Paektu Mountain
Baekdu Mountain (Korea)
Changbai Mountain (China)
The summit caldera of Paektu Mountain, with Heaven Lake
Highest point
Elevation2,744 m (9,003 ft)[1]
Prominence2,593 m (8,507 ft)[1]
ListingCountry high point
Ultra
Coordinates41°59′36″N 128°04′39″E / 41.99333°N 128.07750°E / 41.99333; 128.07750
Geography
Paektu Mountain is located in North Korea
Paektu Mountain
Paektu Mountain
Location in North Korea
Paektu Mountain is located in China
Paektu Mountain
Paektu Mountain
Paektu Mountain (China)
Paektu Mountain is located in Jilin
Paektu Mountain
Paektu Mountain
Paektu Mountain (Jilin)
Location
Parent rangeChangbai Mountains
Geology
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Last eruptionMarch 1903[2]
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaningever-white mountain
Korean name
Chosŏn'gŭl백두산
Hancha
Literal meaningwhite head mountain
Chinese Korean name
Chosŏn'gŭl장백산
Hancha長白山
Literal meaningever-white mountain
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡤᠣᠯᠮᡳᠨ ᡧᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᡳᠨ
RomanizationGolmin Šanggiyan Alin

Paektu Mountain or Baekdu Mountain (Korean백두산; Hanja白頭山; RRBaekdusan; MRPaektusan) is an active stratovolcano on the Chinese–North Korean border.[3] In China, it is known as Changbai Mountain (simplified Chinese: 长白山; traditional Chinese: 長白山; pinyin: Chángbáishān; Wade–Giles: Ch'ang2-pai2-shan1). At 2,744 m (9,003 ft), it is the tallest mountain in North Korea and Northeast China and the tallest mountain of the Baekdu-daegan and Changbai mountain ranges. The highest peak, called Janggun Peak, belongs to North Korea. The mountain notably has a caldera that contains a large crater lake called Heaven Lake, and is also the source of the Songhua, Tumen, and Yalu rivers. Korean and Manchu people assign a mythical quality to the mountain and its lake, and consider the mountain to be their ancestral homeland.

The mountain's caldera was formed by an eruption in 946 that released about 100–120 km3 (24–29 cu mi) of tephra. The eruption was among the largest and most powerful eruptions on Earth in the last 5,000 years. The volcano last erupted in 1903, and is expected to erupt around every hundred years. In the 2010s, concerns over an upcoming eruption prompted several countries to commission research into when the volcano might next erupt.[needs update]

The mountain is considered culturally important to multiple groups in the area, including Korean, Chinese, and Manchu people. The mountain is a major national symbol for both North and South Korea, and is mentioned in both national anthems and depicted on the national emblem of North Korea. The Manchu people also consider the mountain their ancestral homeland, and the Chinese Qing dynasty saw it as a symbol of imperial power. The mountain has also been subject to territorial disputes over the past few centuries that have continued into the present.

Names

The mountain was first recorded in the Chinese Classic of Mountains and Seas under the name Bùxiánshān (不鹹山). It is also called Shànshàndàlǐng (單單大嶺) in the Book of the Later Han. In the Book of Wei and the Book of Sui it is also referred to as Dutàishān (徒太山), which is also mentioned as Cóngtàishān (從太山) in the History of the Northern Dynasties, likely as a misspelling of Dutàishān. In the New Book of Tang, it was called Tàibáishān (太白山).[4] The current Chinese name, Chángbáishān (长白山; 長白山; 'ever white mountain'), was first used in the Liao dynasty (916–1125) of the Khitans[5] and then the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) of the Jurchens.[6] The Liao Shi recorded that chiefs of 30 Jurchen tribes from Mount Changbai paid their tribute to the Liao in AD 985. According to the Song dynasty travelogue Songmo Jiwen, it was named as such because the mountain was "the abode of the white-robed Guanyin" and its birds and beasts were all white.[7] The modern Manchu name of the mountain, which is golmin šanggiyan alin (ᡤᠣᠯᠮᡳᠨ ᡧᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᡳᠨ), also means 'ever white mountain'.

The Korean name Paektusan / Baekdusan (백두산; 白頭山) first appears in literature in the 10th year of Seongjong of Goryeo (991) in the Goryeosa, compiled at the beginning of the Joseon period.[8] It means 'white-head mountain'. In other records such as the Samguk Yusa and the Jewang Ungi it is also called Taebaeksan (태백산; 太白山), which means 'great-white mountain'.[9] It was also occasionally called Changbaeksan (長白山) and Baeksan (白山) in the Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty. An alternative Chinese name, Báitóushān (白头山; 白頭山), is the transliteration of Paektusan.[10]

The Mongolian name is Öndör Tsagaan Aula (Өндөр Цагаан Уул), which means 'lofty white mountain'. In English, various authors have used nonstandard transliterations.[11]

Current geography and geology

Relief map

Mount Paektu is 2,744 m (9,003 ft) tall, making it the highest mountain in North Korea and Northeast China and the highest mountain of the Baekdu-daegan and Changbai mountain ranges.[12]

Mount Paektu is a stratovolcano whose cone is truncated by a significant caldera. The central section of the mountain rises about 3 mm (0.12 in) per year due to rising levels of magma below the central part of the mountain. Sixteen peaks exceeding 2,500 m (8,200 ft) line the caldera rim surrounding Heaven Lake. The highest peak, called Janggun Peak, is covered in snow about eight months of the year. The slope is relatively gentle until about 1,800 m (5,910 ft). The caldera is about 5 km (3.1 mi) wide and 850 meters (2,790 ft) deep, and is partially filled by the waters of Heaven Lake.[2]

Heaven Lake has a circumference of 12 to 14 kilometers (7.5 to 8.7 mi), with an average depth of 213 meters (699 ft) and maximum depth of 384 meters (1,260 ft). From mid-October to mid-June, the lake is typically covered with ice. Water flows north out of the lake, and near the outlet there is a 70-meter (230 ft) waterfall. The mountain is the source of the Songhua, Tumen and Yalu rivers. The Tumen and the Yalu form the northern border between North Korea and Russia and China.

Climate

The weather on the mountain can be very erratic, sometimes severe. The annual average temperature at the peak is −4.9 °C (23.2 °F). During summer, temperatures of about 18 °C (64 °F) or higher can be reached, and during winter temperatures can drop to −48 °C (−54 °F). The lowest record temperature was −51 °C (−60 °F) on 2 January 1997. The average temperature is about −24 °C (−11 °F) in January, and 10 °C (50 °F) in July, remaining below freezing for eight months of the year. The average wind speed is 42 km/h (26 mph), peaking at 63 km/h (39 mph). The relative humidity averages 74%.[citation needed]

Geological history

The geological origin of Mount Paektu remains a mystery. Two leading theories are a hotspot, or an uncharted portion of the Pacific Plate sinking beneath Mount Paektu.[13]

Beginning about 5 million years ago, Paektu Mountain erupted, releasing a series of basaltic lava flows that formed a lava plateau. The construction of the cone of the volcano began approximately 1 million years ago, as the eruptive materials transitioned into trachytic pyroclastic and lava flows. During the cone-construction stage, major Plinian-type eruptions occurred in 448, 67.6, 85.8 and 24.5 thousand years ago (ka) and deposited ash in the Japan sea.[14] The cone's growth was halted by two widely-recognized major explosive eruptions: Tianwenfeng and Millennium.[14][15][16]

Tianwenfeng eruption

The Tianwenfeng eruption was the formation of a widespread thick layer of grey, yellow pumice preceding the Millennium eruption.[14][15][16][17][18] The exact age of the eruption is uncertain, since different dating techniques have assigned 4, 51, 61, and 74 ka to this deposit.[17][15] This eruption formed large areas covered in yellow pumice and ignimbrite.[19] Proximal deposits of pumice fall of the Tianwenfeng are thicker than those of the Millennium eruption. This suggests that the eruption of the Tianwenfeng is significant and maybe of similar magnitude to the Millennium eruption, making the Tianwenfeng eruption also of VEI 6–7.[15]

Millennium eruption

Main article: 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain

The mountain's caldera was created in 946 by the colossal (VEI 6)[20] "Millennium" or "Tianchi" eruption, one of the most powerful eruptions in the last 5,000 years, comparable to the 230 CE eruption of Lake Taupō and the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora.[21] The eruption, whose tephra has been found in the southern part of Hokkaidō, Japan, and as far away as Greenland,[22] destroyed much of the volcano's summit, leaving a caldera that today is filled by Heaven Lake.

According to the Korean historical record Goryeosa, in 946 "thunders from heaven's drum" were heard in the city of Kaesong, then the capital of Goryeo, about 450 km (280 mi) south of the volcano.[23] The event reportedly terrified King Jeongjong so much, that convicts were pardoned and set free.[23] According to the Heungboksa Temple's historical records, on 3 November, "white ash rain" fell in Nara, Japan, about 1,100 km (680 mi) southeast from the mountain[23] Three months later, on 7 February 947, explosive noises were reported in the city of Kyoto (Japan), about 1,000 km (620 mi) southeast of Paektu.[23]

Later history

Mount Paektu, April 2003

After these major eruptions, Mount Paektu had at least three smaller eruptions, which occurred in 1668, 1702, and 1903, likely forming the Baguamiao ignimbrite, the Wuhaojie fine pumice, and the Liuhaojie tuff ring.[16]

Research on upcoming eruption

Parts of this article (those related to subsection) need to be updated. The reason given is: Findings of research should be included. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2023)

In 2011, experts in North and South Korea met to discuss the potential for a significant eruption in the near future, as the last eruption was in 1903 and the volcano is expected to erupt around every 100 years.[24][25] The Government of North Korea invited several volcanologists, including James Hammond, Clive Oppenheimer, and Kayla Iacovino, to study the mountain for recent volcanic activity.[26][27] This made Iacovino the first foreign female researcher to conduct research in North Korea.[28][29] The researchers began publishing their research in 2016 and in February 2020 formed the Mt. Paektu Research Center.[30]

Flora and fauna

There are five known species of plants in the lake on the peak, and some 168 have been counted along its shores. The forest on the Chinese side is ancient and almost unaltered by humans. Birch predominates near the tree line, and pine lower down, mixed with other species. There has been extensive deforestation on the lower slopes on the North Korean side of the mountain.[citation needed]

The area is a known habitat for Siberian tigers, bears, wolves, and wild boars.[31] The Ussuri dholes may have been extirpated from the area. Deer in the mountain forests, which cover the mountain up to about 2,000 meters (6,600 ft), are of the Paekdusan roe deer kind. Many wild birds such as black grouse, owls, and woodpecker are known to inhabit the area. The mountain has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because it supports a population of scaly-sided mergansers.[32]

Cultural history

The mountain has been worshipped by the surrounding peoples throughout history. A considerable percentage of the Koreans and Manchus consider it sacred, especially the Heaven Lake in its crater.[33][34]

Korea

Mount Paektu on the national emblem of North Korea.
A painting of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il standing at the peak of Mount Paektu

The mountain has been considered sacred by Koreans throughout history.[34] According to Korean mythology, it was the birthplace of Dangun, the founder of Gojoseon (2333–108 BC), whose parents were said to be Hwanung, the Son of Heaven, and Ungnyeo, a bear who had been transformed into a woman.[35] The Goryeo and Joseon dynasties also worshiped the mountain.[36][37]

The Goryeo dynasty (935–1392) first called the mountain Paektu,[38] recording that the Jurchens across the Yalu River were made to live outside of Mount Paektu. The Joseon dynasty (1392–1910) recorded volcanic eruptions in 1597, 1668, and 1702. In the 15th century, King Sejong strengthened the fortification along the Tumen and Yalu rivers, making the mountain a natural border with the northern peoples.[39] Some Koreans claim that the entire region near Mount Paektu and the Tumen River belongs to Korea and parts of it were illegally given away by Japanese colonialists to China through the Gando Convention.[citation needed]

Mount Paektu is mentioned in the national anthems of both North and South Korea and in the Korean folk song "Arirang".

Dense forest around the mountain provided bases for Korean armed resistance against the Japanese occupation, and later communist guerrillas during the Korean War. Kim Il Sung organized his resistance against the Japanese forces there, and North Korea claims that Kim Jong Il was born there,[40] although records outside of North Korea suggest that he was born in the Soviet Union.[41][42]

The peak has been featured on the state emblem of North Korea since 1993, as defined in Article 169 of the Constitution, which describes Mt. Paektu as "the sacred mountain of the revolution".[43] The mountain is often referred to in slogans such as: "Let us accomplish the Korean revolution in the revolutionary spirit of Paektu, the spirit of the blizzards of Paektu!"[44] North Korean media celebrates natural phenomena witnessed at the mountain as portentous,[45] and weather forecasts aired by state broadcaster Korean Central Television list Paektu behind only the capital of Pyongyang.[46] The mountain's name is used for various products, such as the Paektusan rocket, the Paektusan computer, and the Mt Paektu handgun.[47][48][49]

In the 2019 South Korean disaster film Ashfall, the mountain erupts and causes severe earthquakes in the Korean peninsula.[50]

In the popular strategy game Europa Universalis 4 the mountain appears as part of a Korean mission entitled "Access to Mt. Paektu" where the player must obtain the province the mountain occurs in.[51]

China

Painting from the Manchu Veritable Records with the names of Mount Paektu in Manchu, Chinese and Mongolian

Mount Changbai was regarded as the most sacred mountain in the shamanist religion of the Manchus, and their ancestors Sushen and Jurchens.[52] The Jin dynasty bestowed the title "the King Who Makes the Nation Prosperous and Answers with Miracles" (興國靈應王) on the mountain in 1172 and it was entitled "the Emperor Who Cleared the Sky with Tremendous Sagehood" (開天宏聖帝) in 1193. A temple for the mountain god was constructed on the northern side.[7]

The Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, which founded the Qing dynasty of China, claimed their progenitor Bukūri Yongšon was conceived near Paektu Mountain. In 1682, 1698, 1733, 1754 and 1805, Qing emperors visited Jilin and paid homage to the mountain. The rites at Mount Changbai were heavily influenced by the ancient Feng Shan ceremonies, in which Chinese emperors offered sacrifices to heaven and earth at Mount Tai. The Kangxi Emperor claimed that Mount Tai and Changbai belong to the same mountain range, which runs from northeast to southwest but is partially submerged under the sea before reaching Shandong. The geography and feng shui of Mount Changbai thus provided legitimacy to the Aisin Gioro clan's rule over China.[52]

Baishan Heishui, "white mountain and black river", referring to Mount Changbai and the Heilongjiang, has been a traditional name for Northeast China since the Jin dynasty.[53]

Sovereignty disputes

Historical

Map showing the Chinese-North Korean border region around Paektu Mountain

According to Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the Yalu and Tumen Rivers were set as the borders in the era of the founder of Joseon Dynasty, Taejo of Joseon (1335–1408).[54] Because of the continuous entry of Korean people into Gando, a region in Manchuria that lay north of the Tumen, Manchu and Korean officials surveyed the area and negotiated a border agreement in 1712. To mark the agreement, they built a monument describing the boundary at a watershed, near the south of the crater lake at the mountain peak. Volume 8 of the Annals of King Taejo, 2nd article of Gyemyo, December 14, 4th year of King Taejo, 1395, 28th year of Ming Hongwu Since the 19th century, interpretations of the inscription have been relevant in some territorial disputes.[citation needed]

The 1909 Gando Convention between China and Japan, when Korea was under Japanese rule, recognized the north and east of the mountain as Chinese territory.[55]

Recent

See also: Sino–Korean Border Agreement

In 1962 and 1964, China and North Korea negotiated two treaties in secret that outlined their modern borders. Both treaties especially focused on the sovereignty of Paektu and Heaven Lake. As a result of the treaties, North Korea received 280 km2 (110 sq mi)[56] of land on and around Paektu, 9 out of 16 peaks, and 54.5% of Heaven Lake.[57][58][55] Neither treaty is recognized by the governments of Taiwan or South Korea.[55]

As of 2013, South Korea formally claimed the caldera lake and the inside part of the ridge.[59] However, some South Korean groups argue that recent activities conducted on the Chinese side of the border, such as economic development, cultural festivals, infrastructure development, promotion of the tourism industry, attempts at registration as a World Heritage Site, and bids for a Winter Olympic Games, constitute attempts to claim the mountain as Chinese territory.[60][61] These groups object to China's use of the name Mount Changbai.[6] Some groups also regard the entire mountain as Korean territory that was given away by North Korea in the Korean War.[61]

During the 2007 Asian Winter Games, which were held in Changchun, China, a group of South Korean athletes held up signs during the award ceremony which stated "Mount Paektu is our territory". Chinese sports officials delivered a letter of protest on the grounds that political activities violated the spirit of the Olympics and were banned in the charter of the International Olympic Committee and the Olympic Council of Asia. Officials from the South Korean athletic team apologized to China.[62][63][64]

Tourism

Most Chinese, Russian, South Korean and international visitors climb the mountain from the Chinese side. The North Korean side of the mountain is also popular among visitors to North Korea.[citation needed] The Chinese tourism area is classified as a AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration.[65]

There are a number of monuments on the North Korean side of the mountain. Paektu Spa is a natural spring and is used for bottled water.[citation needed] Pegae Hill is a camp site of the Korean People's Revolutionary Army [ko] allegedly led by Kim Il Sung during their struggle against Japanese colonial rule.[citation needed] Secret camps are also now open to the public. There are several waterfalls, including the Hyongje Falls which splits into two about a third of the way from the top.[citation needed] In 1992, on the occasion of the 80th birthday of Kim Il-sung, a large sign with the words "Holy mountain of the revolution" written in metal letters was erected on the side of the mountain.[citation needed] North Koreans[who?] claim that there are 216 steps leading to the top of the mountain, symbolizing Kim Jong Il's 16 February birth date, but this claim is disputed.[66] On the North Korean side of the mountain, there is a funicular system with two cars.[67] This was updated with new funicular cars built by the Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works, with the new cars successfully running on the funicular from 30 October 2020.[68][69]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Paektu-san, China/North Korea". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Changbaishan". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  3. ^ Coghlan, Andy (15 April 2016). "Waking supervolcano makes North Korea and West join forces". NewScientist. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  4. ^ Second Canonical Book of the Tang Dynasty. 新唐書.北狄渤海傳》:"契丹盡忠殺營州都督趙翽反,有舍利乞乞仲象者,與靺鞨酋乞四比羽及高麗餘種東走,度遼水,保太白山之東北,阻奧婁河,樹壁自固。" (English translation: Khitan general Li Jinzhong killed Zhao Hui, the commanding officer of Yin Zhou. Officer Dae Jung-sang, with Mohe chieftain Qisi Piyu and Goguryeo remnants, escaped to the east, crossed Liao River, guarded the northeast part of the Grand Old White Mountain, blocked Oulou River, built walls to protect themselves.)
  5. ^ "Records of Khitan Empire". 《契丹國志》:"長白山在冷山東南千餘里......禽獸皆白。"(English translation: "Changbai Mountain is a thousand miles to the southeast of Cold Mountain...Birds and animals there are all white.")
  6. ^ a b "Canonical History Records of the Jurchen Jin Dynasty". 金史.卷第三十五》:"長白山在興王之地,禮合尊崇,議封爵,建廟宇。""厥惟長白,載我金德,仰止其高,實惟我舊邦之鎮。" (English translation: "Changbai Mountain is in old Jurchen land, highly respectful, suitable for building temples. Only the Changbai Mountain can carry Jin Dynasty's spirit; It is so high; It is a part of our old land.")
  7. ^ a b Han, Ai, ed. (25 July 2018). "Xún mài zhǎngbáishān sù wénhuà yuán qǐ" 寻脉长白山溯文化源起 [Looking for pulses and tracing the origin of culture in Changbai Mountain] (in Chinese). Changchun Daily. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  8. ^ "압록강 바깥의 여진족을 백두산 너머로 쫓아내어, 그 곳에서 거주하게 하였다."(逐鴨綠江外女眞於白頭山外, 居之.) 출처: 《고려사》 성종 10년조 겨울 10월 무진일
  9. ^ "백두산(白頭山)". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  10. ^ Zhōngguó dìtú jí 中国地图集 [Atlas of China] (in Chinese). China Map Publishing House. 1999. p. 31. ISBN 7-5031-2136-X.
  11. ^ Examples:
  12. ^ Ehlers, Jürgen; Gibbard, Philip (2004). Quaternary Glaciations: South America, Asia, Africa, Australasia, Antarctica. Elsevier. The Changbai Mountain is the highest (2570 m a.s.l.) in north-eastern China (42°N, 128°E) on the border between China and Korea.
  13. ^ "NERC - Science without borders". Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  14. ^ a b c Zhang, Maoliang; Guo, Zhengfu; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Guoming; Zhang, Lihong; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Wenbin; Ma, Lin; Sepe, Vincenzo; Ventura, Guido (2018). "The intraplate Changbaishan volcanic field (China/North Korea): A review on eruptive history, magma genesis, geodynamic significance, recent dynamics and potential hazards". Earth-Science Reviews. 187: 19–52. Bibcode:2018ESRv..187...19Z. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.07.011. S2CID 135133402.
  15. ^ a b c d Pan, Bo; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Xu, Jiandong; Liu, Songjun; Xu, Dan (2020). "Late Pleistocene to present day eruptive history of the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, China/DPRK: New field, geochronological and chemical constraints". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 399: 106870. Bibcode:2020JVGR..39906870P. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.106870. S2CID 218936429.
  16. ^ a b c Wei, Haiquan; Liu, Guoming; Gill, James (2013). "Review of eruptive activity at Tianchi volcano, Changbaishan, northeast China: implications for possible future eruptions". Bulletin of Volcanology. 75 (4): 706. Bibcode:2013BVol...75..706W. doi:10.1007/s00445-013-0706-5. ISSN 1432-0819. S2CID 128947824.
  17. ^ a b Sun, Chunqing; Liu, Jiaqi; You, Haitao; Nemeth, Karoly (2017). "Tephrostratigraphy of Changbaishan volcano, northeast China, since the mid-Holocene". Quaternary Science Reviews. 177: 104–119. Bibcode:2017QSRv..177..104S. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2017.10.021.
  18. ^ Chen, Xuan-Yu; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Xu, Yi-Gang; McLean, Danielle; Tomlinson, Emma L.; Albert, Paul G.; Liu, Jia-Qi; Müller, Stefanie; Wagner, Mayke; Menzies, Martin A. (1 June 2016). "Clarifying the distal to proximal tephrochronology of the Millennium (B–Tm) eruption, Changbaishan Volcano, northeast China". Quaternary Geochronology. 33: 61–75. Bibcode:2016QuGeo..33...61C. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2016.02.003. ISSN 1871-1014. S2CID 28586567.
  19. ^ Liu, Ruoxin (1998). Zhǎngbáishān tiānchí huǒshān jìndài pēnfā 长白山天池火山近代喷发 [Modern eruption of Tianchi volcano in Changbai Mountain] (in Chinese). Science Press. ISBN 9787030062857.
  20. ^ "Global Volcanism Program | Changbaishan". Smithsonian Institution | Global Volcanism Program. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  21. ^ Pan, Bo; Xu, Jiandong (2013). "Climatic impact of the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano in China: New insights from high-precision radiocarbon wiggle-match dating" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (1): 54–59. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40...54X. doi:10.1029/2012GL054246.
  22. ^ Sigl, M.; Winstrup, M.; McConnell, J. R.; Welten, K. C.; Plunkett, G.; Ludlow, F.; Büntgen, U.; Caffee, M.; Chellman, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Fischer, H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kostick, C.; Maselli, O. J.; Mekhaldi, F.; Mulvaney, R.; Muscheler, R.; Pasteris, D. R.; Pilcher, J. R.; Salzer, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Steffensen, J. P.; Vinther, B. M.; Woodruff, T. E. (2015). "Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years". Nature. 523 (7562). Macmillan Publishers: 543–549. Bibcode:2015Natur.523..543S. doi:10.1038/nature14565. PMID 26153860. S2CID 4462058.
  23. ^ a b c d Hayakawa, Yukio; Koyama, Masato (1998). "Nihonkai o hasande 10 seiki ni aitsuide okotta futatsu no dai funka no nengappi: Towadako to hakutōsan" 日本海をはさんで10世紀に相次いで起こった二つの大噴火の年月日 : 十和田湖と白頭山 [Dates of two major eruptions that occurred one after another in the 10th century across the Sea of Japan: Lake Towada and Mt. Baekdu]. Volcano (in Japanese). 43 (5): 403–407. doi:10.18940/kazan.43.5_403.
  24. ^ Stone, Richard (2011). "Vigil at North Korea's Mount Doom". Science Magazine. 334 (6056): 584–588. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..584S. doi:10.1126/science.334.6056.584. PMID 22053023. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  25. ^ Sam Kim, Yonhap (22 March 2011). "S. Korea agrees to talks on possible volcano in N. Korea". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  26. ^ "Rumbling volcano sees N. Korea warm to the West". CBS News. 16 September 2014.
  27. ^ Hammond, James (9 February 2016). "Understanding Volcanoes in Isolated Locations". Science & Diplomacy. 5 (1).
  28. ^ Fleur, Nicholas St (9 December 2016). "Only a Rumbling Volcano Could Make North Korea and the West Play Nice". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  29. ^ "Dr. Kayla Iacovino: In the footsteps of a volcano scientist". discov-her.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  30. ^ "Publications". 19 March 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  31. ^ Gomà Pinilla, D. (2004). Border Disputes between China and North Korea. China Perspectives 2004(52): 1−9.
  32. ^ "Mount Paekdu". Important Bird Areas factsheet. BirdLife International. 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  33. ^ Fravel, M. Taylor (2008). Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes. Princeton University Press. pp. 321–2. ISBN 978-1-4008-2887-6.
  34. ^ a b Choe Sang-Hun (26 September 2016). "For South Koreans, a Long Detour to Their Holy Mountain". The New York Times. New York.
  35. ^ Cumings, Bruce (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 22–25. ISBN 978-0-393-32702-1.
  36. ^ "Korea Britannica" (in Korean). Enc.daum.net. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  37. ^ Song, Yong-deok (2007). "The recognition of mountain Baekdu in the Koryo dynasty and early times of the Joseon dynasty". History and Reality V.64.
  38. ^ Goryeosa (King Gwangjong reign, 959)
  39. ^ "Yahoo Korea Encyclopedia". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  40. ^ "Moved". Korea-dpr.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  41. ^ Sheets, Lawrence (12 February 2004). "A Visit to Kim Jong Il's Russian Birthplace". NPR.
  42. ^ "Profile: Kim Jong-il". BBC News. 16 January 2009.
  43. ^ Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 2014. p. 35. ISBN 978-9946-0-1099-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2015. Amended and supplemented on April 1, Juche 102 (2013), at the Seventh Session of the Twelfth Supreme People's Assembly.
  44. ^ Gee, Alison (13 February 2015). "Decoding North Korea's fish and mushroom slogans". BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  45. ^ "Wonders of nature". Korean Central News Agency. 12 July 1997. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014.
  46. ^ Williams, Martyn (29 April 2019). "KCTV refreshes its weather forecast presentation %". North Korea Tech - 노스코리아테크. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  47. ^ Cumings, Bruce (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 28, 435. ISBN 978-0-393-32702-1.
  48. ^ Jager, Sheila Miyoshi (2013). Brothers at War – The Unending Conflict in Korea. London: Profile Books. pp. 464–65. ISBN 978-1-84668-067-0.
  49. ^ Ha, Yuna (2 October 2018). "Mt. Paektu handgun gifted by former Supreme Leader vanishes". Daily NK. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  50. ^ Kao, Anthony (29 December 2019). "Review: "Ashfall" Is An Epic Disaster Film With Korean Flavor…And Tropes Galore". Cinema Escapist. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  51. ^ "Korean missions - Europa Universalis 4 Wiki". eu4.paradoxwikis.com. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  52. ^ a b "清朝祭拜长白山的故事". Jilin Archives Information Network. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  53. ^ "Báishānhēishuǐ" 白山黑水 [White mountains and black waters]. moedict.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  54. ^ "olanghabgwa suojeoggae deung 4in tuhangsasilgwa dangsi bugbang yaindeul-ui gwihwa siltae" 오랑합과 수오적개 등 4인 투항사실과 당시 북방 야인들의 귀화 실태 [The surrender of four people, including Oranghap and Suojeokgae, and the naturalization of northern barbarians at the time.]. Veritable Records of Taejo (in Korean). Vol. 8.
  55. ^ a b c Shen, Zhihua; Xia, Yafeng (2013). "Contested Border: A Historical Investigation into the Sino-Korean Border Issue, 1950–1964". Asian Perspective. 37 (1). Johns Hopkins University Press: 1–30. doi:10.1353/apr.2013.0002. ISSN 0258-9184. JSTOR 42704816. S2CID 153826874.
  56. ^ Jeong, Jae-wal (15 October 2000). "[bug·jung guggyeongjoyagseo naeyong yoyag]" [북·중 국경조약서 내용 요약] [Summary of the Sino-North Korean border treaty]. JoongAng Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  57. ^ Fravel, M. Taylor (1 October 2005). "Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation: Explaining China's Compromises in Territorial Disputes". International Security. 30 (2): 46–83. doi:10.1162/016228805775124534. ISSN 0162-2889. S2CID 56347789.
  58. ^ 역사비평 (Historical Criticism), Fall 1992
  59. ^ Lee, Oe-moo (29 December 1984). "baegdusancheonji" 백두산천지 [Baekdu Mountain Heaven and Earth]. Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). Retrieved 27 December 2013 – via Newslibrary.naver.com.
  60. ^ Chosun Archived 17 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ a b Donga.
  62. ^ "China Upset with 'Baekdu Mountain' Skaters". The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2007. 'There are no territorial disputes between China and South Korea. What the Koreans did this time hurt the feelings of the Chinese people and violated the spirit of the Olympic Charter and the Olympic Council of Asia,' the official said, according to the China News.
  63. ^ The Korea Times, "Seoul Cautious Over Rift With China" Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2 February 2007
  64. ^ "Sports World Korea". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  65. ^ "AAAAA Scenic Areas". China National Tourism Administration. 16 November 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  66. ^ Bärtås, Magnus; Ekman, Fredrik (2014). Hirviöidenkin on kuoltava: Ryhmämatka Pohjois-Koreaan [All Monsters Must Die: An Excursion to North Korea] (in Finnish). Translated by Eskelinen, Heikki. Helsinki: Tammi. pp. 82–86. ISBN 978-951-31-7727-0.
  67. ^ "Mount Paektu". transphoto.org. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  68. ^ Rodong, Sinmun (30 October 2020). "New Achievement Made by Kim Jong Thae Electric Locomotive Complex". rodong.rep.kp. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  69. ^ "Manufacturer of Rolling Stock". Naenara. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.

Further reading

volcan