Carbondale, Illinois
South Illinois Avenue
South Illinois Avenue
Flag of Carbondale, Illinois
Official seal of Carbondale, Illinois
Official logo of Carbondale, Illinois
Eclipse Crossroads of America
All Ways Open[1]
Location of Carbondale in Jackson County, Illinois
Location of Carbondale in Jackson County, Illinois
Carbondale is located in Illinois
Carbondale is located in the United States
Coordinates: 37°43′34″N 89°13′12″W / 37.726°N 89.220°W / 37.726; -89.220
CountryUnited States
TownshipsCarbondale, Murphysboro, Makanda
Incorporated Town1856
 • TypeCouncil–manager
 • MayorCarolin Harvey
 • Total17.86 sq mi (46.25 km2)
 • Land17.42 sq mi (45.13 km2)
 • Water0.43 sq mi (1.13 km2)
Elevation449 ft (137 m)
 • Total25,083
 • Density1,254.49/sq mi (484.36/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
62901, 62902, 62903
Area code618
FIPS code17-11163
GNIS feature ID2393739[3]
Public TransitJackson County Mass Transit District
South Central Transit

Carbondale is a city in Jackson County, Illinois, United States, within the Southern Illinois region informally known as "Little Egypt." As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 25,083, making it the most populous city in Southern Illinois outside the Metro East region of Greater St. Louis.[4]

Carbondale was established in 1853 and developed as a crossroads of the railroad industry. Today, the major roadways of Illinois Route 13 and U.S. Route 51 intersect in the city. The city is located 96 miles (154 km) southeast of St. Louis on the northern edge of the Shawnee National Forest. It is the home of the main campus of Southern Illinois University.


In August 1853, Daniel Harmon Brush, John Asgill Conner, and Dr. William Richart bought a 360-acre (1.5 km2) parcel of land between two proposed railroad station sites (Makanda and De Soto) and two county seats (Murphysboro and Marion). Brush named Carbondale for the large deposit of coal in the area.[citation needed] The first train through Carbondale arrived on Independence Day 1854, traveling north on the main line from Cairo, Illinois. By the time of the American Civil War, Carbondale had developed as a regional center for transportation and business, surrounded by agricultural development. This part of Illinois was known as "Little Egypt" because of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, where the town of Cairo is located.

The city has had a college since 1856 beginning with the Presbyterian-founded Carbondale College which was later converted to an elementary school. Carbondale also won the bid for the new state teacher training school for the region, and Southern Illinois Normal University opened in 1874. This gave the town new industry, new citizens, and a supplement to public schools. In 1947, the name was changed to Southern Illinois University (SIU). It has become the flagship of the Southern Illinois University system. This institution, now recognized as a national research university, has nearly 18,000 students enrolled (as of 2014) and offers a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate specialties.

On April 29, 1866, one of the first formal Memorial Day observations following the Civil War was held at the city's Woodlawn Cemetery.[5] Local resident, General John A. Logan, gave the principal address.[5] Logan, as co-founder of the Civil War veteran's group the "Grand Army of the Republic", issued General Order #11 on March 3, 1868, calling for a national day of remembrance for Civil War dead. This order served as the basis for the creation of a formal Memorial Day.[6] Logan called observance day "Decoration Day" and proposed it for May 30, to assure flowers would be in bloom nationwide.[7]

In the early 20th century, Carbondale was known as the "Athens of Egypt," due to the expansion of the college and university, and the region's moniker of "Little Egypt."[8] The phrase dates to at least 1903, when it appeared in a local paper.[9] By 1922, the Carbondale Free Press was using the phrase on its flag.[10]

On November 12, 1970,[11] a largescale shootout occurred between local police and members of the local chapter of the Black Panther Party who were meeting at a house in town.[12] The event was later chronicled in the documentary 778 Bullets, made by a professor at SIU.[13]

An area near campus known as "The Strip" was also the site of several infamous riots on Halloween in the 1980s and 1990s. The last Halloween riot occurred in 2000, when students clashed with and were tear gassed by police. Property and trees in the area of The Strip were destroyed. After the 2000 riot, measures were taken to prevent violence on Halloween weekend. The campus and the bars along Southern Illinois Avenue were closed on Halloween in following years.[14]

Eclipse Crossroads of America

Carbondale will experience two total solar eclipses in seven years.

The area was in totality during the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with Giant City State Park, just south of the city, experiencing the longest period of totality during the eclipse (approximately 2 minutes and 40 seconds). It will also be within the path of totality of the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, making it one of only a handful of cities within the direct paths of both eclipses. The combination of these events earned it the nickname "Eclipse Crossroads of America".[15]


Carbondale is located at 37°44′N 89°13′W / 37.733°N 89.217°W / 37.733; -89.217 (37.726, −89.220).[16] It is in the watershed of the Big Muddy River, at 415 feet (126 m) above sea level.

According to the 2010 census, Carbondale has a total area of 17.519 square miles (45.37 km2), of which 17.09 square miles (44.26 km2) (or 97.55%) is land and 0.429 square miles (1.11 km2) (or 2.45%) is water.[17]


Carbondale lies in the northern limits of a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with four distinct seasons. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 32.4 °F (0.2 °C) in January to 77.9 °F (25.5 °C) in July.[18] On average, there are 38 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, 16 days where the high fails to rise above freezing, and 1.6 nights of sub-0 °F (−18 °C) per year.[19][18] It has an average annual precipitation of 48.95 inches (1,240 mm), including an average 11.4 inches (29 cm) of snow.[18] Extremes in temperature range from −25 °F (−32 °C) on January 11, 1977 up to 113 °F (45 °C) on August 9, 1930.[19]

Carbondale receives thunderstorms on an average of 50 days per year. Particularly in the spring, these storms can often be severe, with high winds, damaging hail, and tornadoes.

Climate data for Carbondale Sewage Plant, Illinois (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1898–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 76
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 41.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.4
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 23.4
Record low °F (°C) −25
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.36
Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.3 9.3 12.2 11.7 12.9 9.9 9.1 8.6 7.9 8.8 9.6 10.9 121.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.7 1.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.7 5.6
Source: NOAA[19][18]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[20]

As of the census[21] of 2000, there were 25,597 people, 10,018 households, and 3,493 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,152.0 inhabitants per square mile (830.9/km2). There were 11,005 housing units at an average density of 925.2 per square mile (357.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 66.08% White, 23.14% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 6.67% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, and 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.05% of the population.

There were 9,981 households, out of which 17.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.5% were non-families. 43.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 15.8% under the age of 18, 35.4% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 12.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,882, and the median income for a family was $34,601. Males had a median income of $30,217 versus $24,114 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,346. About 13.5% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.1% of those under the age of 18 and 13.2% of those 65 and older. However, traditional measures of income and poverty can be misleading when applied to cities with high student populations, such as Carbondale.[22][23]

Arts and culture

Altgeld Hall at Southern Illinois University Carbondale

In addition to Southern Illinois University, which presents regular concerts and theatrical productions, as well as art and history exhibits, the city has a variety of unique cultural institutions.

SIU has a teaching museum on campus, the University Museum, which has 60,000 artifacts in its collection and hosts traveling shows from known artists. In addition to the University Museum, there is the African American Museum and The Science Center. Theater-goers can see both professional and student-produced plays and performances at the university's McLeod and Kleinau Theaters. SIUC is also home to the largest auditorium in Southern Illinois, Shryock Auditorium. Shryock Auditorium has brought in many performing artists, such as B.B. King, the Supremes, Ray Charles, and Judy Collins, along with orchestras and other musical productions.[24] Carbondale is also home to Lost Cross, the longest running DIY punk venue in the country, which has hosted local and national acts.[25][26]

Theater-goers can also attend off-campus productions by The Jackson County Stage Company (Stage Company). In 2007, the Stage Company and Carbondale Community Arts (CCA) partnered to purchase and renovate the Varsity Theater, which had been vacant since 2003, into the Varsity Center for the Arts (VCA). The VCA is now the performing home of the Stage Company and also supports a variety of other fine arts and performances through the CCA.

Saluki Stadium

Civic action is encouraged by groups such as Carbondale Conversations for Community Action (the local implementation of Study Circles). There are several lodges and clubs, such as the Fraternal Order of Eagles, Elks, Rotary International, and the A.F.A.M (Freemasonry).[citation needed]

The Women's Center, in continuous service since its founding in 1972, was one of the first domestic violence shelters in the United States.[citation needed]

Spirituality finds expression in Carbondale in churches of a variety of Christian denominations, a Unitarian Universalist fellowship, two mosques, a Jewish congregation, a Sufi community, and two Buddhist organizations – the Shawnee Dharma Group and the Sunyata Center. The first Hindu temple in Southern Illinois held its grand opening in Carbondale in June 2013. The Gaia House Interfaith Center provides space for intercultural exchange and personal growth. It is also an education center to help the community become more ecologically conscious, understand how to incorporate better practices into daily life, and set goals for the future.

Notable poets that reside in or near Carbondale include Rodney Jones, Judy Jordan, Allison Joseph, and the Transpoetic Playground collective.


Carbondale is known for a number of yearly festivals, including the Lights Fantastic parade in December,[27] the Big Muddy Film Festival (February/March), the Southern Illinois Irish Festival (April), the Indian (Hindu, Sikh and Jain) celebration of Diwali (October/November), the Great Cardboard Boat Regatta (April), the Sunset Concerts (a summer series of free outdoor concerts on the Southern Illinois University campus and in city parks), and Brown Bag Concerts (a spring and fall series of free outdoor concerts in the Town Square Pavilion).


The city's business districts include several large shopping malls (including University Mall on the east side of town), featuring a mixture of national chain stores and locally owned businesses. In addition, Carbondale is home to many small shops and restaurants, many of them located in the downtown area. The downtown district is supported by Carbondale Main Street, which has listings and information about individual businesses. Because of the large student population in the city, there is a great variety of restaurants, featuring many nationalities of cuisine. Several bars and coffeehouses offer live music, poetry readings, and other entertainment. The Carbondale Chamber of Commerce offers information on local businesses in over 60 categories.

Parks and recreation

Campus Lake

Carbondale has 18 public tennis courts, as well as the Superblock, which is a sports multi-complex with baseball, softball, soccer, football, and track fields. The Carbondale Park District maintains seven parks and an indoor pool for public use. In 2010 the park district opened a new spray park in Crispus Attucks Park,[28] and a water park opened in May 2016 at the Superblock.[29][30][31] Southern Illinois University's Recreation Center is open to the public; it provides swimming, bowling, rock climbing walls, tennis, basketball, an indoor track, racquetball, weight training, and a variety of exercise equipment.

Carbondale is located near many venues for outdoor activities, including some 14 parks in the immediate vicinity. These include the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, the Shawnee National Forest, Giant City State Park, Little Grand Canyon, Piney Creek Ravine, Pomona Natural Bridge, the Garden of the Gods Wilderness area, and Trail of Tears State Park. These areas offer opportunities for hiking, boating, biking, and horseback riding.

Five minutes south of Carbondale is the city reservoir, Cedar Lake, which is open to kayaking and canoeing. The north access features several dramatic rock bluffs and secluded bays. Other lakes nearby include Little Grassy Lake, Devils Kitchen Lake, Crab Orchard Lake, and Kinkaid Lake. Another more remote location is Cache River Swamp, the northernmost cypress swamp in North America. The surrounding areas also offer hiking and mountain biking.

Also a few minutes south of Carbondale is Jeremy Rochman Memorial Park, established by Barrett Rochman in memory of his son Jeremy "Boo" Rochman, who died in an auto accident at age 19. It features a castle with life-sized figures on a Dungeons & Dragons theme.

The Shawnee National Forest, close to Carbondale, is home to many wineries. The Shawnee Hills Wine Trail visits twelve vineyards in scenic settings, offering local wines and dining facilities. Several of the vineyards are bed-and-breakfasts or offer cabins for close accommodations.

The presence of Southern Illinois University also means that Carbondale area residents can attend Division I events of SIU's "Salukis" sport teams. The mascot term "Salukis" is a reference to a dog breed from ancient Egypt, a nod to the fact that the Southern Illinois region is frequently referred to by the nickname "Little Egypt."


Due to the presence of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale residents have a tradition of political activism. During the Vietnam War, and especially after the Kent State shootings, massive anti-war demonstrations took place on the SIU campus and on the streets of Carbondale. They resulted in the closure of SIU, more than $100,000 of property damage, more than 400 arrests,[32] and the deployment of the National Guard to restore order.[33]

In 2011, the Occupy Movement took up residence on the lawn of Quigley Hall at Southern Illinois University, occasionally clashing with local police and with university policy.

SIU's Faculty Association went to the picket lines on November 3, 2011, after an agreement could not be reached between the Association and the administration concerning contracts. The other unions—the Non-Tenure Track Faculty Association, the Association of Civil Service Employees, and Graduate Assistants United—all settled with the administration within hours of the picketing action. The Faculty Association came to an agreement with the administration on November 10.[34] The strike was the first ever in the school's history.

Several local organizations are concerned with peace, justice and the environment, including the Peace Coalition of Southern Illinois/Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Shawnee Green Party, the Student Environmental Center, the Southern Illinois Center for a Sustainable Future, and local chapters of the American Civil Liberties Union, the Sierra Club, and the National Audubon Society.

In 2001, the city was the location for the national Green Party Congress.


The city of Carbondale has a council-manager government.[35] There are a total of seven elected city officials: a mayor and six city council members elected at-large for four-year staggered terms. The City Manager, a professional hired by the city council, appoints the department heads. The city provides services such as police, fire, development services, public works, and public library. Several boards and commissions allow for citizen participation, bringing more citizens into civic activities and helping to bridge the gap between the residents and the government. Carbondale is a zoned, home rule municipality. In 2010, the city approved a new comprehensive plan that lays out goals for the future and ways to accomplish these goals.[36] On April 5, 2011, Joel Fritzler was elected mayor for a four-year term,[37] but on February 3, 2014, he resigned to accept a job in Arizona. The City Council chose Don Monty as acting mayor to finish Fritzler's term.[38] On April 7, 2015, John "Mike" Henry was elected mayor, and he took office in May 2015.[39] On April 4, 2023, Carolin Harvey was elected mayor, the first African-American to hold the office; Harvey had been acting mayor since Henry took a leave of absence.[40]


PBS and NPR broadcasting stations (WSIU) are affiliated with the university. Carbondale also is home to WDBX Community Radio for Southern Illinois, and the Big Muddy Independent Media Center.

The area is served by a regional daily newspaper, The Southern Illinoisan and the university's Daily Egyptian, as well as two weeklies, the Carbondale Times and the Nightlife.


This statue was placed here by Station Carbondale, Inc. through donations from people dedicated to the preservation of Carbondale's railroad history. The first train came to Carbondale on July 4, 1854. At the peak of the city's railroad traffic, as many as 53 passenger trains passed through here each day.


The city of Carbondale sits on the intersection of U.S. Route 51 and Illinois Route 13. Interstate 57 is accessible to the east on Route 13 at Marion, and to the south on Rt. 51 near Dongola. Interstate 64 is accessible to the north on Rt. 51. Interstate 24 is accessible six miles south of Marion on I-57. The city is 331 highway miles from Chicago, 96 highway miles from St. Louis, and 213 highway miles from Memphis.[41] (A historical note: When Illinois first developed the state highway system in the 1920s, what is now Rt. 51 was Illinois Route 2, which ran the length of the state).

Air service

The city is twelve miles (19 km) away from the Williamson County Regional Airport, where Contour Airlines provides passenger service to Chicago O’Hare.[42]

The Southern Illinois Airport is located northwest of the city and offers private aviation services and is home to SIU's aviation program. On April 2, 2010, state and university officials broke ground on a Transportation Education Center on the airport grounds.[43]

Rail service

See also: Carbondale (Amtrak station)

The former Illinois Central Railroad depot in Carbondale

Amtrak Train 59, the southbound City of New Orleans, departs Carbondale daily with service to Memphis, Jackson, and New Orleans (and intermediate stations). Amtrak Train 58, the northbound City of New Orleans, departs Carbondale daily with service to Centralia, Effingham, Mattoon, Champaign-Urbana, Kankakee, Homewood, and Chicago.

Carbondale is also served by Amtrak Train 390/391, the Saluki, daily in the morning, and Amtrak Train 392/393, the Illini, daily in the afternoon/evening. Both the Saluki and the Illini operate to Chicago, originating and terminating in Carbondale.[44]

Amtrak uses the tracks of the Canadian National Railway, which provides freight service to the city's industrial park. The railroad runs along the original line of the Illinois Central Railroad that began service in 1854 in Carbondale.

Public transit

The Saluki Express provides[when?] bus service around the city. SIUC students, faculty, and staff, as well as the greater Carbondale community, are encouraged to use the service. This system offers eleven routes operating seven days a week while the university is in session, and a "break route" operating during semester breaks.[45]

Local public transit is also provided by Jackson County Mass Transit District, which operates six days a week,[46] RidesMTD, which provides bi-hourly service between Carbondale and Marion six days a week,[47] and South Central Transit, which operates a weekday regional service between Pinckneyville, Du Quion, and Carbondale.[48]


Carbondale did not provide elective abortions from 1985 to 2022, but after the Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization court ruling in 2022 paved the way for many US states to prohibit abortion, Carbondale experienced a sharp rise in the number of abortion providers thanks to it being the closest town with legal abortion access to many southern U.S. states such as Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, with the Choices abortion clinic moving there from Memphis, Tennessee.[49]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Carbondale, Illinois

Sister cities


See also


  1. ^ Mayor Henry in State of the City address: It's time to 'boldly envision a brighter future'
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
  3. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Carbondale, Illinois
  4. ^ Census - Geography Profile: Carbondale city, Illinois
  5. ^ a b City of Carbondale – A Short History Archived December 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ February 24, 1921. "Slogans of the Various Illinois Cities," Woodland Daily Democrat (Woodland, California), p. 2
  9. ^ January 7, 1903. "Local Items." The Free Press (Carbondale, Ill.) 3. A social item was reprinted from the Mt. Vernon News: "Mrs. Dr. McAnally, née Pace, of Carbondale has returned to the Athens of Egypt after a week's visit with her sisters..."
  10. ^ Carbondale Free Press (Carbondale, Ill.), March 31, 1922, p. 1
  11. ^ "Carbondale police shootout with Black Panthers 43 years ago". KFVS-TV. November 12, 2013. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  12. ^ Bode, Gus (February 28, 2002). "The Dark past of the panthers". The Daily Egyptian. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  13. ^ Duncan, Dustin (August 23, 2013). "'778 Bullets' raises broad discussion". The Southern Illinoisan. Archived from the original on January 30, 2022. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  14. ^ Illinoisan, Molly Parker The Southern. "For first time since 2000, Carbondale won't have Halloween restrictions". Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  15. ^ "Southern Illinois: eclipse crossroads of America". Southern Illinois University. May 5, 2016. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  16. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  17. ^ "G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 25, 2015.
  18. ^ a b c d "Station: Carbondale Sewage PLT, IL". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  20. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  21. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  22. ^ "When Off-Campus College Students are Excluded, Poverty Rates Fall in Many College Towns - Poverty - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  23. ^ "". Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  24. ^ "Shryock Auditorium | Shryock Auditorium". Archived from the original on January 24, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  25. ^ Faingold, Scott; Otwell, Rachel (2016). "The Scene: Lost Cross House & 30 Years Of DIY Punk In Carbondale". NPR Illinois.
  26. ^ Allen, Shannon (September 1, 2016). "Carbondale punk rock house celebrating 30 years of music". Daily Egyptian.
  27. ^ Carbondale Main Street – Lights Fantastic Archived October 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ "". Archived from the original on May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  32. ^ Spring 1970: A season of protests Archived June 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Remembering the Days of May". The Daily Egyptian.
  34. ^ Chicago Tribune, November 10, 2011, "Strike ends at SIU's Carbondale campus"
  35. ^ "". Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  36. ^ "" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 12, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
  37. ^[permanent dead link]
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^ Baillie, Colin (April 4, 2023). "Carolin Harvey wins election to become first Black mayor of Carbondale". KFVS-TV.
  41. ^ "Community Profiles". Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  42. ^ "Contour Airlines makes it official: Announces non-stop flights to Chicago from Southern Illinois". WSILTV. April 25, 2023. Retrieved August 27, 2023.
  43. ^ SIU Transportation Education Center Archived January 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. SIU website.
  44. ^ Amtrak Routes – Midwest – Illinois Service.
  45. ^ SIU Student Center | Saluki Express. Archived February 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ "JCMTD Routes". Retrieved January 28, 2024.
  47. ^ Brasher, Kyle. "Williamson County". Rides Mass Transit. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  48. ^ "SCT Chestnut Route". Retrieved January 28, 2024.
  49. ^ Kenning, Chris (June 4, 2023). "One year on the new front line of America's abortion fight". USA Today. Retrieved July 5, 2023.
  50. ^ "City of Carbondale – Sister Cities". Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017.

Further reading