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Some sports equipment, from left to right, up to down: American football helmet and ball, field hockey stick and ball, association football goalkeeper gloves and golf clubs

Sports equipment, sporting equipment, also called as sporting goods, are the tools, materials, apparel, and gear used to compete in a sport and varies depending on the sport. The equipment ranges from balls, nets, and protective gear like helmets. Sporting equipment can be used as protective gear or a tool used to help the athletes play the sport. Over time, sporting equipment has evolved because sports have started to require more protective gear to prevent injuries.[1] Sporting equipment may be found in any department store or specific sporting equipment shops.

History and development of sports

Historically, many sports players have developed their own sporting equipment over time. For instance, the use of a football dates back to ancient China, between 225 BC and 220 AD. [2][citation needed] As football remains the most popular sport in the 21st century, the material of the ball has completely changed over the centuries; from being made out of animal skin, to being lined with multiple layers of polyester or cotton.[3][citation needed]

As the sporting equipment industry improves, so do the athletes' performance. This is due to the fact that the equipment is more efficient, lighter and stronger, thus forming a biomechanical system that is interacting with the athlete.[4]

Since the massive adoption of wearable, new sport equipment tend to be electronics and connected to deliver data performances.

Standards and monitoring processes apply in certain industries aimed at the elimination of child labour in the manufacturing of sports goods. One example would be the Atlanta Agreement of 1997 in relation to child labour in the football-making industry in Pakistan.[5]

Game equipment


See also: Category:Balls

The ball is often what a sport requires and revolves around. A sports ball is typically round, but can also be in the shape such as association football, American football, baseball and basketball, or the ball is named after the sport. Other cases are the Gaelic ball. In other cases, the name of the sport is indicated, just as the cricket ball, golf ball, lacrosse ball or tennis ball.

Flying discs

Flying discs are used for various games such as freestyle, disc golf and ultimate.[6][7]

Goal posts

In many games, goal posts are at each end of the playing field, there are two vertical posts (or uprights) supporting a horizontal crossbar. In some games, such as football, hockey or water polo, the object is to pass the ball or puck between the posts below the crossbar, while in others, such as those based on rugby, the ball must pass over the crossbar instead.


Nets are used for tennis, volleyball, football, basketball, hockey, and badminton. Throughout the course of these games, the ball involved with the sport is making contact with these nets.[8] A different type of net is used for various forms of fishing.


Racquets are used for racquet sports such as tennis, squash and badminton, and are used to hit a ball between opposing players or teams.[9]

Rods and tackle

Fishing rods and fishing tackle are primarily used for fishing and sport fishing.

Sticks, bats, and clubs

Sticks are used for sports such as hockey and lacrosse. Bats are used for sports such as baseball, cricket and rounders (UK). Clubs are used mainly for golf (golf club)

Wickets and bases

Wickets, creases and balls are used in cricket, and bases are used in baseball.[10]

Player equipment


Air Jordan shoe by Nike (left); football boots with metal cleats by Adidas (right)

Footwear for sports includes:

Protective equipment

Shoulder pads used in gridiron football and ice hockey

Protective equipment is often worn for sports including motor sport and contact sports, such as ice hockey and American football or sports where there is a danger of injury through collision of players or other objects. Protective equipment includes:

Training equipment

Examples of training equipment include swiss balls, resistance bands, tennis balls, balance discs, cones, weights, chin-up bars, weight machines, and gym equipment. Also, protective equipment such as weight lifting belts and bench shirts are used for weight training and powerlifting.[11]

Special sports equipment

Special sports equipment, is the equipment usually worn by the athletes according to their needs or desires.


Vehicles (sometimes specialized) are used as equipment for some sports, including motor sport, cycling, aeronautics, sailing and hot air ballooning.

Small vehicles with flatbeds are often used to carry injured athletes off the field, most commonly in American football.

Various sports

Budget Sport, a sports equipment store in Tampere, Finland


  1. ^ Harvard Medical School (October 1, 2013), 10 tips to prevent injuries when you exercise, Harvard Health Publishing
  2. ^ Cuju, an ancient Chinese ball game dating back to the Han dynasty (206 BC - AD 220), is the earliest known recorded game similar to soccer, described as a competitive exercise involving kicking a ball through a net without using hands.
  3. ^ "Football Size, Shape and Design | The History Of The Football |". Retrieved June 22, 2023.
  4. ^ Stefanyshyn, Darren J.; Wannop, John W. (2015). "Biomechanics research and sport equipment development". Sports Engineering. 18 (4): 191–202. doi:10.1007/s12283-015-0183-5. S2CID 109120639.
  5. ^ Independent Monitoring Association for Child Labor, Atlanta Agreement (a retyped copy), accessed 29 October 2022
  6. ^ "The History and Evolution of Frisbee Games". Frizbowl. June 18, 2023. Retrieved December 30, 2023.
  7. ^ "The History of Frisbee and Flying Disc Freestyle". Freestyle Players Association. May 11, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2023.
  8. ^ "Ball Net for Training or Competition of Football, Basketball, Tennis". Retrieved December 30, 2023.
  9. ^ "Sports Rackets Dimensions & Drawings |". Retrieved December 30, 2023.
  10. ^ "Cricket for Baseball Fans | Cheryl's Mewsings". September 11, 2006. Retrieved December 30, 2023.
  11. ^ "3 Reasons Why Workout Gear And Equipment Is Essential". Gym and Fitness. Retrieved December 30, 2023.

See also