|Townships||Pleasant, White River, Clark|
|• Mayor||Mark W. Myers (R) |
|• Total||27.91 sq mi (72.28 km2)|
|• Land||27.91 sq mi (72.28 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)|
|Elevation||813 ft (248 m)|
|• Density||2,287.24/sq mi (883.12/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0435464|
Greenwood is a city in Johnson County, Indiana, United States. The population was 63,830 at the 2020 Census. Greenwood is located between Indiana State Road 37 and Interstate 65. The city shares a border with Indianapolis and is the most populous suburban municipality in the southern portion of the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area.
The first inhabitants of the area currently known as Greenwood were the Delaware Indians (Lenape). In 1818, the Treaty of St. Mary's opened central Indiana to European American settlement, and by 1823 the first cabin in northern Johnson County was erected by settlers John B. and Isaac Smock on land now occupied by Greenwood Park Mall. Greenwood was first known as "Smocktown" or "Smock's Settlement" in honor of the Smock brothers, and became "Greenfield" in 1825. Since this clashed with another Greenfield located in Hancock County, the name of the settlement was changed to "Greenwood" in 1833.
Greenwood was incorporated as a town under Indiana law in 1864.
Greenwood was an early and key cog in the Electric Indianapolis Interurban Railway System. In 1895, Henry L. Smith proposed and organized the Indianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin Company and graded the line to Greenwood. The Indianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin Railway was opened between Indianapolis and Greenwood on January 1, 1900, and, according to Indianapolis historian Jacob Piatt Dunn, was the Hoosier capital's first real interurban electric railway. The railway followed what is now Madison Avenue.
The J.T. Polk Canning Company was essential to Greenwood's early growth. The cannery was a major employer and canned a variety of vegetables grown in Indiana. Later, the company expanded into the dairy market and provided milk delivery to customers. At one point the cannery was the largest canning operation west of Baltimore. The cannery was eventually purchased by the Stokely-Van Camp company and retained operations in Greenwood until the 1950s. Portions of the cannery are still standing on Main Street and have been repurposed for professional office space.
Greenwood became a fifth-class city in 1960.
In 1965, an Indiana Civil Rights Commission report found that Greenwood had recently been one of 19 sundown towns in Indiana, where African Americans were not allowed to live or stay after dark. The city had been exclusively white since the 1920s.
Greenwood Commercial Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. This district encompasses 25 buildings and 3.2 acres (1.3 hectares).
In 2010, the Greenwood City Council approved a measure to change the official status of Greenwood to second-class city in accordance with Indiana Code Title 36, Article 4, Chapter 1.
Greenwood is in northern Johnson County and occupies the northern half of Pleasant Township and the northeast portion of White River Township. The easternmost edge of Greenwood extends into Clark Township. It is bordered to the southwest by Bargersville, to the south by Whiteland and New Whiteland, and to the north, in Marion County, by the city of Indianapolis. Greenwood is 11 miles (18 km) south of Downtown Indianapolis and 12 miles (19 km) north of Franklin, the Johnson county seat.
According to the 2020 census, Greenwood has a total area of 27.91 square miles (72.29 km2), of which 27.91 square miles (72.29 km2) (or 100%) is land and 0.00 square miles (0.00 km2) (or 0%) is water.
Greenwood's mean elevation is 813 feet (248 m) above sea level. The city's topography is flat to gently rolling.
There are no navigable bodies of water within city limits. Several creeks run through the area and influence local drainage patterns, topography, and storm water management systems. Pleasant Run Creek flows from east to west across the northern half of the city, leading 5 miles (8 km) to the White River. Several municipal parks occupy the lowlands next to the creek. Grassy Creek and Tracy Ditch flow south from the city, connecting Greenwood to the towns of New Whiteland, Whiteland, and Franklin. Honey Creek originates in the southwest section of the city and after flowing through White River Township eventually joins the White River near the intersection of Smith Valley Road and Highway 37.
Greenwood's climate is classified as warm temperate (Cfa) by the Köppen-Geiger system, with an average annual temperature of 53.6 °F (12.0 °C). About 45 inches (1,100 mm) of precipitation falls annually, distributed fairly evenly throughout the year.
|Climate data for Greenwood|
|Average high °F (°C)||37.2
|Daily mean °F (°C)||28.9
|Average low °F (°C)||22.6
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7||7||8||9||10||9||9||7||6||6||7||8||93|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||67||67||66||67||68||69||67||63||65||70||72||68|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||4.8||5.6||7.1||8.5||9.7||10.7||10.7||10.1||8.8||7.2||6.1||4.7||7.8|
Main Article: Parks
Over the years, Greenwood has constructed 17 parks that span upwards of 400 acres of land; furthermore, amongst these parks, there are more than 20 lineal miles of trailways for walking and biking, and many of them run through green spaces and wooded areas. Some of the parks, such as City Center Park or Freedom Park, provide children with the opportunity to have outdoor activity through amenities spanning anywhere from slides to splash pads.
According to Greenwood's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, there were 209.6 miles (337.3 km) of public streets within the city limits as of 2015.
Major east-west arterial routes in Greenwood are not numbered and include County Line Road, Fry Road, Main Street, Smith Valley Road, Stop 18 Road, and Worthsville Road. Greenwood's system of east-west streets and roads link residents and businesses in White River Township with the business and neighborhoods adjacent to Interstate 65.
Most major north-south corridors in Greenwood are numbered and are not property of the city. U.S. 31, State Road 135, and Interstate 65 serve as the major north-south routes in the city. Greenwood owns and maintain three secondary corridors east of U.S. 31: Madison Avenue connects the Greenwood Park Mall to the Old Town Historic District; Emerson Avenue serves as a major commercial and business corridor and connects St. Francis Hospital in Indianapolis to Smith Valley Road; and Graham Road, located east of Interstate 65, connects County Line Road to Worthsville Road and serves several large distribution centers.
As of 2019, three exits connect Greenwood to Interstate 65. The most recently constructed interchange, Exit 97 (Worthsville Road), features a diverging diamond traffic design. It is one of two such installations in Indiana. The remaining two interchanges, Exit 99 (Main Street) and Exit 101 (County Line Road), use conventional diamond and parclo A4 configurations, respectively. All three interchanges serve major commercial and industrial zones in the city.
Freight rail service is provided by the Louisville and Indiana Railroad (LIRC). The LIRC line traverses Greenwood from north to south and roughly parallels U.S. 31 and Interstate 65.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 49,791 people, 19,615 households, and 12,845 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,345.3 inhabitants per square mile (905.5/km2). There were 21,339 housing units at an average density of 1,005.1 per square mile (388.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.1% White, 1.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.
There were 19,615 households, of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 34.5% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.09.
The median age in the city was 34 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.8% were from 25 to 44; 23.1% were from 45 to 64; and 11.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 36,037 people, 14,931 households, and 9,600 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,524.8 people per square mile (975.0/km2). There were 16,042 housing units at an average density of 1,123.9 per square mile (434.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 96.54% White, 0.44% African American, 0.19% Native American, 1.36% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.91% of the population.
There were 14,931 households, out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.7% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.3% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,176, and the median income for a family was $57,298. Males had a median income of $40,291 versus $28,936 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,003. About 4.6% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over
According to the Johnson County Chamber of Commerce's Labor Force Report, in 2020 Greenwood had a total of 2,803 business establishments, employing 27,865 individuals. The principal employers in the city by NAICS category are:
|Rank||NAICS Category||# of employees||% of total employment|
|1||Food Services and Drinking Places||3,818||13.70%|
|2||General Merchandise Stores||1,850||6.64%|
|4||Health and Personal Care Stores||1,209||4.34%|
|5||Clothing and Clothing Accessories||993||3.56%|
|6||Elementary and Secondary Schools||961||3.45%|
|7||Personal Care Services||951||3.41%|
|9||Motor Vehicle and Parts Dealers||785||2.82%|
|10||Food and Beverage Stores||696||2.50%|
Greenwood is home to the headquarters or other major facilities for several large businesses. The U.S. headquarters for Swiss process automation company Endress+Hauser is located in the southern portion of the city, immediately east of US 31 between Worthsville Road and Pushville Road. In 2014, the company completed construction of a new 80,000,000 square feet (7,400,000 m2) customer center on its Greenwood Campus. Nachi Fujikoshi's subsidiary Nachi America Inc., a producer of machine tools, maintains its corporate campus and manufacturing facilities on Pushville Road in Greenwood. Amazon operates a fulfillment center near Worthsville Road and Interstate 65 that employs around 1,000 people. In late 2020, power tool manufacturer Milwaukee Electric Tool established its second U.S. service hub at Greenwood's Southtech Business Park; the facility commenced operations in May 2021.
Four craft breweries are located within Greenwood. Oaken Barrel Brewing Co. has called Greenwood home since its opening in 1994. Oaken Barrel is the second oldest brewpub in Indiana. Planetary Brewing established a production center and tasting room for Greenwood customers in 2013. The city is also home to Mashcraft Brewing Company. Mashcraft operates a taproom on State Road 135. Hoosier Brewing Company is located on South Madison Avenue in Old Town.
91.1% of Greenwood residents are high school graduates or higher. 31.1% of residents have attained a bachelor's degree or higher.
Three public school corporations serve Greenwood residents: Greenwood Community School Corporation, Clark-Pleasant Community School Corporation, and Center Grove Community School Corporation.
The city is served by the Greenwood Public Library. The Johnson County Public Library also operates a separate branch within Greenwood city limits.
The progressive city of Greenwood is one of 19 Indiana communities that once had an unwritten 'sundown law' forbidding Negroes to be in town after dark according to the Indiana Civil Rights Commission. ... The Civil Rights Commission noted that several Negroes lived in Greenwood until the 1920s. Several were highly respected and one graduated from Greenwood high school. Since then the town has been exclusively white.
A Study of "Sundown Ordinances" in Nineteen Indiana Towns and Cities.