Adams County
Adams County courthouse in Decatur
Adams County courthouse in Decatur
Map of Indiana highlighting Adams County
Location within the U.S. state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 40°45′N 84°56′W / 40.75°N 84.94°W / 40.75; -84.94
Country United States
State Indiana
FoundedMarch 1, 1836
Named forJohn Quincy Adams
SeatDecatur
Largest cityDecatur
Area
 • Total339.97 sq mi (880.5 km2)
 • Land339.03 sq mi (878.1 km2)
 • Water0.94 sq mi (2.4 km2)  0.28%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total35,809
 • Estimate 
(2021)[1]
35,961
 • Density110/sq mi (41/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district3rd
FIPS No. 001[2]

Adams County lies in northeastern Indiana in the United States and shares its eastern border with Ohio. It was officially established in 1836. The county seat is Decatur.[3]

According to the 2020 census, its population was 35,809, an increase of 4.1% from 34,387 in 2010.[4] The county has four incorporated cities and towns with a total population of over 15,000,[5] as well as many small unincorporated communities. The county is divided into 12 townships which provide local services.[6][7] There are four Indiana state roads in the county, as well as three U.S. Routes and one railroad line.[8][9]

In 2017, about a quarter of the county's population (estimated 8,600) was Swiss Amish.[10]

History

The statute that mandated creation of this county was passed on February 7, 1835, and the organization itself was authorized on March 1, 1836. Its name honors the sixth President of the United States, John Quincy Adams.[11] Selection of the county seat was finalized on 18 May of that year.[12]

The first non-Native settlers arrived in what is now Adams County in 1835, encouraged by the new Erie Canal and by the end of the Black Hawk War. They consisted entirely of settlers from New England. These were "Yankee" settlers, that is to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the colonial era. They were primarily members of the Congregational Church though due to the Second Great Awakening many of them had converted to Methodism and some had become Baptists before coming to what is now Adams County. The Congregational Church subsequently has gone through many divisions and some factions are now known as the Church of Christ and the United Church of Christ. When these settlers arrived they found dense forest and wild prairie.[13]

The first Amish settlers arrived in 1840; most came directly from Switzerland, preserving their Bernese German dialect, not adopting the Pennsylvania German dialect of the majority of the Amish.[14][15]

The Yankee settlers commissioned the first courthouse in 1839, a two-story frame building. The log-building jail was completed in 1837.[16] The present Adams County courthouse was built in Decatur in 1872–1873 at a cost of $78,979.[n 1] The designer was J. C. Johnson, who had been trained as a carpenter and joiner and became a self-taught architect; he won second place in the Indiana State Capitol design competition. The construction was done by Christian Boseker of Fort Wayne. It is built of red brick with stone ornamentation.[18]

Map of Adams County
Map of Adams County

Geography

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 339.97 square miles (880.5 km2), of which 339.03 square miles (878.1 km2) (or 99.72%) is land and 0.94 square miles (2.4 km2) (or 0.28%) is water.[19]

Adjacent counties

The county has four incorporated settlements, all of which lie in a rough north–south line. The city of Decatur is the largest and is also the county seat, and is in the northern part of the county where U.S. Route 27 and U.S. Route 33 intersect with the east–west U.S. Route 224. U.S. Route 27 continues south through the town of Monroe, near the center of the county, and then on through Berne and Geneva.

Communities

Cities

Unincorporated communities

Townships

Climate and weather

Decatur, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
2.2
 
 
32
17
 
 
2.2
 
 
37
21
 
 
2.9
 
 
48
30
 
 
3.7
 
 
61
39
 
 
3.8
 
 
72
50
 
 
4.4
 
 
81
60
 
 
4
 
 
84
64
 
 
3.7
 
 
82
62
 
 
3
 
 
76
54
 
 
2.6
 
 
64
43
 
 
3.2
 
 
50
34
 
 
2.8
 
 
37
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[20]

Adams County is in the humid continental climate region of the United States along with most of Indiana. Its Köppen climate classification is Dfa,[21] meaning that it is cold, has no dry season, and has a hot summer.[22] In recent years, average temperatures in Decatur have ranged from a low of 17 °F (−8 °C) in January to a high of 84 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of −24 °F (−31 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 107 °F (42 °C) was recorded in July 1934. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.16 inches (55 mm) in February to 4.42 inches (112 mm) in June.[20]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18402,264
18505,797156.1%
18609,25259.6%
187011,38223.0%
188015,38535.2%
189020,18131.2%
190022,23210.2%
191021,840−1.8%
192020,503−6.1%
193019,957−2.7%
194021,2546.5%
195022,3935.4%
196024,64310.0%
197026,8719.0%
198029,61910.2%
199031,0955.0%
200033,6258.1%
201034,3872.3%
202035,8094.1%
2021 (est.)35,9610.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[23]
1790-1960[24] 1900-1990[25]
1990-2000[26] 2010-2015[4] 2019[27] 2020[28][5]

As of the 2020 United States Census, there were 35,809 people, and 12,481 households in the county.[5] The population density was 101.4 inhabitants per square mile (39.2/km2). There were 13,403 housing units at an average density of 39.5 per square mile (15.3/km2).[29] The racial makeup of the county was 97.8% white, 0.6% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.3% were German, 5.6% were Irish, 4.1% were English, and 2.7% were French (not Basque). Additionally, 11.5% of the population has a visible or non-visible disability. [5]

Of the 12,481 households, 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together and 24% had a female householder with no spouse present. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.39. The median age was 33.5 years.[5][29] Of the total population, 77.1% own homes and 8.7% are renters.[5]

Regarding educational attainment, 40.6% of the population has a high school degree or higher, with 15.5% having a bachelor's degree or higher. Manufacturing employees the most employed residents at 31.2%, followed by 17.6% in education, health care and social services, and 10.3% in retail.[5]

The median income for a household in the county was $52,504 and the median income for a family was $65,609. The per capita income for the county was $23,316. About 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.[5]

Amish community

The Amish (Swiss Amish) community in Adams County, whose antecedents trace to 1840, speak a Bernese dialect in everyday life. They had a total population of 8,595 people in 58 congregations in 2017,[10] or 24.2% of the county's population.

Transportation

Three U.S Routes cross the county. U.S. Route 27 and U.S. Route 33 enter the north end of the county from Fort Wayne in neighboring Allen County. Passing through Decatur, they split; U.S. Route 27 goes south through Monroe, Berne and Geneva and continues into Jay County, whereas U.S. Route 33 heads southeast into Ohio.[30][31] U.S. Route 224 passes from west to east through the north part of the county, intersecting U.S. Routes 27 and 33 in Decatur, then continuing into Ohio.[32]

Indiana State Road 124 runs east–west through the county, from Bluffton in Wells County through Monroe and on to the Ohio border.[33] Indiana State Road 101 runs south–north, from State Road 124 near the Ohio border, through Pleasant Mills and Rivare, to Allen County.[34] Indiana State Road 116 runs west–east across the county, from Bluffton southeast to Linn Grove, south to Perryville, then east to a terminus at U.S. Route 27 in Geneva.[35] Indiana State Road 218 runs west–east across the southern end of the county, passing through Berne.[36]

CSX Transportation operates a rail line from Decatur, running northwest toward Fort Wayne.[9]

Government

See also: Government of Indiana

Adams County superior court, Decatur (2006)
Adams County superior court, Decatur (2006)

The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes.[37][38] In 2010, the county budgeted approximately $2.2 million for the district's schools and $2.8 million for other county operations and services, for a total annual budget of approximately $5 million.[39]

A Board of Commissioners forms the county's executive body. They are elected county-wide, in staggered four–year terms. One commissioner serves as Board President. This board executes the acts of the council, causes necessary revenues to be collected, and manages day-to-day functions of the county government.[37][38]

The county maintains a small claims court. This court's judge is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[38]

The county has other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor and circuit court clerk. Each of these serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and be residents of the county.[38]

Each township has a trustee who administers rural fire protection and ambulance service, provides poor relief, and manages cemetery care.[7] The trustee is assisted by a three-member township board. The trustees and board members are elected to four-year terms.[40]

Adams County is part of Indiana's 3rd congressional district; Indiana Senate district 19;[41] and Indiana House of Representatives district 79.[42]

Politically, Adams County is heavily Republican. It has voted for the Republican presidential nominee in all but one election since 1940.

United States presidential election results for Adams County, Indiana[43]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 10,686 75.05% 3,236 22.73% 317 2.23%
2016 9,648 73.12% 2,805 21.26% 741 5.62%
2012 8,937 68.58% 3,806 29.21% 289 2.22%
2008 8,404 62.07% 4,928 36.40% 207 1.53%
2004 9,734 72.97% 3,512 26.33% 94 0.70%
2000 8,555 67.95% 3,775 29.98% 260 2.07%
1996 6,960 55.08% 4,247 33.61% 1,430 11.32%
1992 6,078 47.83% 3,708 29.18% 2,922 22.99%
1988 8,137 67.83% 3,811 31.77% 49 0.41%
1984 7,958 66.58% 3,923 32.82% 71 0.59%
1980 6,368 53.16% 4,673 39.01% 937 7.82%
1976 6,280 55.55% 4,908 43.41% 118 1.04%
1972 7,549 65.24% 3,971 34.32% 52 0.45%
1968 5,774 51.28% 4,667 41.45% 818 7.27%
1964 4,230 38.55% 6,637 60.48% 106 0.97%
1960 6,972 61.11% 4,338 38.02% 99 0.87%
1956 7,079 66.11% 3,520 32.87% 109 1.02%
1952 6,204 59.61% 3,744 35.97% 460 4.42%
1948 4,832 50.10% 4,640 48.11% 173 1.79%
1944 5,648 58.83% 3,804 39.62% 149 1.55%
1940 5,247 53.93% 4,382 45.04% 101 1.04%
1936 3,249 35.28% 5,822 63.23% 137 1.49%
1932 2,910 32.65% 5,892 66.11% 111 1.25%
1928 4,045 49.70% 4,066 49.96% 28 0.34%
1924 3,330 41.34% 4,300 53.38% 425 5.28%
1920 4,144 51.81% 3,653 45.67% 201 2.51%
1916 1,796 36.83% 2,875 58.96% 205 4.20%
1912 917 19.08% 2,961 61.62% 927 19.29%
1908 1,726 32.63% 3,404 64.36% 159 3.01%
1904 1,967 37.92% 2,973 57.32% 247 4.76%
1900 1,688 32.93% 3,337 65.10% 101 1.97%
1896 1,613 32.09% 3,340 66.45% 73 1.45%
1892 1,247 27.92% 2,906 65.05% 314 7.03%
1888 1,277 29.27% 2,936 67.29% 150 3.44%


Education

Public schools in Adams County are administered by three public entities: North Adams Community Schools; Adams Central Community Schools; and South Adams Schools. The Diocese of Fort Wayne and Lutheran Schools of Indiana both operate in Adams County as well. In all, these organizations operate 13 schools in the county.[44]

Festivals and Fairs in Adams County

Media

Radio

Newspapers

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A $79,000 capital expense in 1872 would be roughly equivalent to $18,900,000 in 2010.[17]

References

  1. ^ "QuickFacts: Adams County, Indiana". Census.gov. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  2. ^ "EPA County FIPS Code Listing". EPA.gov. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  3. ^ "Find a County – Adams County IN". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Adams County Census". United States Census Bureau/Indystar. Retrieved October 22, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Explore Census Data". US Census Bureau. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
  6. ^ "Adams". Indiana Township Association. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Duties". United Township Association of Indiana. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  8. ^ "Indiana Transportation Map 2009–2010" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  9. ^ a b "State of Indiana 2011 Rail System Map" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
  10. ^ a b The 12 Largest Amish Communities (2017). at Amish America
  11. ^ Baker, Ronald L.; Carmony, Marvin (1975). Indiana Place Names. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 1.
  12. ^ Goodrich, De Witt Clinton; Tuttle, Charles Richard (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indianapolis: R. S. Peale & Co. pp. 549–550.
  13. ^ Standard History of Adams and Wells Counties, Indiana by John Wilson Tyndall and Orlo Ervin Lesh, 1918
  14. ^ "Who are the Swiss Amish?". amishamerica.com.
  15. ^ "The 10 Oldest Amish Settlements". amishamerica.com.
  16. ^ Snow 1907, p. 83.
  17. ^ Williamson, Samuel H. (April 2010). Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1774 to present. MeasuringWorth. Calculations made using Nominal GDP Per Capita, a measure of capital intensivity, using "the 'average' per-person output of the economy in the prices of the current year." This is a measure of the amount of capital and volume of labor required to reproduce the work over varying production methods, but assuming that money represents a proportion of the economy.
  18. ^ Counts, Will; Jon Dilts (1991). The 92 Magnificent Indiana Courthouses. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-253-33638-5.
  19. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  20. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Decatur, Indiana". The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  21. ^ "Köppen Climate Classification for the Conterminous United States". Idaho State Climate Services. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  22. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Copernicus Publications. p. 1636. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  23. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  24. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  25. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  26. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  27. ^ "QuickFacts. Adams County, Indiana". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  28. ^ Bureau, US Census. "2020 Population and Housing State Data". Census.gov.
  29. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Adams County, Indiana; United States". www.census.gov. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
  30. ^ "U.S. Route 27". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  31. ^ "U.S. Route 33". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  32. ^ "U.S. Route 224". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  33. ^ "State Road 124". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  34. ^ "State Road 101". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  35. ^ "State Road 116". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  36. ^ "State Road 218". Highway Explorer. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  37. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". Government of Indiana. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  38. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). Government of Indiana. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 29, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  39. ^ State of Indiana Department of Local Government Finance. "2010 Budget Order (Adams County, Indiana)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 17, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
  40. ^ "Government". United Township Association of Indiana. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  41. ^ "Indiana Senate Districts". State of Indiana. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  42. ^ "Indiana House Districts". State of Indiana. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  43. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  44. ^ "DOE Compass". Indiana Department of Education. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  45. ^ Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair, ed. (2015). Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. pp. 333–35. ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2.
  46. ^ "Richard R. Schrock - Autobiography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  47. ^ "Overview for David Anspaugh". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  48. ^ "David Smith chronology". David Smith Estate. Archived from the original on October 11, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 40°45′N 84°56′W / 40.75°N 84.94°W / 40.75; -84.94