Lake County
Lake County Courthouse in Waukegan
Lake County Courthouse in Waukegan
Flag of Lake County
Official seal of Lake County
Official logo of Lake County
Map of Illinois highlighting Lake County
Location within the U.S. state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 42°26′N 87°47′W / 42.43°N 87.78°W / 42.43; -87.78
Country United States
State Illinois
FoundedMarch 1, 1839
Named forLake Michigan
Largest cityWaukegan
 • Total1,368 sq mi (3,540 km2)
 • Land444 sq mi (1,150 km2)
 • Water925 sq mi (2,400 km2)  67.6%
 • Total714,342
 • Estimate 
711,239 Decrease
 • Density520/sq mi (200/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districts5th, 9th, 10th, 11th

Lake County is situated in the northeastern corner of the U.S. state of Illinois, along the shores of Lake Michigan. As of the 2020 census, it has a population of 714,342,[1] making it the third-most populous county in Illinois. Its county seat is Waukegan, the tenth-largest city in Illinois.[2] The county is primarily suburban, with some urban areas and some rural areas. Due to its location, immediately north of Cook County, Lake County is one of the collar counties of the Chicago metropolitan area. Its northern boundary is the Wisconsin state line.

According to the 2010 census, Lake County is the second wealthiest county in the state by per capita income, after DuPage County. Additionally, Lake County ranks as the 27th wealthiest county in the nation. The county includes the affluent North Shore communities of Lake Forest, Lake Bluff, and Highland Park, and much of the county's wealth is concentrated in this area, as well as in communities bordering Cook County to the south and McHenry County to the west. The north and northwest areas of the county, though historically rural and exurban, have experienced rapid suburbanization in the past three decades, while the lakefront communities of Waukegan, North Chicago, and Zion are post-industrial areas that have majority-minority populations. The Hispanic population has seen significant increases in nearly all areas of the county and comprise 24% of the county's population in 2020.

Naval Station Great Lakes is located in the city of North Chicago. It is the United States Navy's Headquarters Command for training, and the Navy's only recruit training center.


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The Caspar Ott Cabin, built in 1837, is the oldest structure in Lake County.
Lake County at the time of its creation in 1839

The county, which was primarily unsettled prairie and was still home to its native Potawatomi Indians, was created by the Illinois State Legislature in 1839. At that time, Libertyville, then known as Independence Grove, was the first county seat. In 1841, however, the county's residents voted to move the county government to Little Fort, now Waukegan, where the commissioners had purchased a section of land from the state. Lake County's first courthouse was built on part of that land in 1844 and the remainder was sold to pay for the $4,000 construction cost.

The county's first courthouse was used solely for court sessions and the jail, but in 1853, commissioners constructed a building to accommodate county administration offices and house records. When fire damaged the courthouse on October 19, 1875, the county records were saved because they were in the adjacent building.

After the fire, proposals were made to move the county seat to Highland Park, Libertyville or another site in central Lake County. The county commissioners, however, decided to rebuild in Waukegan. The east half of the building was reconstructed at a cost of $45,000. In 1895, the first jail building was added to the government complex and a west addition was added to the courthouse in 1922. By 1938, county commissioners saw a need for additional space and approved the addition of a 5th Floor. This courthouse, however, was demolished in 1967 to make room for a new high-rise administration building, which was completed with the addition of the jail in 1969 and courts in 1970.

Shortly thereafter, the Lake County Board commissioned the construction of a multi-faceted justice facility and ground was broken in 1986 for the Robert H. Babcox Justice Center, named in memory of Sheriff Babcox, who served as Lake County Sheriff from 1982 to 1988. The justice center, which houses the county jail, work release program, sheriff's administration offices and three courtrooms, was finished in 1989 at a cost of $29.6 million.

Additional county government facilities have been built or expanded throughout Lake County, including the Coroner's Office, Health Department/Community Health Center facilities, Division of Transportation, Public Works and Winchester House. Lake County government services extend throughout the county's 470 square miles (1,200 km2).

The historic Half Day Inn, a tavern/restaurant, was constructed in 1843. This structure, once located at the corner of Milwaukee Avenue and Rte. 45/Old Half Day Road, was one of the oldest structures in Lake County until it was demolished in 2007 to make way for retail space, condominiums, and a retention pond.


A satellite view of the Lake County district

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,368 square miles (3,540 km2), of which 444 square miles (1,150 km2) is land and 935 square miles (2,420 km2) (67.6%) is water.[3] It is the second-largest county in Illinois by total area and the only one that has more water area than land area. Most of the water is in Lake Michigan.

State parks


Besides Lake Michigan, lakes in the county include:

Natural areas

Lake County's forest preserves and natural areas are administered by the Lake County Forest Preserves district. These facilities include traditional nature preserves, such as the Ryerson Conservation Area, as well as golf courses and historic homes, such as the Adlai Stevenson historic home.[4] A long north–south string of the preserves in Lake County, including Half Day Woods, Old School Forest Preserve, Independence Grove, and Van Patten Woods, form the Des Plaines River Greenway, which contains the Des Plaines River Trail, a popular place for walking, running, and biking. Lake County is also home to Illinois Beach State Park, featuring over six miles of Lake Michigan shoreline, as well as dune areas, wetlands, prairie, and black oak savanna. Several local environmental groups operate in Lake County, such as Conserve Lake County and Citizens for Conservation, working to improve habitat. Volunteer opportunities also exist with the Lake County Forest Preserve District.[5]

Adjacent counties


Major highways

County routes and county highways

Lake County's county road system currently covers 300 miles of road.[6] The county also employs two different numbering systems, a county route system and a county highway system. While both systems' can be seen on official road maps only the County Route designations have been indicated with highway markers on traffic signals or dedicated poles.

The county route system in use today by Lake County was purportedly intended to be the dominant system for all of Illinois' counties and was proposed by the National Association of Counties (NACo), however their system was not chosen and instead each county was given the freedom to number their own county routes as well as choose whether or not to produce and display highway markers. Currently, only Lake County, Boone County, McHenry County, and Cook County use NACo's proposed numbering system, and of the four only Lake and McHenry counties chose to fully display the county route designations on highway markers. Cook County began to roll out the production of highway markers near the beginning of 2009, but the seemingly arbitrary numbering system as well as the cost to produce the markers resulted in a lot of confusion and backlash, and ultimately only some of the markers were produced and mounted.[7]

For Lake County, all East–West-bound County Routes begin with an "A", while North—South-bound County Routes on the western half of the county begin with a "V", and those located on the eastern half begin with a "W".[citation needed]


Historical population
2021 (est.)711,239[8]−0.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2020[1]

2020 census

Lake County, Illinois – Racial and Ethnic Composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 1980[13] Pop 1990[14] Pop 2000[15] Pop 2010[16] Pop 2020[17] % 1980 % 1990 % 2000 % 2010 2020
White alone (NH) 383,370 431,976 472,968 458,701 408,349 87.06% 83.65% 73.40% 65.21% 57.16%
Black or African American alone (NH) 27,842 34,080 43,580 46,989 47,240 6.32% 6.60% 6.76% 6.68% 6.61%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 860 [18] 1,241 1,048 1,058 909 0.20% 0.24% 0.16% 0.15% 0.13%
Asian alone (NH) 5,898 [19] 12,038 24,866 43,954 58,901 1.34% 2.33% 3.86% 6.25% 8.25%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 122 [20] 225 224 228 312 0.03% 0.04% 0.03% 0.03% 0.04%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 1,216 [21] 348 1,085 1,547 3,264 0.28% 0.07% 0.17% 0.22% 0.46%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) x [22] x [23] 7,869 10,998 23,405 x x 1.22% 1.56% 3.28%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 21,064 [24] 36,735 92,716 139,987 171,962 4.78% 7.11% 14.39% 19.90% 24.07%
Total 440,372 516,418 644,356 703,462 714,342 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

2010 Census

Employment by occupation in Lake County

As of the 2010 Census, there were 703,462 people, 241,712 households, and 179,428 families residing in the county.[25] The population density was 1,585.6 inhabitants per square mile (612.2/km2). There were 260,310 housing units at an average density of 586.7 per square mile (226.5/km2).[3] The racial makeup of the county was 75.1% white, 7.0% black or African American, 6.3% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 8.5% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 19.9% of the population.[25] In terms of ancestry, 20.5% were German, 12.9% were Irish, 9.4% were Polish, 6.9% were Italian, 6.5% were English, and 4.0% were American.[26]

Of the 241,712 households, 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families, and 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.31. The median age was 36.7 years.[25] The median income for a household in the county was $78,948 and the median income for a family was $91,693. Males had a median income of $62,042 versus $44,200 for females. The per capita income for the county was $38,120. About 4.8% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over.[27]

2021 American Community Survey one-year estimates

Racial Makeup of Lake County (2021)[28]

  White alone (61.78%)
  Black alone (6.32%)
  Native American alone (1.08%)
  Asian alone (8.38%)
  Pacific Islander alone (0.05%)
  Some other race alone (7.52%)
  Two or more races (14.84%)

Racial Makeup of Lake County excluding Hispanics from Racial Categories (2021)[28]

  White NH (57.77%)
  Black NH (6.21%)
  Native American NH (0.15%)
  Asian NH (8.28%)
  Pacific Islander NH (0.02%)
  Other race NH (0.82%)
  Two or more races NH (3.63%)
  Hispanic Any Race (23.11%)

Racial Makeup of Hispanics in Lake County (2021)[28]

  White alone (17.33%)
  Black alone (0.50%)
  Native American alone (4.01%)
  Asian alone (0.41%)
  Pacific Islander alone (0.12%)
  Other race alone (29.11%)
  Two or more races (48.52%)

According to 2021 US Census Bureau American Community Survey one-year estimates (which is conducted annually for cities over 65,000 via sampling), the population of Lake County, Illinois was 61.8% White (57.8% Non-Hispanic White and 4.0% Hispanic White), 6.3% Black or African American, 8.4% Asian, 1.1% Native American and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.5% Some Other Race, and 14.8% from two or more races.[28] The White population continues to remain the largest racial category and includes the 17.3% of Hispanics in Lake County who identify as White. A plurality of Hispanics identify as Multiracial (48.5%) with others continuing to identify as Some Other Race (29.1%) and smaller amounts identifying as Black (0.5%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (4.0%), Asian (0.4%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.1%).[28] By ethnicity, 23.1% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 76.9% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). If treated as a separate category, Hispanics are the largest minority group in Lake County, Illinois[28] surpassing the Black population in the 1990 Census. The majority of Hispanic/ Latino residents in Lake County, Illinois are of Mexican descent (18.0% of the county population in 2021).[29] Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central Americans, and South Americans also reside in Lake County, Illinois.


The following sports teams play in Lake County:

Sites of interest

Amusement parks

Six Flags Great America


Performing arts

Genesee Theatre





Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities


The county is divided into eighteen townships.

Antioch TownshipZion TownshipBenton TownshipNewport TownshipLake Villa TownshipGrant TownshipAvon TownshipWarren TownshipWaukegan TownshipWauconda TownshipFremont TownshipLibertyville TownshipShields TownshipCuba TownshipEla TownshipVernon TownshipWest Deerfield TownshipMoraine Township
Lake County townships (clickable)


Lake County Board
District Board Member Party
1 Linda Pederson Republican
2 Diane Hewitt Democratic
3 Dick Barr Republican
4 Gina Roberts Democratic
5 Judy Martini Republican
6 John Wasik Democratic
7 Carissa Casbon Democratic
8 Bill Durkin Democratic
9 Mary Ross Cunningham Democratic
10 Jessica Vealitzek Democratic
11 Paul Frank Democratic
12 Paras Parekh Democratic
13 Sandy Hart, Chairman Democratic
14 Angelo D. Kyle Democratic
15 Jennifer Clark Democratic
16 Terry Wilke Democratic
17 Michael Danforth Republican
18 Julie Simpson Democratic
19 Craig Taylor Republican
20 Marah Altenberg Democratic
21 Ann B. Maine Republican


As a historic Yankee settlement, Lake County was initially a stronghold of the Free Soil Party. In the 1848 presidential election, it was Free Soil nominee and former president Martin van Buren’s strongest county, giving him over 58 percent of the vote.

Consequently, Lake County would turn rock-solid Republican for most of the next century and a half. After narrowly supporting Democrat Franklin Pierce in 1852, it voted Republican at all but one presidential election from 1856 to 1960. This tradition was only broken in 1912, when the GOP was mortally divided and Lake County voted for Progressive Party nominee and former president Theodore Roosevelt over conservative incumbent William Howard Taft.

In 1964 the Republican Party nominated Barry Goldwater, whose hostility to the Yankee establishment and strongly conservative platform were sufficient to leave many traditional Republicans to stay home or even to vote for Lyndon Johnson, who narrowly became the first Democrat to win an absolute majority in the county since James K. Polk in 1844, and the first to win it at all since Pierce in 1852. Between 1968 and 1988, however, Lake County became powerfully Republican once more, with no Democrat cracking forty percent of the vote.

However, as in the other collar counties, the Republican edge narrowed considerably in the 1990s, and Bill Clinton actually won it with a 166-vote plurality in 1996–the only time that Clinton won any of the collar counties besides Will County during his two campaigns for president. After narrowly voting for George W. Bush twice, in 2008 it swung over dramatically to support Democrat Barack Obama, who carried it by almost 20 points. Obama won it but by a slimmer margin in 2012. Hillary Clinton won it handily in 2016, tallying her second-best margin in the state. At 36%, Donald Trump's performance in the county was the worst of any Republican presidential nominee since 1912. In 2020, Joe Biden won 61% of the vote, the highest percentage of the vote for any candidate since 1988 and the highest ever attained by a Democrat.

Lake County has the highest payout for wrongful conviction in the United States. Juan Rivera was awarded $20 million, the largest wrongful conviction settlement in United States history, including $2 million from John E. Reid & Associates, who were known for the Reid technique of questioning suspects. This technique has been widely criticized for its history of eliciting confessions that were later determined to be false. Rivera was questioned twice at Reid headquarters by an employee of the company during his interrogation, which lasted for several days. Another payout was made to Jerry Hobbs. Kathleen Zellner settled Jerry Hobbs' civil rights case for $7.75 million. Hobbs was incarcerated for 66 months. This was the largest pre-trial detainee settlement in the United States.[30]

United States presidential election results for Lake County, Illinois[31]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 123,594 36.82% 204,032 60.78% 8,049 2.40%
2016 109,767 36.16% 171,095 56.37% 22,658 7.47%
2012 129,764 45.14% 153,757 53.48% 3,972 1.38%
2008 118,545 39.53% 177,242 59.10% 4,113 1.37%
2004 139,081 50.52% 134,352 48.80% 1,862 0.68%
2000 120,988 49.96% 115,058 47.51% 6,118 2.53%
1996 93,149 45.49% 93,315 45.57% 18,300 8.94%
1992 99,000 44.20% 81,693 36.47% 43,294 19.33%
1988 114,115 63.53% 64,327 35.81% 1,191 0.66%
1984 118,401 68.35% 53,947 31.14% 876 0.51%
1980 96,350 58.45% 48,287 29.29% 20,216 12.26%
1976 92,231 60.32% 57,741 37.77% 2,922 1.91%
1972 92,052 65.84% 47,416 33.91% 344 0.25%
1968 68,999 56.60% 43,409 35.61% 9,495 7.79%
1964 58,840 48.36% 62,785 51.60% 42 0.03%
1960 67,809 59.02% 46,941 40.85% 149 0.13%
1956 66,781 67.33% 32,279 32.54% 129 0.13%
1952 54,929 62.83% 32,353 37.01% 145 0.17%
1948 39,456 63.26% 22,192 35.58% 720 1.15%
1944 35,674 58.19% 25,453 41.52% 183 0.30%
1940 38,242 60.26% 24,965 39.34% 254 0.40%
1936 27,548 51.32% 24,524 45.69% 1,603 2.99%
1932 23,994 50.92% 21,139 44.86% 1,989 4.22%
1928 26,814 67.73% 12,252 30.95% 521 1.32%
1924 18,229 75.48% 2,008 8.31% 3,913 16.20%
1920 15,712 82.28% 2,321 12.15% 1,063 5.57%
1916 12,905 66.95% 5,447 28.26% 924 4.79%
1912 2,183 21.59% 2,436 24.09% 5,494 54.33%
1908 6,392 68.15% 2,264 24.14% 723 7.71%
1904 6,635 77.11% 1,592 18.50% 378 4.39%
1900 5,136 67.69% 2,235 29.45% 217 2.86%
1896 5,027 72.47% 1,777 25.62% 133 1.92%
1892 2,932 57.17% 1,964 38.29% 233 4.54%


Lake County is covered by the Chicago and Milwaukee media market and the county relies on Chicago and Milwaukee television stations, radio stations, and newspapers for the source of its news and information.

The county has multiple radio stations, including 102.3 FM XLC and 98.3 FM WRLR.

The Lake County News-Sun, owned by Tribune Publishing, is the county's main print newspaper. It is printed and published in Gurnee.[32]

Lake and McHenry County Scanner, launched in 2012 by Sam Borcia,[33] is the county's biggest digital newspaper which covers Lake County as well as nearby McHenry County.[34] The publication's work has been quoted in top news outlets such as Fox News[35] and Yahoo! News.[36]

The county is also covered by the Chicago Sun-Times and The Daily Herald.


The following is a list of school districts with any territory in Lake County, no matter how slight, even if the school districts' administrative headquarters and/or schools are outside of the county:[37]




Notable people

See also



  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  4. ^ "Lake County Forest Preserves". Archived from the original on June 21, 2010.
  5. ^ "Restoration workdays". Lake County. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  6. ^ "Lake County". Illinois Association of County Engineers.
  7. ^ "New signs point to confusion". Chicago Tribune.
  8. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021". Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  9. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  13. ^ "1980 Census of Population - General Population Characteristics - Illinois- Table 14 - Persons by Race and Table 16 (p. 18-28) - Total Persons and Spanish Origin Persons by Type of Spanish Origin and Race (p. 29-39)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau.
  14. ^ "1990 Census of Population - General Population Characteristics - Illinois - Table 6 - Race and Hispanic Orogin" (PDF). United States Census Bureau.
  15. ^ "P004 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Lake County, Illinois". United States Census Bureau.
  16. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Lake County, Illinois". United States Census Bureau.
  17. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Lake County, Illinois". United States Census Bureau.
  18. ^ Compiliation of American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut categories
  19. ^ Compiliation of Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, and Vietnamese categories. Other Asian groups would be included in the Some Other Race category
  20. ^ Compiliation of Hawaiian, Guamanian, and Samoan categories. Other Pacific Islander groups would be included in the Some Other Race category
  21. ^ Calculated as the difference between the total population and all other categories
  22. ^ Not an option in the 1980 Census
  23. ^ Not an option in the 1990 Census
  24. ^ Listed as Spanish origin in the 1980 Census. Racial identification for Hispanics only consisted of White, Black, and Some Other Race; hence, a small number of Latinos may be also be included in the counts for Asian, Native American, and Pacific Islander
  25. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  26. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  27. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  28. ^ a b c d e f "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE - Lake County, Illinois - 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2021.
  29. ^ "B03001 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN - United States - 2021 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates - Lake County, Illinois". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2021.
  30. ^ "$7.75 Million Settlement for Father Wrongly Jailed for Daughter's Murder - the National Trial Lawyers".
  31. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
  32. ^ "Lake County News-Sun (Chicago, Il) 2006-Current [Online Resource]". Library of Congress. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  33. ^ technology, Charlie Sorrel Freelance Technology Reporter Charlie Sorrel has been writing about; Society, Its Effects on; Planet, The; Sorrel, for 13 years our editorial process Charlie. "Apple's News Partner Program May Not Fix Apple News". Lifewire. Retrieved October 3, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ "About Us". Lake and McHenry County Scanner. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
  35. ^ Gearty, Robert (April 11, 2020). "Retired Illinois fire department captain dies from coronavirus complications: report". Fox News. Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  36. ^ "Parents Accused of Murdering Missing Ill. Boy, 5, Whose Body Was Found Wrapped in Plastic". Retrieved October 3, 2021.
  37. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Lake County, IL" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved July 20, 2022. - Text list
  38. ^ "Pete Wilson". Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2018.

General sources

42°26′N 87°47′W / 42.43°N 87.78°W / 42.43; -87.78