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A snowboard with strap-in bindings(duckstance) and stomp pad
A snowboard with strap-in bindings(duckstance) and stomp pad
A snowboarder riding powder
A snowboarder riding powder
A snowboarder wearing helmet
A snowboarder wearing helmet

Snowboards are boards where the user places both feet, usually secured, to the same board. The board itself is wider than most skis, with the ability to glide on snow.[1] Snowboards widths are between 6 and 12 inches or 15 to 30 centimeters.[2] Snowboards are differentiated from monoskis by the stance of the user. In monoskiing, the user stands with feet inline with direction of travel (facing tip of monoski/downhill) (parallel to long axis of board), whereas in snowboarding, users stand with feet transverse (more or less) to the longitude of the board. Users of such equipment may be referred to as snowboarders. Commercial snowboards generally require extra equipment such as bindings and special boots which help secure both feet of a snowboarder, who generally ride in an upright position.[1] These types of boards are commonly used by people at ski hills, mountains, backcountry, or resorts for leisure, entertainment, and competitive purposes in the activity called snowboarding.

History

In 1917, Vern Wicklund, at the age of 13, fashioned a shred deck in Cloquet, Minnesota. This modified sled was dubbed a "bunker" by Vern and his friends. He, along with relatives Harvey and Gunnar Burgeson, patented the very first snowboard twenty two years later in 1939. [3]

However, a man by the name of Sherman Poppen, from Muskegon, MI, came up with what most consider the first "snowboard" in 1965 and was called the Snurfer (a blend of "snow" and "surfer") who sold his first 4 "snurfers" to Randall Baldwin Lee of Muskegon, MI who worked at Outdoorsman Sports Center 605 Ottawa Street in Muskegon, MI (owned by Justin and Richard Frey). Randy believes that Sherman took an old water ski and made it into the snurfer for his children who were bored in the winter. He added bindings to keep their boots secure. (Randy Lee, October 14, 2014)[4] Commercially available Snurfers in the late 1960s and early 1970s had no bindings. The snowboarder held onto a looped nylon lanyard attached to the front of the Snurfer, and stood upon several rows of square U-shaped staples that were partially driven into the board but protruded about 1 cm above the board's surface to provide traction even when packed with snow. Later Snurfer models replaced the staples with ridged rubber grips running longitudinally along the length of the board (originally) or, subsequently, as subrectangular pads upon which the snowboarder would stand. It is widely accepted that Jake Burton Carpenter (founder of Burton Snowboards)[4] and/or Tom Sims (founder of Sims Snowboards) invented modern snowboarding by introducing bindings and steel edges to snowboards in the late 1970s. Sims was an avid skateboarder in 1963 when he built a crude “ski board” in his seventh-grade wood shop class in Haddonfield, N.J., so he could continue to ride during the winter.

Snowboarding began to spread internationally. In 1981, a couple of Winterstick team riders went to France at the invitation of Alain Gaimard, marketing director at Les Arcs.[5] After seeing an early film of this event, French skiers/surfers Augustin Coppey, Olivier Lehaneur, Olivier Roland and Antoine Yarmola made their first successful attempts during the winter of 1983 in France (Val Thorens), using primitive, home-made clones of the Winterstick. Starting with pure powder, skateboard-shaped wooden-boards equipped with aluminium fins, foot-straps and leashes, their technology evolved within a few years to pressed wood/fiber composite boards fitted with polyethylene soles, steel edges and modified ski boot shells. These were more suitable for the mixed conditions encountered while snowboarding mainly off-piste, but having to get back to ski lifts on packed snow. In 1985, James Bond popularized snowboarding in the movie A View to a Kill. In the scene, he escapes Soviet agents who are on skis with a makeshift snowboard made from the debris of a snowmobile that exploded. The actual snowboard used for the stunt was a Sims snowboard ridden by founder Tom Sims. By 1986, although still very much a minority sport, commercial snowboards had started appearing in French ski resorts.

Contemporaneously, the Snurfer was being turned into a snowboard on the other side of the iron curtain. In 1980, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh and Alexei Melnikov - two members of the only Snurfer club in the Soviet Union started changing the Snurfer design to allow jumping and to improve control on hard packed snow. Apparently unaware of developments in the Snurfer/snowboard world, they attached a bungee cord to the Snurfer tail which the rider could grab before jumping. Later, in 1982, they attached a foot binding to the Snurfer. The binding was only for the back foot, and had a release capability. In 1985, after several iterations of the Snurfer binding system, Aleksey Ostatnigrosh made the first Russian snowboard. The board was cut out of a single vinyl plastic sheet and had no metal edges. The bindings were attached by a central bolt and could rotate while on the move or be fixed at any angle. In 1988, OstatniGROsh and MELnikov started the first Russian snowboard manufacturing company, GROMEL

The first fibreglass snowboard with binding was made by Santa Cruz inventor Gary Tracy of GARSKI with the assistance of Bill Bourke in their factory in Santa Cruz in 1982. One of these original boards is still on display at Santa Cruz Skateboards in Capitola, CA. By the mid-80s, snowboarding had considerable commercial success with multiple competing companies. Burton had established a European Division by the mid-1980s. In Canada in 1983, a teenager named David Kemper began building his first snowboards in his garage in Ontario, Canada. By 1987, Kemper Snowboards was launched and became one of the top snowboard brands among Burton, Sims, and Barfoot.

The International Ski Federation (FIS) recognized snowboarding as a discipline in 1994. Snowboarding made its Olympic debut at the 1998 Nagano Winter Games. Men's and Women's halfpipe and giant slalom competitions were an instant success due to their overwhelming popularity with spectators. However, FIS was responsible for the scoring system and course design which were riddled with issues. FIS did not consult snowboarding pioneers and experts, and instead deciding to leave the contest rules and governing up to inexperienced FIS professionals. The giant slalom course was not properly maintained and the snowboarding events were scheduled right after the skiing events, which posed dangers to contestants due to ice and chop. At the 2002 winter games held in Salt Lake City, UT, FIS decided to consult US snowboard industry experts and together they made the competition safer for the athletes and added a viable scoring system. The 2006 Winter Games in Turin saw the addition of snowboard cross. Slopestyle events were added in 2014, and Big Air in 2018.

By 2008 snowboarding was a $487 million industry[4] with average equipment costs running to around $540 for board, boots, and bindings.

Board types

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Diagram of a Snowboard and its various elements that affect sizing
Diagram of a Snowboard and its various elements that affect sizing

The bottom or 'base' of the snowboard is generally made of UHMW and is surrounded by a thin strip of steel, known as the 'edge'. Artwork was primarily printed on PBT using a sublimation process in the 1990s, but poor color retention and fade after moderate use moved high-end producers to longer-lasting materials.[6]

Snowboards come in several different styles, depending on the type of riding intended:

Snowboards are generally constructed of a hardwood core which is sandwiched between multiple layers of fibreglass. Some snowboards incorporate the use of more exotic materials such as carbon fiber, Kevlar, aluminium (as a honeycomb core structure), and have incorporated piezo dampers. The front (or "nose") of the board is upturned to help the board glide over uneven snow. The back (or "tail") of the board is also upturned to enable backwards (or "switch") riding. The base (the side of the board which contacts the ground) is made of Polyethylene plastic. The two major types of base construction are extruded and sintered. An extruded base is a basic, low-maintenance design which basically consists of the plastic base material melted into its form. A sintered base uses the same material as an extruded base, but first grinds the material into a powder, then, using heat and pressure, molds the material into its desired form. A sintered base is generally softer than its extruded counterpart, but has a porous structure which enables it to absorb wax. This wax absorption (along with a properly done 'hot wax'), greatly reduces surface friction between the base and the snow, allowing the snowboard to travel on a thin layer of water. Snowboards with sintered bases are much faster, but require semi-regular maintenance and are easier to damage. The bottom edges of the snowboard are fitted with a thin strip of steel, just a couple of millimeters wide. This steel edge allows the board to grab or 'dig into' hard snow and ice (like the blade of an ice skate), and also protects the boards internal structure. The top of the board is typically a layer of acrylic with some form of graphic designed to attract attention, showcase artwork, or serve the purpose similar to that of any other form of printed media. Flite Snowboards, an early designer, pressed the first closed-molded boards from a garage in Newport, Rhode Island, in the mid-1980s.[citation needed] Snowboard topsheet graphics can be a highly personal statement and many riders spend many hours customizing the look of their boards. The top of some boards may even include thin inlays with other materials, and some are made entirely of epoxy-impregnated wood. The base of the board may also feature graphics, often designed in a manner to make the board's manufacturer recognizable in photos.

Snowboard designs differ primarily in:

Board construction

Snowboard with step-in bindings and boots
Snowboard with step-in bindings and boots

The various components of a snowboard are:

Extruded: The Polyethylene base material is cut from a large sheet, or squeezed out of a machine much like "Play-Doh". A low maintenance base, it is the least expensive and easiest to repair. Extruded bases are smoother and less porous than other bases. They do not saturate with wax well, and tend to slide slower than other bases. But left unwaxed they do not lose much overall performance. Extruded P-Tex is also cheaper than sintered P-Tex
Sintered: Polyethylene base material is ground to powder then reformed with pressure and heat, and cut to shape. A sintered base is very porous and absorbs wax well. Sintered bases slide faster than extruded bases when waxed, but will be slower if unwaxed for a period. They are more expensive, and harder to repair.
Sintered Hybrid: Sintered bases may have graphite, gallium, indium or other materials added. These materials are used increase glide, strength, "wax hold" and other desired characteristics.
Regular: As described above the board flexes up when laid down flat. This is the original design and still the most widely used board form as it is the oldest.
Reverse: The exact opposite of regular. The board is bent upwards starting at the middle, so that when laid flat the nose and tail are significantly off the ground. This design is ideal for park and freestyle as it allows a much smoother 360-degree rotation on both snow and rails. When standing on the board it is flexed down at the contact points by your weight, but can easily be lifted by shifting your weight off either foot. Sims first released this design in 1985, however, it was popularized recently by companies such as Lib-Tech and K2 Snowboarding.
De-cambered: The idea is similar to "Reversed" but the lift doesn't start until after the contact points, making the board flat between your feet. This design works well in powder due to its naturally raised tips and its use of the entire edge when turning. The Kinked design also fares well in parks as it has the turning and spin benefits of the "Reverse" camber design. This design is the newest out of the four in terms of form.
Flat: The board is entirely flat from nose to tail. Because there is no curve these are better suited for casual free riding and most big-air features in park (big-air jumps/pipe).

Sustainable manufacturing

Amongst Climate Change, the winter sports community is a growing environmentalist group, whom depend on snowy winters for the survival of their culture. This movement is, in part, being energized by a nonprofit named "Protect Our Winters" and the legendary rider Jeremy Jones.[15] The organization provides education initiatives, support for community based projects, and is active in climate discussions with the government. Alongside this organization, there are many other winter sports companies who see the ensuing calamity and are striving to produce products that are less damaging to the environment. Snowboard manufacturers are adapting to decreasing supplies of petroleum and timber with ingenious designs.

When it comes down to it "the least of our worries will be that skiers and snowboarders don't get to go play," says Jeremy Jones.[18]

Boots

Snowboard boots are mostly considered soft boots, though alpine snowboarding uses a harder boot similar to a ski boot. A boot's primary function is to transfer the rider's energy into the board, protect the rider with support, and keep the rider's feet warm. A snowboarder shopping for boots is usually looking for a good fit, flex, and looks. Boots can have different features such as lacing styles, heat molding liners, and gel padding that the snowboarder also might be looking for. Tradeoffs include rigidity versus comfort, and built in forward lean, versus comfort.

There are three incompatible types:

There are 3 main lacing systems, the traditional laces, the BOA system (a thin metal cord that you tighten with a round leaver placed on the side of the boot), fast lock system (a thin cord that you just pull and slide into the lock). Boots may have a single lacing system, a single lacing system that tightens the foot and the leg separately, a single lacing system with some trick to pull down the front pad in the center as you tighten the boot, 2 combined lacing systems where one tightens the whole boot and the other tightens just the center (similar to the previous one) or 2 combined lacing systems where one tightens the lower part (your foot) and the other tightens the upper part (your leg).[21]

Bindings

Bindings are separate components from the snowboard deck and are very important parts of the total snowboard interface. The bindings' main function is to hold the rider's boot in place tightly to transfer their energy to the board. Most bindings are attached to the board with three or four screws that are placed in the center of the binding. Although a rather new technology from Burton called Infinite channel system[22] uses two screws, both on the outsides of the binding.

There are several types of bindings. Strap-in, step-in, and hybrid bindings are used by most recreational riders and all freestyle riders.

Strap-in

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These are the most popular bindings in snowboarding. Before snowboard specific boots existed, snowboarders used any means necessary to attach their feet to their snowboards and gain the leverage needed for turning. Typical boots used in these early days of snowboarding were Sorels or snowmobile boots. These boots were not designed for snowboarding and did not provide the support desired for doing turns on the heel edge of a snowboard. As a result, early innovators such as Louis Fournier conceived the "high-back" binding design which was later commercialized and patented by Jeff Grell. The highback binding is the technology produced by most binding equipment manufacturers in the snowboard industry. The leverage provided by highbacks greatly improved board control. Snowboarders such as Craig Kelly adapted plastic "tongues" to their boots to provide the same support for toe-side turns that the highback provided for heel-side turns. In response, companies such as Burton and Gnu began to offer "tongues".

With modern strap bindings, the rider wears a boot which has a thick but flexible sole, and padded uppers. The foot is held onto the board with two buckle straps – one strapped across the top of the toe area, and one across the ankle area. They can be tightly ratcheted closed for a tight fit and good rider control of the board. Straps are typically padded to more evenly distribute pressure across the foot. While nowhere near as popular as two-strap bindings, some people prefer three-strap bindings for more specialized riding such as carving. The third strap tends to provide additional stiffness to the binding.

Cap-strap bindings are a recent modification that provide a very tight fit to the toe of the boot, and seats the boot more securely in the binding. Numerous companies have adopted various versions of the cap strap.

Step-in

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Snowboard, K2 Clicker step-in binding
Snowboard, K2 Clicker step-in binding

Innovators of step-in systems produced prototypes and designed proprietary step-in boot and binding systems with the goal of improving the performance of snowboard boots and bindings, and as a result, the mid-90s saw an explosion of step-in binding and boot development. New companies, Switch and Device, were built on new step-in binding technology. Existing companies Shimano, K2 and Emery were also quick to market with new step-in technology. Meanwhile, early market leaders Burton and Sims were noticeably absent from the step-in market. Sims was the first established industry leader to market with a step-in binding. Sims licensed a step-in system called DNR which was produced by the established ski-binding company Marker. Marker never improved the product which was eventually discontinued. Sims never re-entered the step-in market.

The risk of commercial failure from a poorly performing Step-in binding presented serious risk to established market leaders. This was evidenced by Airwalk who enjoyed 30% market share in snowboard boot sales when they began development of their step-in binding system. The Airwalk step-in System experienced serious product failure at the first dealer demonstrations, seriously damaging the company's credibility and heralded a decline in the company's former position as the market leader in Snowboard boots. Established snowboarding brands seeking to gain market share while reducing risk, purchased proven step-in innovators. For example, snowboard boot company Vans purchased the Switch step-in company, while Device step-in company was purchased by Ride Snowboards.

Although initially refusing to expose themselves to the risk and expense associated with bringing a step-in system to market, Burton chose to focus primarily on improvements to existing strap-in technology. However, Burton eventually released 2 models of step-in systems, the SI and the PSI, Burton's SI system enjoyed moderate success, yet never matched the performance of the company's strap-in products and was never improved upon. Burton never marketed any improvements to either of their step-in binding systems and eventually discontinued the products.

Most Popular (and incompatible) step-in systems used unique and proprietary mechanisms, such as the step-ins produced by Burton, Rossignol and Switch. Shimano and K2 used a technology similar to clipless bicycle pedals. By the early-to-mid 2010s, Burton, Rossignol, and K2 Clicker step-in binding systems were no longer in production as the companies had opted to focus on the strap-in binding system. Burton later resumed production and sales of step-in bindings with the development of their brand new "Step On" binding and boot system.

Speed entry (hybrid)

There are also proprietary systems that seek to combine the convenience of step-in systems with the control levels attainable with strap-ins. An example is the Flow binding system, which is similar to a strap-in binding, except that the foot enters the binding through the back. The back flips down and allows the boot to slide in; it's then flipped up and locked into place with a clamp, eliminating the need to loosen and then re-tighten straps every time the rider frees and then re-secures their rear foot. The rider's boot is held down by an adjustable webbing that covers most of the foot. Newer Flow models have connected straps in place of the webbing found on older models; these straps are also micro adjustable. In 2004, K2 released the Cinch series, a similar rear-entry binding; riders slip their foot in as they would a Flow binding, however rather than webbing, the foot is held down by straps.

Highback

A stiff molded support behind the heel and up the calf area. The HyBak was originally designed by inventor Jeff Grell and built by Flite Snowboards. This allows the rider to apply pressure and effect a "heelside" turn. Some high backs are stiff vertically but provide some flex for twisting of the riders legs. The highback adjustments allow the rider to implement a higher degree of forward lean. These settings are usually calibrated between F1 (the lowest lean) to F5 (the highest lean). Implementing higher levels of lean are directly proportional to the riders skillset and type of terrain.

Plate

Plate bindings are used with hardboots on Alpine or racing snowboards. Extreme carvers and some Boarder Cross racers also use plate bindings. The stiff bindings and boots give much more control over the board and allow the board to be carved much more easily than with softer bindings. Alpine snowboards tend to be longer and thinner with a much stiffer flex for greater edge hold and better carving performance.

Snowboard bindings, unlike ski bindings, do not automatically release upon impact or after falling over. With skis, this mechanism is designed to protect from injuries (particularly to the knee) caused by skis torn in different directions. Automatic release is not required in snowboarding, as the rider's legs are fixed in a static position and twisting of the knee joint cannot occur to the same extent. Furthermore, it reduces the dangerous prospect of a board hurtling downhill riderless, and the rider slipping downhill on his back with no means to maintain grip on a steep slope. Nevertheless, some ski areas require the use of a "leash" that connects the snowboard to the rider's leg or boot, in case the snowboard manages to get away from its rider. This is most likely to happen when the rider removes the board at the top or the bottom of a run (or while on a chairlift, which could be dangerous).

A Noboard is a snowboard binding alternative with only peel and stick pads applied directly to any snowboard deck and no attachment.

Stomp pad

Stomp pads, which are placed between the bindings closer to the rear binding, allow the rider to better control the board with only one boot strapped in, such as when maneuvering onto a chair lift, riding a ski tow or performing a one footed trick. Whereas the upper surface of the board is smooth, the stomp pad has a textured pattern which provides grip to the underside of the boot. Stomp pads can be decorative and vary in their size, shape and the kind and number of small spikes or friction points they provide.

Stances

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Goofy stance
Goofy stance

There are two types of stance-direction used by snowboarders. A "regular" stance places the rider's left foot at the front of the snowboard. "Goofy", the opposite stance direction, places the rider's right foot at the front,[19] as in skateboarding. Regular is the most common. There are different ways to determine whether a rider is "regular" or "goofy". One method used for first time riders is to observe the first step forward when walking or climbing up stairs. The first foot forward would be the foot set up at the front of the snowboard. Another method used for first time riders is to use the same foot that you kick a football with as your back foot (though this can be an inaccurate sign for some, as there are people who prefer goofy though are right handed, and therefore naturally kick a football with their right foot). This is a good method for setting up the snowboard stance for a new snowboarder. However having a surfing or skateboarding background will also help a person determine their preferred stance, although not all riders will have the same stance skateboarding and snowboarding. Another way to determine a rider's stance is to get the rider to run and slide on a tiled or wooden floor, wearing only socks, and observe which foot the person puts forward during the slide. This simulates the motion of riding a snowboard and exposes that persons natural tendency to put a particular foot forward.[19] Another method is to stand behind the first-timer and give them a shove, enough for them to put one foot forward to stop themselves from falling.[23] Other good ways of determining which way you ride are rushing a door (leading shoulder equals leading foot) or going into a defensive boxing stance (see which foot goes forward).[24]

Most experienced riders are able to ride in the opposite direction to their usual stance (i.e. a "regular" rider would lead with their right foot instead of their left foot). This is called riding "fakie" or "switch".

Stance width

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Stance width helps determine the rider's balance on the board. The size of the rider is an important factor as well as the style of their riding when determining a proper stance width. A common measurement used for new riders is to position the bindings so that the feet are placed a little wider than shoulder width apart. Another, less orthodox form of measurement may be taken by putting your feet together and place your hands, palm down, on the ground in a straight line with your body by squatting down. This generally gives a good natural measurement for how wide of a base your body uses to properly balance itself when knees are bent. However, personal preference and comfort are important and most experienced riders will adjust the stance width to personal preference. Skateboarders should find that their snowboarding and skateboarding stance widths are relatively similar.

A wider stance, common for freestyle riders, gives more stability when landing a jump or jibbing a rail. Control in a wider stance is reduced when turning on the piste. Conversely a narrow stance will give the rider more control when turning on the piste but less stability when freestyling. A narrow stance is more common for riders looking for quicker turn edge-hold (i.e. small radius turns). The narrow stance will give the rider a concentrated stability between the bindings allowing the board to dig into the snow quicker than a wider stance so the rider is less prone to wash out.

Binding angle

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Binding angle is defined by the degrees off of perpendicular from the length of the snowboard. A binding angle of 0° is when the foot is perpendicular to the length of the snowboard. Positive angles are pointed towards the front of the board, whereas negative angles are pointed towards the back of the board. The question of how much the bindings are angled depends on the rider's purpose and preference. Different binding angles can be used for different types of snowboarding. Someone who participates in freestyle competition would have a much different "stance" than someone who explores backcountry and powder. The recent advancement and boom of snowboard culture and technology has made binding angle adjustments relatively easy. Binding companies design their bindings with similar baseplates that can easily mount onto any type of snowboard regardless of the brand. With the exception of Burton, and their newly released "channel system", adjusting bindings is something that remains constant among all snowboarders. Done with a small screw-driver or a snowboard tool, the base plates on bindings can be easily rotated to whatever preferred stance. One must un-screw the baseplate, pick their degree angles, and then re-screw the baseplates. Bindings should also regularly be checked to ensure that the screws don't come undone from the movements of snowboarding.

Skiboarding

Skiboarding is a type of freestyle skiing using short, double-tipped skis, most commonly using regular ski boots, non release skiboard bindings, and no ski poles. By using risers which serve as adapters, standard ski or snowboard bindings are sometimes used.

Formerly it was also known as snowblading or skiblading. Now the term skiboarding generally refers to the use of a wider version of a short double tipped ski, while snowblades or skiblades are usually the width of an average ski or thinner.

Skiboarding is a recreational sport with no governing body or competition.

The first mass produced skiboard was the Austrian Kneissl Bigfoot in 1991.[25] American manufacturers such as Line Skis then began to produce skiboards, and the sport grew in popularity. From 1998 to 2000, skiboarding was part of the winter X Games in the slopestyle event. After it was dropped there was no longer a profession circuit for the sport, and many competitors switched to freestyle skiing on twin-tip skis.

Today skiboards are available from brands such as Rvl8, Summit, Spruce Mountain, Bluemoris, K2, and Head.

Skiboards and snowblades/skiblades are from about 75 to 135 cm (2 to 4 feet) in length, with a parabolic shape like a snowboard, and a solid wood or foam core.[26] Length and width are a function of rider weight, skiing style, and conditions.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "snowboarding." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. 17 Mar. 2009. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/snowboarding>.
  2. ^ photographs, George Sullivan; illustrated with (1997). Snowboarding : a complete guide for beginners (1st ed.). New York: Cobblehill Books. ISBN 0-525-65235-3.
  3. ^ "Brief History of Snowboarding". Smithsonian Magazine website. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Marquardt, Katy (September 29, 2008). King of the Hill in Snowboards. U.S. News & World Report.
  5. ^ "Shaping Snowboarding Since 1972". Winterstick website. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  6. ^ "Snowboard Materials & Construction". abc-of-snowboarding.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
  7. ^ "Snowboarding Terms". The House Outdoor Gear. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  8. ^ Clarke, Jon Lurie; photographs by Jimmy (1996). Fundamental snowboarding. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. ISBN 0822534576.
  9. ^ "Splitboarding.eu Splitboard Journal & Community".
  10. ^ "Snowboard Size & Buying Guides Houston". www.m2sports.com. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  11. ^ "Snowboard Sizing & Buyer's Guide | evo". www.evo.com. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  12. ^ "2006 Board Test". snowboarder.com. 2005-10-13. Retrieved 2019-11-30.
  13. ^ "Snowboard Camber Explained". Transworld.net. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
  14. ^ "Types Of Snowboards". Bettersnowboarding.com. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  15. ^ "Protect Our Winters". protectourwinters.org. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
  16. ^ "Aluminum Recyclability". The Aluminum Association. Archived from the original on 2013-12-07. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
  17. ^ "Niche Snowboard Technology". Nichesnowboards.com. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
  18. ^ "Snow Athletes Fight for Climate Action". Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
  19. ^ a b c d photographs, George Sullivan; illustrated with (1997). Snowboarding : a complete guide for beginners (1st ed.). New York: Cobblehill Books. ISBN 0525652353.
  20. ^ "HOW TO CHOOSE SNOWBOARD BINDINGS". Extremepedia. Archived from the original on 2017-10-26. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  21. ^ "Snowboard BOOTS". how to choose a snowboard .info. Retrieved 2019-12-01.
  22. ^ "Burton Expands Infinite Channel System & EST Hardgoods". Transworld Snowboarding. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  23. ^ "How to Set up Your Snowboard Bindings".
  24. ^ "7. Regular or Goofy? | Snowboarding For Beginners: First Snowboard Holiday Tips". Whitelines Snowboarding. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  25. ^ "Skiboarding". skiboards.eu. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  26. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". skiboards.com. Retrieved 28 April 2019.

Further reading