of Quillón. It is highly probable those fires have influenced this record.
  11. ^ The former world record was 43.3 °C (110 °F) set on 5 July 1918, in Death Valley, California.[189]
  12. ^ This temperature is considered the lowest ever officially recorded in Antarctica and in the World, as it was perceived by ground-positioned thermometers in 1983. Satellite analyses made on 10 August 2010 pointed to a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) near Dome F in Queen Maud Land, but this record is not officially listed because it was measured by remote sensing methods that are not totally consistent, unlike the 1983 temperature. See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details.
  13. ^ It is reported by local news outlet that temperatures Mount Pulag which is 2,926 meters above sea level plunges to as low as −2.0 °C (28.4 °F) although it was not verifiable.[233]
  14. ^ A reading of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) in Čakovec on 3 February 1929 and −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) in Gospić were not measured under standard conditions and are not considered to be official record lows in Croatia.[248]
  15. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).
  16. ^ The records of −34.1 °C (−29.4 °F) of Clot del Tuc de la Llança, Catalonia, and −35.4 °C (−31.7 °F) of Vega de Liordes, León, both registered in January 2021, are not recognized by AEMET.
  17. ^ the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Argentina's national meteorological organization, reports a record low of −39 °C (−38 °F) in a high mountain valley of Río de los Patos, but this is not recognized by the World Meteorological Organization.[39]

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