Vermilion County, Illinois
Vermilion County Courthouse
Official seal of Vermilion County, Illinois
Location within Illinois
Location within Illinois
Illinois' location within the United States
Illinois' location within the United States
Coordinates: 40°07′28.13″N 87°37′48.07″W / 40.1244806°N 87.6300194°W / 40.1244806; -87.6300194
CountryUnited States
StateIllinois
RegionCentral Illinois
Metro areaDanville Metropolitan
IncorporatedJan 18, 1826
Named forVermilion river
County seat and largest cityDanville
Area
 • Total901.28 sq mi (2,334.3 km2)
 • Land898.37 sq mi (2,326.8 km2)
 • Water2.91 sq mi (7.5 km2)
 • Rank7th largest county in Illinois
Population
 (2020)
 • Total74,188
 • Density82/sq mi (32/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP Code prefixes
60932, 60942, 60960, 60963, 61810, 61811, 61812, 61814, 61817, 61831, 61832, 61833, 61834, 61841, 61844, 61846, 61848, 61849, 61850, 61857, 61858, 61859, 61862, 61865, 61870, 61876, 61883
Area codes217/447
Congressional district2nd, 15th
Websitewww.vercounty.org

Vermilion County is a county in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Illinois, between the Indiana border and Champaign County. It was established in 1826 and was the 45th of Illinois' 102 counties. According to the 2020 United States census, it had a population of 74,188.[1] It contains 21 incorporated settlements; the county seat and largest city is Danville.[2]

Vermilion County is part of the Danville, IL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

See also: Timeline of Vermilion County, Illinois history

Vermilion County is named after the Vermilion River, which passes through the county and empties into the Wabash River in Indiana near Cayuga; the river was so named because of the color of the earth along its route.[3][4]

The area which became Vermilion County was under the flag of France from 1682 to 1763, as part of New France.

It was taken over by Great Britain for fifteen years after the French and Indian War; it then became part of the colonies after the Revolutionary War when the area was ceded to Virginia, titled "the Illinois County of Virginia". Later it was part of the Indiana Territory, then the Illinois Territory, and finally the state of Illinois.[5] The county was created on 18 January 1826, from a portion of Edgar County. There was an unorganized territory to the north and west which was attached to the county; Champaign and Iroquois counties were formed from part of this territory in 1833. The remainder was used to create Ford County in 1859, the last Illinois county to be formed.

The county's saline springs were a strong attraction to early explorers; they were mentioned as early as 1801. Joseph Barron, an interpreter fluent in several Native American languages, stated in an affidavit that he was present at the "Vermilion Salines" that year. The production required 100 gallons of water for one bushel of salt and proved to be profitable from the first run (1822–1829), when salt became less expensive and the venture was no longer economical.[6]

The area's first settlement was made in 1819 near these saline springs, by the Treat, Beckwith, and Whitcomb. James Butler, from Ohio, followed in 1820 and settled in the Catlin area; within a few years, the settlement grew to encompass several families and became known as "Butler's Point". In the southern part of the county, Henry Johnson built a cabin west of present-day Georgetown; this area was known as "Johnson's Point". The southern portion of the county was soon filled with small settlements. Most settlers in Vermilion County came from the American South, who had left because of their opposition to slavery.[7]

Some of the early settlers were of the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers. They founded the settlement of Vermilion Grove in the south part of the county, one of the county's first settlements and the site of the county's second public school.

The county has strong ties to Abraham Lincoln, who practiced law in Danville from 1841 to 1859 with Ward Hill Lamon; Lamon later served as Lincoln's bodyguard. Lincoln spoke in Danville during his 1858 campaign for a seat in the US Senate. Lincoln gave the speech in his stocking feet from the balcony of Dr. William Fithian, a prominent local physician. The Fithian home is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places and serves as the Vermilion County Museum;[8] visitors can see Lincoln memorabilia including a bed in which Lincoln slept.[9]

The various stages in the evolution of Vermilion County are shown below.[10]

Geography

Map of Vermilion County

Vermilion County is located along the eastern border of Illinois; its northern border is about 95 miles (153 km) south of Chicago.

Vermilion County in Illinois and Vermillion County in Indiana are two of twenty-two counties or parishes in the United States with the same name to border each other across state lines.[11] According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 901.28 square miles (2,334.3 km2), of which 898.37 square miles (2,326.8 km2) (or 99.68%) is land and 2.91 square miles (7.5 km2) (or 0.32%) is water.[12] The land in Vermilion County consists mostly of various forms of silt loam.[13] Lake Vermilion, a man-made 1,000-acre (400 ha) reservoir, is the county's largest body of water, located northwest of Danville. It provides the city's culinary water, and also provides recreation opportunities.

Adjacent counties

Cities

Villages

Unincorporated communities

Previous settlements

Several towns were established in the county which no longer survive. In some cases, the coming of the railroads helped to define the best locations for settlements, and as a result some existing towns were abandoned. When Lake Vermilion was created, the town of Denmark was flooded and now lies at the bottom of the reservoir.

Townships

Township government was adopted in Vermilion County in 1851, and eight townships were created:

Eleven additional townships were created in the following decades:

Parks

The Vermilion County Conservation District operates four parks:

The Illinois Department of Natural Resources manages three areas in the county:

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18305,836
18409,30359.4%
185011,49223.5%
186019,80072.3%
187030,38853.5%
188041,58836.9%
189049,90520.0%
190065,63531.5%
191077,99618.8%
192086,16210.5%
193089,3393.7%
194086,791−2.9%
195087,0790.3%
196096,17610.4%
197097,0470.9%
198095,222−1.9%
199088,257−7.3%
200083,919−4.9%
201081,625−2.7%
202074,188−9.1%
US Decennial Census[19]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 81,625 people, 32,655 households, and 21,392 families residing in the county.[20] The population density was 90.9 inhabitants per square mile (35.1/km2). There were 36,318 housing units at an average density of 40.4 per square mile (15.6/km2).[21] The racial makeup of the county was 82.5% white, 13.0% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.5% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.2% self-identified as American, 18.9% as German, 10.1% as Irish, and 9.1% as English.[22]

Of the 32,655 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families, and 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 39.8 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $39,456 and the median income for a family was $49,429. Males had a median income of $40,107 versus $30,104 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,218. About 14.6% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.0% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over.[23]

Climate and weather

Danville, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
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2.1
 
 
34
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40
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3.2
 
 
52
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3.9
 
 
65
41
 
 
4.5
 
 
75
51
 
 
4.7
 
 
84
60
 
 
4.4
 
 
86
64
 
 
3.9
 
 
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3
 
 
78
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3
 
 
67
43
 
 
3.5
 
 
52
34
 
 
2.8
 
 
39
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source:The Weather Channel[24]
Metric conversion
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M
A
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52
 
 
1
−8
 
 
51
 
 
4
−6
 
 
81
 
 
11
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18
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114
 
 
24
11
 
 
119
 
 
29
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30
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29
17
 
 
77
 
 
26
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19
6
 
 
90
 
 
11
1
 
 
71
 
 
4
−5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Vermilion County is in the humid continental climate region of the United States along with most of Illinois. Its Köppen climate classification is Dfa,[25] meaning that it is cold, has no dry season, and has a hot summer.[26] In recent years, average temperatures in Danville have ranged from a low of 17 °F (−8 °C) in January to a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July, although a record low of −26 °F (−32 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 112 °F (44 °C) was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches (51 mm) inches in February to 4.70 inches (119 mm) inches in June.[24]

Transportation

Danville Mass Transit provides public transit to the Danville area with buses.

Four railroad lines pass through or into the county, all intersecting in the Danville area; this results in many different railroad crossings throughout the city:

The Vermilion Regional Airport is located northeast of Danville.

Economy

For 2014, Vermilion County had a workforce of 35,643 people; 32,584 were employed and 3,059 (8.6%) were unemployed.[36]

Education

There are 12 school districts in the county that provide primary and secondary education.[37] There are two post-secondary educational institutions: Danville Area Community College, a public two-year community college, and Lakeview College of Nursing, a four-year private institution (both located in Danville).

Government

Based on the 2000 census, Vermilion County is part of the Illinois's 15th congressional district;[38] the Illinois Senate districts 52 and 53; and the Illinois House of Representatives districts 104 and 105.[39]

Each township has a supervisor. The township board consists of the supervisor and four members elected at large from the township.[40]

The Vermilion County Board is controlled by Republicans. Larry Baughn (R) of Hoopeston serves as chairman. The Vermilion County Circuit Court is led by Judge Thomas O’Shaugnessy.[citation needed]

Politics

United States presidential election results for Vermilion County, Illinois[41]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 20,725 65.50% 10,323 32.62% 594 1.88%
2016 19,087 61.93% 10,039 32.58% 1,692 5.49%
2012 16,892 55.57% 12,878 42.36% 630 2.07%
2008 16,054 48.62% 16,246 49.21% 716 2.17%
2004 18,731 55.56% 14,726 43.68% 257 0.76%
2000 15,783 49.17% 15,406 47.99% 911 2.84%
1996 12,015 38.35% 15,525 49.55% 3,789 12.09%
1992 11,703 30.43% 18,383 47.80% 8,375 21.78%
1988 16,943 48.32% 17,918 51.10% 206 0.59%
1984 22,932 57.89% 16,530 41.73% 149 0.38%
1980 22,579 57.07% 14,498 36.64% 2,490 6.29%
1976 19,751 51.24% 18,438 47.83% 357 0.93%
1972 24,863 63.06% 14,413 36.56% 149 0.38%
1968 21,391 49.26% 16,238 37.39% 5,795 13.35%
1964 19,506 44.06% 24,765 55.94% 0 0.00%
1960 26,571 57.34% 19,702 42.51% 69 0.15%
1956 26,534 59.51% 17,991 40.35% 60 0.13%
1952 25,367 57.36% 18,771 42.44% 88 0.20%
1948 18,994 53.29% 16,173 45.37% 479 1.34%
1944 20,794 52.70% 18,387 46.60% 273 0.69%
1940 23,059 49.87% 22,891 49.50% 292 0.63%
1936 18,350 41.56% 25,016 56.65% 790 1.79%
1932 15,643 38.46% 24,032 59.08% 1,002 2.46%
1928 21,616 62.26% 12,728 36.66% 373 1.07%
1924 17,822 54.64% 6,424 19.70% 8,369 25.66%
1920 18,175 61.74% 8,634 29.33% 2,630 8.93%
1916 16,330 50.25% 13,864 42.66% 2,302 7.08%
1912 5,655 32.25% 5,576 31.80% 6,302 35.94%
1908 11,726 60.62% 6,320 32.67% 1,298 6.71%
1904 11,179 66.65% 3,620 21.58% 1,973 11.76%
1900 9,852 59.10% 6,147 36.87% 672 4.03%
1896 8,767 59.14% 5,749 38.78% 309 2.08%
1892 6,892 55.44% 5,001 40.23% 539 4.34%

See also

References

  1. ^ "Vermilion County, Illinois". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 10, 2023.
  2. ^ "Find a County – Vermilion County IL". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  3. ^ Callary, Edward (2009). Place Names of Illinois. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-252-03356-8.
  4. ^ Jones 1911, p. 25.
  5. ^ Jones 1911, pp. 32–35.
  6. ^ Jones 1911, pp. 40–48.
  7. ^ Jones 1911, pp. 57–62.
  8. ^ "Vermilion County Museum". Vermilion County Museum. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  9. ^ "Vermilion County Village Profile". Community Profile Network. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  10. ^ "Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties" (PDF). State of Illinois. March 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 6, 2012.
  11. ^ Circle, Twelve Mile (May 16, 2010). "Adjacent Counties, Same Name, Different States". Twelve Mile Circle. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  12. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  13. ^ United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service. "Acreage and Proportionate Extent of Soils: Vermilion County IL". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  14. ^ Illinois law allows settlements to incorporate as either cities or villages; when incorporated, cities must have a population of at least 2,500, and villages must have a population of at least 500. "Illinois Municipal Code: Municipalities". Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  15. ^ a b c d Stapp 1968, pp. 21, 38–39, 45.
  16. ^ "Townships by County – Vermilion". Township Officials of Illinois. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  17. ^ "The Vermilion County Conservation District". Archived from the original on July 28, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  18. ^ "Illinois State Parks and other Natural Areas — East–Central Region". Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  19. ^ "US Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  20. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  21. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  22. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  23. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  24. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Danville IL". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  25. ^ "Addition Climate Subdivisions". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
  26. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Copernicus Publications. p. 1636. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  27. ^ "Interstate 74". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  28. ^ "US Route 136". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on September 17, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  29. ^ "US Route 150". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  30. ^ "Illinois Route 1". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  31. ^ "Illinois Route 9". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  32. ^ "Illinois Route 49". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  33. ^ "Illinois Route 119". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  34. ^ "Illinois Railroad Map" (PDF). Illinois Department of Transportation. January 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  35. ^ Railroad Retirement Board (June 30, 2003). "Employer Status Determination: Vermilion Valley Railroad Company, Inc". Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  36. ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics" (PDF). Illinois Department of Employment Security. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  37. ^ "Vermilion County Regional Office of Education – Schools". Archived from the original on September 21, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  38. ^ "Illinois Congressional Districts". IllinoisAtlas.com. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  39. ^ "Illinois Legislative Districts". IllinoisAtlas.com. Archived from the original on April 6, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  40. ^ "2005 Illinois 60 ILCS 1/ Township Code". Justia.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  41. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018.

Bibliography

40°11′N 87°44′W / 40.18°N 87.74°W / 40.18; -87.74