All genuine rosewoods belong to the genusDalbergia. The pre-eminent rosewood appreciated in the Western world is the wood of Dalbergia nigra. It is best known as "Brazilian rosewood", but also as "Bahia rosewood". This wood has a strong, sweet smell, which persists for many years, explaining the name rosewood.
Another classic rosewood comes from Dalbergia latifolia, known as (East) Indian rosewood or sonokeling (Indonesia). It is native to India and is also grown in plantations elsewhere in Pakistan (Chiniot).
Throughout southeast Asia, Dalbergia oliveri is harvested for use in woodworking. It has a very fragrant and dense grain near the core, but the outer sapwood is soft and porous. Dalbergia cultrata, variegated burgundy to light brown in color, is a blackwood timber sold as Burmese rosewood. Products built with rosewood-based engineered woods are sold as 'Malaysian rosewood' or as D. oliveri.
Some rosewood comes from Dalbergia retusa, also known as 'Nicaraguan rosewood' or as cocobolo. Several species are known as Guatemalan rosewood or Panama rosewood: D. tucerencis, D. tucarensis, and D. cubiquitzensis. Honduran rosewood:D. stevensonii is used for marimba keys, guitar parts, clarinets and other musical and ornamental applications.
Not all species in the large genus Dalbergia yield rosewoods; only about a dozen species do. The woods of some other species in the genus Dalbergia are notable—even famous—woods in their own right: African blackwood, cocobolo, kingwood, and Brazilian tulipwood.
Some species become canopy trees (up to 30 m high), and large pieces can occasionally be found in the trade.
The timber trade sells many timbers under the name 'rosewood' (usually with an adjective) due to some (outward) similarities. A fair number of these timbers come from other legume genera; one such species that is often mentioned is Bolivian Machaerium scleroxylon sold as 'Bolivian rosewood'. Another that may be found in market from Southeast Asia is Pterocarpus indicus, sold as 'New Guinea rosewood' (and related species). Dalbergia sissoo is a rosewood species from India and Bangladesh, usually known as sheesham or North-Indian rosewood. Its timber is extremely dense and has mild rot resistance but is porous, and its exterior is soft and susceptible to wood-boring insects. It is used for making cabinets and flooring, and for carving. It is exported as quality veneers. Due to its after-work quality when sealed and dyed, it is often sold as genuine rosewood or as teak. It has no discernible qualities of a genuine rosewood. Its strength is comparable with teak, but it has lower quality and price than teak or Dalbergia latifolia.
Although its wood bears no resemblance whatsoever to the true rosewoods, the Australian rose mahogany (Dysoxylum fraserianum, family Meliaceae) and Australian blackwood, (Acacia melanoxylon) are also sold as rosewood. Acacia excelsa is also commonly known as ironwood or rosewood. Australian rose mahogany, due to the strong smell of roses from freshly cut bark, is more mistakenly termed a "rosewood".
Back of guitar made with East Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia)
Rosewood oil, used in perfume, is extracted from the wood of Aniba rosaeodora, which is not related to the rosewoods used for lumber. Rosewood is also used for bracelets and necklaces.
The dust created from sanding rosewood is known to be a sensitizing irritant and can trigger asthma and other respiratory ailments. Continual or heightened exposure can increase sensitivity.
Status as an endangered species
In general, world stocks are poor through overexploitation. Rosewood is now protected worldwide. At a summit of the international wildlife trade in South Africa, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) moved to protect the world's most trafficked wild product by placing all 300 species of the rosewood tree under trade restrictions. At CITES meetings in 2013, 2016, and 2019, additional rosewood species were listed for protection, triggering market booms in China.
Presence of hints of coarse grains with the shiny and silky smooth texture, compared to the glossy finish of artificial polishes
Even texture with an orange/yellow-red to deep purple with black bars color range: Even if artificial dyes can reproduce the color, if with an uneven texture it can be confirmed the product is not made of rosewood. Fake rosewoods products have a thick color or light colors with white color in some space.
If directly bought from workshop, the sawdust has a flowery aroma. If not, the product is compromised. Certain showpieces might have an unusual aroma; this is the effect of fragrant aerosol, not the quality.
A drop of water mixed with sawdust makes the dust submerged and the droplet has a purplish precipitation.
A gentle knock on the wood produces a crisp sound without noise.
List of rosewoods
From Dalbergia species:
Amazone Rosewood, Para Rosewood (Dalbergia spruceana)
Bahia Rosewood, (Brazilian) Tulipwood, Pau Rosa, Pinkwood, Bois de rose (Dalbergia decipularis)
Black Rosewood, Nicaraguan, Mexican or Panama and Central American Rosewood (Dalbergia retusa)
Brazilian Rosewood, also Bahia or Rio Rosewood, Jacaranda, White Rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), german Rio-Palisander