Porter County
Porter County Courthouse in Valparaiso
Motto(s): 
"Front Porch of the Dunes"
Location within the U.S. state of Indiana
Indiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°51′N 87°07′W / 41.850°N 87.117°W / 41.850; -87.117Coordinates: 41°51′N 87°07′W / 41.850°N 87.117°W / 41.850; -87.117
Country United States
State Indiana
Founded5 February 1836 (authorized)
1837 (organized)
Named forDavid Porter
SeatValparaiso
Largest cityPortage
Area
 • Total521.8 sq mi (1,351 km2)
 • Land418.2 sq mi (1,083 km2)
 • Water103.6 sq mi (268 km2)  19.9%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2020)
173,215
 • Density407.4/sq mi (157.3/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district1st
WebsiteOfficial Porter County website
Indiana county number 64

Porter County is a county in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of 2020, the population was 173,215, making it the 10th most populous county in Indiana.[1] The county seat is Valparaiso.[2] The county is part of Northwest Indiana, as well as the Chicago metropolitan area. Porter County is the site of much of the Indiana Dunes, an area of ecological significance.[3][4][5] The Hour Glass Museum in Ogden Dunes documents the region's ecological significance.[6]

History

The Porter County area was occupied by an Algonquian people dubbed Huber-Berrien.[7] This subsistence culture arrived after the glaciers retreated around 15,000 years ago and the rise of glacial Lake Algonquian, 4–8,000 years ago.[8] The native people of this area were next recorded during the Iroquois Wars (1641–1701) as being Potawatomi and Miami. The trading post system used by the French and then the English encouraged native people to live in central villages along major waterways. Therefore, there are no recorded villages within Porter County's current boundaries. It was not until 1830 when Chiqua's town and Tassinong appear on maps and in records.[7] Chiqua's town is a mile east of Valparaiso on State Route 2, the old Sauk Trail. Tassinong is south of Valparaiso about 5 miles (8.0 km) on State Route 49 at Baum's Bridge Road, the main route across the Great Kankakee Marsh.[9]

After the American Revolutionary War established US sovereignty over the territory of the upper midwest, the new federal government defined the Northwest Territory in 1787 which included the area of present-day Indiana. In 1800, Congress separated Ohio from the Northwest Territory, designating the rest of the land as the Indiana Territory. President Thomas Jefferson chose William Henry Harrison as the governor of the territory, and Vincennes was established as the capital. After the Michigan Territory was separated and the Illinois Territory was formed, Indiana was reduced to its current size and geography. By December 1816 the Indiana Territory was admitted to the Union as a state.

The Indiana State Legislature passed an omnibus county bill[10] on 7 February 1835 that authorized the creation of thirteen counties in northeast Indiana, including Porter.[11] In 1837 the county was organized. It was named for Capt. David Porter, naval officer during the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812.[12][13]

In 1962, Bethlehem Steel built a large integrated steel mill on the shores of Lake Michigan, which is now owned and operated by ArcelorMittal. The construction of the mill, as well as the neighboring Port of Indiana, generated enormous controversy between industrial interests and locals who wanted to conserve the natural shoreline and habitat. Although the activists lost and the steel mill and port were constructed, the US Congress created the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in 1966 to protect the area's unique natural habitat.[14]

Geography

Porter County lies on the northern edge of Indiana; its north border is formed by Lake Michigan and its south border is formed by the westward-flowing Kankakee River Its once-tree-covered low rolling hills have been cleared and devoted to agriculture; the only exceptions in Porter County are the drainages carved into the terrain, which are brush-filled. The East Arm Little Calumet River flows westward through the upper portion of Porter County.[15] The highest point, at 870 feet (270 m),[16] is a small hill on the county's east border, 2.75 miles (4.4 km) NW of Westville. The lowest point, at approximately 585 feet (178 m), is along the Lake Michigan shoreline (exact elevation varies due to variation in lake level). According to the 2010 census, the county has an area of 521.78 square miles (1,351.4 km2), of which 418.15 square miles (1,083.0 km2) (or 80.14%) is land and 103.63 square miles (268.4 km2) (or 19.9%) is water,[17] most of it in Lake Michigan.

Adjacent counties

Protected areas

Major highways

Railroads

Amtrak's Wolverine passing through Porter, Indiana
Amtrak's Wolverine passing through Porter, Indiana

Municipalities

See also: Lost communities of Porter County, Indiana

Franklin Street, east side of the Courthouse Square, Valparaiso
Franklin Street, east side of the Courthouse Square, Valparaiso
Calumet Avenue downtown Chesterton
Calumet Avenue downtown Chesterton

The municipalities in Porter County and their populations as of the 2010 Census:

Cities

Towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Townships

The 12 townships of Porter County and their populations as of the 2010 Census:

Education

Valparaiso University Chapel
Valparaiso University Chapel

Colleges and Universities

Public School Districts

Public schools in Porter County are administered by several districts, most of which cover areas that roughly follow the county's township boundaries:

High Schools and Middle Schools

Elementary Schools

Public libraries

The county is served by two public library systems:

Hospitals

Climate and weather

Valparaiso, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
2.1
 
 
30
15
 
 
1.8
 
 
36
20
 
 
2.9
 
 
47
29
 
 
3.6
 
 
60
38
 
 
3.9
 
 
71
49
 
 
4.7
 
 
80
58
 
 
3.8
 
 
83
63
 
 
3.9
 
 
81
61
 
 
3.7
 
 
74
54
 
 
3.2
 
 
63
43
 
 
3.6
 
 
48
33
 
 
2.9
 
 
35
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[21]

In recent years, average temperatures in Valparaiso have ranged from a low of 15 °F (−9 °C) in January to a high of 83 °F (28 °C) in July, although a record low of −25 °F (−32 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded in July 1934. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.82 inches (46 mm) in February to 4.66 inches (118 mm) in June.[21]

Government

See also: Government of Indiana

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code.

County Council: The legislative branch of the county government; controls spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected to four-year terms from county districts. They set salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes.[22][23]

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county; commissioners are elected county-wide, to staggered four-year terms. One commissioner serves as president. The commissioners execute acts legislated by the council, collect revenue and manage the county government.[22][23]

Court: The county maintains a small claims court that handles civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[23]

County Officials: The county has other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk. These officials are elected to four-year terms. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[23]

Porter County is part of Indiana's 1st congressional district. In state government, Porter County is in Indiana Senate districts 4th, 5th and 6th; in Indiana House of Representatives districts 3rd, 4th, 10th, 19th and 20th.

For most of its history, Porter County was a Republican Party stronghold in presidential elections. It has become a swing county in recent years, voting for the national winner in every presidential election since 1980 except for 1992 and 2020.

Presidential election results
Presidential election results[24]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 52.0% 45,008 46.0% 39,746 2.0% 1,755
2016 49.6% 38,832 43.0% 33,676 7.3% 5,745
2012 46.9% 34,406 50.8% 37,252 2.2% 1,645
2008 45.6% 33,857 52.8% 39,178 1.6% 1,211
2004 53.6% 34,794 45.3% 29,388 1.1% 691
2000 52.5% 31,157 45.1% 26,790 2.4% 1,431
1996 42.0% 22,931 44.0% 24,044 14.0% 7,621
1992 39.7% 22,644 36.8% 21,022 23.5% 13,401
1988 60.4% 29,790 39.3% 19,390 0.3% 165
1984 64.1% 32,505 35.2% 17,862 0.6% 315
1980 64.2% 30,055 27.5% 12,869 8.3% 3,892
1976 59.8% 25,489 38.6% 16,468 1.6% 701
1972 74.6% 26,877 24.8% 8,943 0.6% 210
1968 53.2% 17,328 27.4% 8,914 19.5% 6,340
1964 52.5% 14,480 47.0% 12,975 0.6% 152
1960 59.2% 15,666 40.5% 10,733 0.3% 75
1956 72.7% 14,970 27.1% 5,574 0.2% 45
1952 68.8% 13,194 30.8% 5,909 0.5% 87
1948 62.2% 8,907 36.1% 5,161 1.8% 250
1944 60.5% 8,561 39.1% 5,528 0.4% 57
1940 58.4% 8,270 41.2% 5,840 0.4% 51
1936 52.6% 6,278 46.6% 5,560 0.8% 98
1932 49.5% 5,631 48.7% 5,542 1.8% 209
1928 70.4% 7,107 29.0% 2,921 0.6% 62
1924 67.8% 5,613 19.8% 1,640 12.5% 1,031
1920 72.7% 5,570 21.8% 1,671 5.5% 423
1916 59.2% 2,913 38.0% 1,871 2.8% 135
1912 35.3% 1,510 31.6% 1,352 33.1% 1,418
1908 59.9% 2,940 36.4% 1,789 3.7% 181
1904 66.4% 3,162 30.2% 1,437 3.4% 164
1900 59.5% 2,797 39.3% 1,848 1.2% 57
1896 58.1% 2,853 41.2% 2,026 0.7% 35
1892 49.7% 2,187 44.0% 1,937 6.2% 274
1888 52.8% 2,427 43.9% 2,018 3.3% 150

County elected officials

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18402,162
18505,234142.1%
186010,31397.0%
187013,94235.2%
188017,22723.6%
189018,0524.8%
190019,1756.2%
191020,5407.1%
192020,256−1.4%
193022,82112.7%
194027,83622.0%
195040,07644.0%
196060,27950.4%
197087,11444.5%
1980119,81637.5%
1990128,9327.6%
2000146,79813.9%
2010164,34312.0%
2019 (est.)170,389[27]3.7%
US Decennial Census[28]
1790-1960[29] 1900-1990[30]
1990-2000[31] 2010-2019[1]

2010 Census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 164,343 people, 61,998 households, and 43,901 families in the county.[32] The population density was 393.0 inhabitants per square mile (151.7/km2). There were 66,179 housing units at an average density of 158.3 per square mile (61.1/km2).[17] The racial makeup of the county was 91.3% white, 3.0% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.3% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.5% of the population.[32] In terms of ancestry, 29.1% were German, 18.5% were Irish, 10.1% were Polish, 9.7% were English, 5.8% were Italian, and 5.6% were American.[33]

Of the 61,998 households, 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, and 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 38.4 years.[32]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $73,065. Males had a median income of $59,542 versus $35,534 for females. The per capita income for the county was $27,922. About 6.6% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.[34]

Porter County Cemeteries

Main article: Cemeteries of Porter County, Indiana

Maplewood Cemetery, next to Graceland in Valparaiso, has burials from the 1700s. The Bailly Cemetery was started in 1827.[38] Additional cemeteries were created as the population grew. Early cemeteries were often family owned or church related. As communities grew, community cemeteries developed. The newest cemetery in the county is Angel Crest Cemetery north of Valparaiso, near Indiana State Road 49.

Porter County Parks

Porter County has grown from a single park, Sunset Hill Farm County Park, to four, including: Calumet Trail, Dunn's Bridge County Park, and the newest, Brinkca-Cross Gardens.[39]

Cultural Activities

Museums

Live Theater

See also

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Other = Combined percentages for American Indian or Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; other races; and two or more races
  2. ^ a b Population is 3,097 within Porter County; 3,936 reside in Lake County

References

  1. ^ a b "Porter County QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2006). Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: Preservationists of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2009)
  5. ^ The Historical Roots of the Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation. The South Shore Journal, 3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Smith, S. & Mark, S. (2007). The cultural impact of a museum in a small community: The Hour Glass of Ogden Dunes. The South Shore Journal, 2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ a b Tanner, Helen Hornbeck, Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History; University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma (1987) Map 5
  8. ^ Hough, Jack L., Geology of the Great Lakes; University of Illinois Press, Urbana (1958) p. 276
  9. ^ Shults-Gay, Deborah H., One of the Earliest Authentic Histories of Porter County, Indiana; From 1832 to 1876 (circa 1917)
  10. ^ John W Tyndall & OE Lesh, Standard history of Adams and Wells Counties, Indiana. pp. 284-6 (accessed 9 August 2020)
  11. ^ The counties are Dekalb, Fulton, Jasper, Jay, Kosciusko, Marshall, Newton, Porter, Pulaski, Stark, Steuben, Wells, and Whitley. Newton County was merged with Jasper County in 1839, and was re-authorized as a separate county in 1859.
  12. ^ Baker, Ronald L.; Marvin Carmony (1995). Indiana Place Names. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-253-28340-X.
  13. ^ De Witt Clinton Goodrich & Charles Richard Tuttle (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indiana: R. S. Peale & co. p. 570.
  14. ^ "The Modern History of the Burns Harbor Steel Mill". NWI Steel Heritage Museum. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  15. ^ a b Porter County IN (Google Maps, accessed 24 August 2020)
  16. ^ (PeakBagger.com, accessed 24 August 2020)
  17. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  18. ^ "Porter County Public Library". Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  19. ^ "Westchester Public Library". Retrieved June 27, 2014.
  20. ^ "Porter Health Care System". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  21. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Valparaiso IN". The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  22. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". IN.gov. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  23. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  24. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  25. ^ "Commissioners". Porter County. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  26. ^ Official Porter County website
  27. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  28. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  29. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  30. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  31. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  32. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  33. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the US – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  34. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  35. ^ US Census Bureau. American Community Survey, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics 2010, Table DP-1, 2010 Demographic Profile Data. U.S. Census website. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  36. ^ US Census Bureau. 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table DP03, Selected Economic Charactaristics. US Census website. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  37. ^ US Census Bureau. 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table DP04, Selected Housing Charactaristics. US Census website. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  38. ^ Bailly Cemetery, at Baileytown, near Porter, Westchester Township, Porter County Indiana; Cemetery of the Pioneer family of Honore Gratien Joseph Bailly de Messein and Marie LeFevre, Burials 1827 to 1918; compiled by Olga Mae Schiemann; Chicago, Illinois; 1952
  39. ^ "Porter County Parks and Recreation". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  40. ^ "Porter County Parks and Recreation - Binkca-Cross Gardens". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  41. ^ "Porter County Parks and Recreation - Calumet Trail". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  42. ^ "Porter County Parks and Recreation - Dunn's Bridge County Park". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  43. ^ "Porter County Parks and Recreation - Sunset Hill Farm County Park". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i Indiana Dunes Country Activities Guide, The Official Guide to Porter County, Indiana; The Indiana Dunes: 2015, p. 19
  45. ^ a b c d e f Indiana Dunes Country Activities Guide, The Official Guide to Porter County, Indiana; The Indiana Dunes: 2015, pp. 22-23