Marion County
Marion County Courthouse in Salem
Marion County Courthouse in Salem
Map of Oregon highlighting Marion County
Location within the U.S. state of Oregon
Map of the United States highlighting Oregon
Oregon's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 44°55′N 122°35′W / 44.91°N 122.58°W / 44.91; -122.58
Country United States
State Oregon
FoundedJuly 5, 1843
Named forFrancis Marion
SeatSalem
Largest citySalem
Area
 • Total1,194 sq mi (3,090 km2)
 • Land1,184 sq mi (3,070 km2)
 • Water10 sq mi (30 km2)  0.85%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total345,920
 • Estimate 
(2021)
347,119 Increase
 • Density267/sq mi (103/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
Congressional district5th
Websitewww.co.marion.or.us

Marion County is one of the 36 counties in the U.S. state of Oregon. The population was 345,920 at the 2020 census,[1] making it the fifth-most populous county in Oregon. The county seat is Salem,[2] which is also the state capital of Oregon. The county was originally named the Champooick District, after Champoeg (earlier Champooick[3]), a meeting place on the Willamette River. On September 3, 1849, the territorial legislature renamed it in honor of Francis Marion,[4] a Continental Army general from South Carolina who served in the American Revolutionary War.

Marion County is part of the Salem, OR Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the Willamette Valley.

History

Marion County was created by the Provisional Legislature of Oregon on July 5, 1843, as the Champooick District, one of the original four districts of the Oregon Country along with Twality (later Washington), Clackamas, and Yamhill counties. The four districts were redesignated as counties in 1845.

Originally, this political entity stretched southward to the California border and eastward to the Rocky Mountains. With the creation of Wasco, Linn, Polk, and other counties, its area was reduced in size. Marion County's present geographical boundaries were established in 1856.

In 1849, Salem was designated the county seat. The territorial capital was moved from Oregon City to Salem in 1852. The ensuing controversy over the location of the capital was settled in 1864 when Salem was confirmed as the state capital.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,193 square miles (3,090 km2), of which 1,182 square miles (3,060 km2) is land and 10 square miles (26 km2) (0.9%) is water.[5]

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18502,749
18607,088157.8%
18709,96540.6%
188014,57646.3%
189022,93457.3%
190027,71320.8%
191039,78043.5%
192047,18718.6%
193060,54128.3%
194075,24624.3%
1950101,40134.8%
1960120,88819.2%
1970151,30925.2%
1980204,69235.3%
1990228,48311.6%
2000284,83424.7%
2010315,33510.7%
2020345,9209.7%
2021 (est.)347,119[6]0.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2020[1]

2000 census

As of the census of 2000,[11] there were 284,834 people, 101,641 households, and 70,437 families living in the county. The population density was 241 people per square mile (93/km2). There were 108,174 housing units at an average density of 91 per square mile (35/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 81.62% White, 0.89% Black or African American, 1.44% Native American, 1.75% Asian, 0.36% Pacific Islander, 10.58% from other races, and 3.35% from two or more races. 17.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4% were of German, 9.2% English, 8.2% American and 7.4% Irish ancestry. 80.8% spoke English, 14.8% Spanish and 1.4% Russian as their first language.

There were 101,641 households, out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.70% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.70% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 27.40% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, and 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $40,314, and the median income for a family was $46,202. Males had a median income of $33,841 versus $26,283 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,408. About 9.60% of families and 13.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.10% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 315,335 people, 112,957 households, and 77,044 families living in the county.[12] The population density was 266.7 inhabitants per square mile (103.0/km2). There were 120,948 housing units at an average density of 102.3 per square mile (39.5/km2).[13] The racial makeup of the county was 78.2% white, 1.9% Asian, 1.6% American Indian, 1.1% black or African American, 0.7% Pacific islander, 12.6% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.3% of the population.[12] In terms of ancestry, 22.1% were German, 11.4% were English, 11.0% were Irish, and 4.7% were American.[14]

Of the 112,957 households, 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families, and 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age was 35.1 years.[12]

The median income for a household in the county was $46,069 and the median income for a family was $54,661. Males had a median income of $39,239 versus $32,288 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,915. About 11.7% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.[15]

2020 Census

The racial make up of the county was 61.8% non-Hispanic white, 1.1% African American, .9% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 4.9% of two or more races, and 27.7% Hispanic.

Law and government

Elected officials

Marion County is among the 24 of Oregon's 36 counties that operate under a board of commissioners (BOC) of three members elected countywide to 4-year terms. In Marion County these are partisan races. Commissioners, who are full-time, salaried officials, have executive, legislative, and quasi-judicial powers (the latter in land-use cases).[16] The Board of Commissioners serves as the governing body. The commissioners elect their chair annually; in practice, in Marion County the chair rotates annually. The BOC is responsible for accepting funds from sources outside the county, strategic planning, and enacting ordinances as needed to carry out plans and serve the public. The BOC also prepares a county budget in cooperation with the elected heads of the various departments. The BOC is required by law to appoint a Budget Officer who presents a budget to the Budget Committee composed of the Commissioners and three public members. County commissioners appoint and oversee non-elected department heads, officers, boards, and commissions.

In addition to the Board of Commissioners, the county has non-partisan positions that are elected in county-wide elections for four year terms: Assessor, Clerk, Treasurer, District Attorney, Sheriff, and Justices of the Peace. These officers are not accountable to the Board of Commissioners, although they work with the commissioners in establishing a county budget. All are full-time, paid county officers.[16]

Politics

Although Democrats took the presidential vote with pluralities in 1996, 2008, and 2020, no Democrat has carried a majority of the county since Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Marion County is one of 13 counties to have voted for Barack Obama in 2008, Mitt Romney in 2012, Donald Trump in 2016, and Joe Biden in 2020.[a]

United States presidential election results for Marion County, Oregon[17][18]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 79,002 47.73% 80,872 48.86% 5,660 3.42%
2016 63,377 46.31% 57,788 42.23% 15,675 11.45%
2012 60,190 50.00% 56,376 46.83% 3,810 3.17%
2008 59,059 47.41% 61,816 49.63% 3,688 2.96%
2004 69,900 53.93% 57,671 44.49% 2,048 1.58%
2000 57,443 50.68% 49,430 43.61% 6,461 5.70%
1996 46,415 43.19% 48,637 45.26% 12,411 11.55%
1992 42,145 38.20% 41,137 37.28% 27,052 24.52%
1988 45,292 51.18% 41,193 46.55% 2,007 2.27%
1984 54,535 59.79% 36,440 39.95% 234 0.26%
1980 42,191 49.38% 32,134 37.61% 11,124 13.02%
1976 35,497 49.08% 33,781 46.70% 3,053 4.22%
1972 36,441 57.51% 23,908 37.73% 3,012 4.75%
1968 30,417 54.80% 22,327 40.23% 2,758 4.97%
1964 18,897 36.90% 32,091 62.67% 221 0.43%
1960 29,124 58.28% 20,791 41.61% 55 0.11%
1956 28,990 64.19% 16,170 35.81% 0 0.00%
1952 29,887 70.41% 12,337 29.06% 224 0.53%
1948 18,997 57.27% 13,183 39.74% 991 2.99%
1944 16,176 56.56% 11,907 41.63% 518 1.81%
1940 16,940 54.25% 14,031 44.93% 256 0.82%
1936 8,595 32.97% 15,536 59.59% 1,940 7.44%
1932 8,633 39.01% 12,572 56.81% 926 4.18%
1928 11,754 61.96% 6,998 36.89% 219 1.15%
1924 8,351 52.14% 3,996 24.95% 3,669 22.91%
1920 8,798 66.16% 3,831 28.81% 669 5.03%
1916 8,316 55.48% 5,699 38.02% 973 6.49%
1912 2,523 31.21% 2,588 32.01% 2,974 36.78%
1908 3,788 57.24% 2,239 33.83% 591 8.93%
1904 4,106 70.03% 1,084 18.49% 673 11.48%
1900 3,112 54.38% 2,318 40.50% 293 5.12%
1896 3,744 50.98% 3,419 46.56% 181 2.46%
1892 2,979 49.77% 879 14.69% 2,127 35.54%
1888 2,235 54.08% 1,567 37.91% 331 8.01%
1884 2,193 56.07% 1,627 41.60% 91 2.33%
1880 2,051 59.21% 1,386 40.01% 27 0.78%


Economy

Agriculture and food processing are important to the county's economy, as are lumber, manufacturing, and education. Marion County is the leader in agricultural production among all other Oregon counties.[19] Marion County has 10,640 acres (43 km2) planted in orchards. The marionberry was named after the county. Government, however, is the county's main employer and economic base.[citation needed]

Education

Tertiary education

Marion County is the home of Willamette University, Corban University, and Chemeketa Community College.[19] All of Marion County is within the Chemeketa community college district.[20]

K-12 schools

Public K-12 school districts include:[21]

State-operated schools:

The Oregon School for the Blind closed in 2009.[22]

Bureau of Indian Education-affiliated tribal school:

Communities

Cities

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Horner, John B. (1919). Oregon: Her History, Her Great Men, Her Literature. Portland, Oregon: The J.K. Gill Co. p. 98.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 200.
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  6. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021". Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  9. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  11. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  12. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  13. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  14. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  15. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  16. ^ a b "County Government in Marion and Polk Counties (2005) - LWV of Marion and Polk Counties". marionpolk.or.lwvnet.org. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  17. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  18. ^ The leading "other" candidate, Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, received 1,919 votes, while Socialist Eugene V. Debs received 580 votes, Prohibition candidate Eugene Chafin received 475 votes.
  19. ^ a b "Marion County, Oregon".
  20. ^ "Oregon Community Colleges and Community College Districts" (PDF). Oregon Department of Community Colleges & Workforce Development. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  21. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Marion County, OR" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 20, 2022. - Text list
  22. ^ Hammond, Betsy (June 10, 2009). "Vote closes Oregon School for the Blind". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 10, 2010.

Further reading

Coordinates: 44°55′N 122°35′W / 44.91°N 122.58°W / 44.91; -122.58