Tippecanoe County
Tippecanoe County courthouse in Lafayette, Indiana
Location within the U.S. state of Indiana
Indiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 40°23′N 86°53′W / 40.39°N 86.89°W / 40.39; -86.89
Country United States
State Indiana
FoundedMarch 1, 1826
Named forKethtippecanoogi ("Place of the Succor Fish People" in Miami)
SeatLafayette
Largest cityLafayette
Area
 • Total503.24 sq mi (1,303.4 km2)
 • Land499.81 sq mi (1,294.5 km2)
 • Water3.44 sq mi (8.9 km2)  0.68%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2021)
199,562
 • Density381/sq mi (147/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district4th
Websitewww.tippecanoe.in.gov
Indiana county number 79

Tippecanoe County is located in the west-central portion of the U.S. state of Indiana about 22 miles east of the Illinois state line and less than 50 miles from the Chicagoland area and the Indianapolis metro area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 172,780.[1] The county seat and largest city is Lafayette.[2] It was created in 1826 from Wabash County portion of New Purchase and unorganized territory.[3]

Tippecanoe County was formed March 1, 1826, and named for the anglicization of "Kethtippecanoogi", a Miami people term meaning "place of the succor fish people."[4] The county is best known for Purdue University, the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, and the Tippecanoe County Courthouse, a structure built in 1881 and included in the National Register of Historic Places.

Tippecanoe County is part of the Lafayette, Indiana, Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

Further information: History of Indiana and Lafayette, Indiana § History

The history of Tippecanoe County spans six distinct political and cultural periods: Native American lands from at least 8000BC, including the Mississippian culture, French occupation (part of New France beginning in the 1670s), British occupation starting in 1763, part of the United States Northwest Territory in 1787, part of Indiana Territory in 1800, and finally part of the State of Indiana in 1816. The political organization of the county began in 1826 by the act of the Indiana Legislature.

The first European explorers arrived in the 1670s and the first permanent settlement was Fort Ouiatenon by the French established in 1717. Lafayette was platted in 1825 and Purdue University founded in 1869.

Geography

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 503.24 square miles (1,303.4 km2), of which 499.81 square miles (1,294.5 km2) (or 99.32%) is land and 3.44 square miles (8.9 km2) (or 0.68%) is water.[5] The county's highest point is in the Lauramie Township.[6]

Adjacent counties

Communities

The county courthouse and nearby buildings along the Wabash River in Lafayette and West Lafayette
The county courthouse and nearby buildings along the Wabash River in Lafayette and West Lafayette
The view northeast into the town of Battle Ground
The view northeast into the town of Battle Ground

Cities

Towns

Census-designated places

Other unincorporated places

Extinct

Townships

A freight train approaches the town of South Raub on the border of Randolph and Wea Townships.
A freight train approaches the town of South Raub on the border of Randolph and Wea Townships.

Climate and weather

Lafayette, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
1.8
 
 
33
17
 
 
1.6
 
 
39
22
 
 
2.9
 
 
50
31
 
 
3.5
 
 
62
40
 
 
3.9
 
 
74
51
 
 
4.2
 
 
83
60
 
 
3.8
 
 
86
65
 
 
3.9
 
 
84
63
 
 
2.7
 
 
78
55
 
 
2.6
 
 
66
43
 
 
2.8
 
 
51
34
 
 
2.6
 
 
38
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[8]

In recent years, temperatures in Lafayette have ranged from an average low of 17 °F (−8 °C) in January to a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July, although a record low of −23 °F (−31 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded in June 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.58 inches (40 mm) inches in February to 4.24 inches (108 mm) inches in June.[8]

Transportation

Highways

Railroads

Three different railroad lines intersect in Tippecanoe County, all running through the Lafayette area. CSX Transportation operates a north–south line; Norfolk Southern Railway operates a southwest-to-northeast line,[9] and the Kankakee, Beaverville and Southern Railroad operates a daily-service line running from the northwest to the southeast.

The Amtrak Cardinal stops at the Lafayette Station 3 times a week, and is the only provider of passenger rail service to Greater Lafayette.

Airport

The county contains one public-use airport: Purdue University Airport (LAF) in West Lafayette, Indiana.[10]

Government

See also: Government of Indiana

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, and by the Indiana Code.

County Council: The county council is the fiscal branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. The county council and the board of commissioners share legislative authority.[11] Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.[12][13]

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.[12][13]

Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[13]

County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[13]

Politics

In the 2008 Democratic primary, Tippecanoe County was one of 10 (out of 92) Indiana counties to give the majority of its votes to Barack Obama.[14] In the 2008 Presidential election, Tippecanoe County was one of 15 Indiana counties to give the majority of its votes to Obama/Biden. Thanks to the sizable support of Purdue University students, Tippecanoe County played a pivotal role in Barack Obama's upset win in Indiana (49.9%-49.0%; 1,367,264 votes to 1,341,101 votes) by supporting the Democratic ticket of Barack Obama/Joe Biden 55.1%-43.5% over the Republican ticket of John McCain/Sarah Palin.[15] However, in the 2020 Presidential election, Tippecanoe County also voted for Democrat Joe Biden by a margin of 436 votes, the first time since 2008 the county went for the Democrats.

Historically, Tippecanoe has been somewhat conservative for a county dominated by a college town. While most such counties swung hard to the Democrats in the 1990s Obama's win in 2008 was only the fourth time it went Democratic in a presidential election since 1888.

Tippecanoe County is one of only twelve counties to have voted for Obama in 2008, Romney in 2012, Trump in 2016, and Biden in 2020.[a]

United States presidential election results for Tippecanoe County, Indiana[16]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 34,581 48.40% 35,017 49.01% 1,850 2.59%
2016 30,768 48.58% 27,282 43.07% 5,289 8.35%
2012 28,757 50.40% 26,711 46.81% 1,595 2.80%
2008 29,822 43.45% 37,781 55.05% 1,033 1.51%
2004 30,897 59.01% 20,818 39.76% 645 1.23%
2000 26,106 56.39% 18,220 39.36% 1,969 4.25%
1996 22,556 49.48% 17,232 37.80% 5,798 12.72%
1992 23,050 45.79% 17,343 34.46% 9,941 19.75%
1988 27,897 62.88% 16,256 36.64% 211 0.48%
1984 29,706 64.75% 15,789 34.42% 381 0.83%
1980 27,589 56.92% 14,636 30.20% 6,245 12.88%
1976 29,186 61.33% 17,850 37.51% 551 1.16%
1972 31,565 68.08% 14,598 31.48% 203 0.44%
1968 24,352 59.44% 14,528 35.46% 2,088 5.10%
1964 19,036 48.35% 20,257 51.45% 79 0.20%
1960 24,572 63.55% 14,041 36.31% 55 0.14%
1956 23,776 70.25% 9,995 29.53% 72 0.21%
1952 23,447 70.53% 9,678 29.11% 121 0.36%
1948 17,034 60.60% 10,825 38.51% 248 0.88%
1944 15,888 60.61% 10,229 39.02% 95 0.36%
1940 16,148 56.96% 12,129 42.78% 73 0.26%
1936 13,081 50.08% 12,732 48.74% 309 1.18%
1932 11,818 46.05% 13,609 53.03% 236 0.92%
1928 15,165 63.25% 8,720 36.37% 93 0.39%
1924 12,161 58.40% 7,619 36.59% 1,043 5.01%
1920 12,730 61.68% 7,562 36.64% 347 1.68%
1916 6,386 54.73% 4,918 42.15% 365 3.13%
1912 3,006 28.22% 4,442 41.70% 3,205 30.09%
1908 6,164 53.42% 4,984 43.19% 391 3.39%
1904 6,581 59.83% 4,031 36.65% 388 3.53%
1900 6,317 56.29% 4,673 41.64% 232 2.07%
1896 6,239 56.77% 4,639 42.21% 111 1.01%
1892 4,856 51.10% 4,386 46.15% 261 2.75%
1888 5,072 53.39% 4,281 45.06% 147 1.55%


Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18307,187
184013,72491.0%
185019,37741.2%
186025,72632.8%
187033,51530.3%
188035,9667.3%
189035,078−2.5%
190038,65910.2%
191040,0633.6%
192042,8136.9%
193047,53511.0%
194051,0207.3%
195074,47346.0%
196089,12219.7%
1970109,37822.7%
1980121,70211.3%
1990130,5987.3%
2000148,95514.1%
2010172,78016.0%
2019 (est.)195,732[17]13.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[18]
1790-1960[19] 1900-1990[20]
1990-2000[21] 2010-2019[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 172,780 people, 65,532 households, and 37,003 families residing in the county.[22] The population density was 345.7 inhabitants per square mile (133.5/km2). There were 71,096 housing units at an average density of 142.2 per square mile (54.9/km2).[5] The racial makeup of the county was 84.0% white, 6.2% Asian, 4.0% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 3.3% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.5% of the population.[22] In terms of ancestry, 27.5% were German, 13.9% were Irish, 10.8% were English, and 6.1% were American.[23]

Of the 65,532 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.5% were non-families, and 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 27.7 years.[22]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $60,367. Males had a median income of $45,018 versus $31,995 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,203. About 10.3% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over.[24]

Education

Public schools in rural/suburban Tippecanoe County are administered by the Tippecanoe School Corporation, while those in the cities are under either the Lafayette School Corporation or West Lafayette Community School Corporation. Purdue and Ivy Tech each have campuses at other sites in Indiana.

Libraries

Universities and colleges

High Schools

Middle Schools/Junior High Schools

Elementary Schools

Private Schools

Economy

Much of the economy of Tippecanoe County is centered in its two largest communities: Lafayette and West Lafayette. Purdue University is by far the largest employer in the county, but private industry and commerce independent of the university also employ many others. Major employers include Subaru-Indiana Automotive, Wabash National, Caterpillar, Fairfield Manufacturing, Franciscan St. Elizabeth Health, Alcoa, State Farm, and IUHealth Arnett.

Notable people

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ DeHart 1909, p. 151.
  4. ^ Kriebel, Robert C. (2000). Tippecanoe at 2000: A Hoosier County Recalls Its Past.
  5. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  6. ^ "Tippecanoe County High Point - Peakbagger.com".
  7. ^ "Ghost Towns of Tippecanoe County, Indiana".
  8. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Lafayette, Indiana". The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  9. ^ "Indiana Railroads" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
  10. ^ Public and Private Airports, Tippecanoe County, Indiana
  11. ^ "Guide to Indiana County Government" (PDF). Association of Indiana Counties. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  12. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  13. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  14. ^ "Election Center 2008: Primary Results - Elections & Politics news from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  15. ^ "2008 presidential election results".
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  17. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  18. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  19. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  20. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  21. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  22. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  23. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  24. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  25. ^ "Home - Tippecanoe County Public Library". tcpl.lib.in.us. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  26. ^ "West Lafayette Public Library - Home". wlaf.lib.in.us. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  27. ^ Stagg, Ronald J. "Lloyd, Jesse". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. University of Toronto/Université Laval.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 40°23′N 86°53′W / 40.39°N 86.89°W / 40.39; -86.89