Tony Award for
Best Actress in a Musical
Joaquina kalukango 2022 1.jpg
Awarded forBest Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical
LocationNew York City
Presented byAmerican Theatre Wing The Broadway League
Currently held byJoaquina Kalukango for Paradise Square (2022)

The Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical is awarded to the best actress in a musical, whether a new production or a revival. The award has been given since 1948, but the nominees who did not win have only been publicly announced since 1956.[1]


The award was not presented in 1947 or 1985.[2] Ken Mandelbaum wrote about the 1985 season: "Things get bad enough musically to require the elimination of the Best Musical Actor and Actress categories, as well as the choreography prize."[3] There have been three ties in this category, in 1958, 1962 and 1968.[4]

In 1965, Liza Minnelli, age 19, became the youngest actress to win the award, a record she still holds today. She is followed by Lea Salonga, age 20, in 1991. In 2017, Bette Midler, age 71, became the oldest actress to win the award, a record she still holds today. She is followed by Ruth Brown, age 61, in 1989.

Winners and nominees

  indicates the winner


Year Actress Musical Character
1st Tony Awards
2nd Tony Awards
Grace Hartman Angel in the Wings Nettie / Mrs. Blodgett / Ruth / Mrs. Hutchinson
3rd Tony Awards
Nanette Fabray Love Life Susan Cooper


Year Actress Musical Character
4th Tony Awards
Mary Martin South Pacific Ensign Nellie Forbush
5th Tony Awards
Ethel Merman Call Me Madam Sally Adams
6th Tony Awards
Gertrude Lawrence The King and I Anna Leonowens
7th Tony Awards
Rosalind Russell Wonderful Town Ruth Sherwood
8th Tony Awards
Dolores Gray Carnival in Flanders Cornelia
9th Tony Awards
Mary Martin Peter Pan Peter Pan
10th Tony Awards
Gwen Verdon Damn Yankees Lola
Carol Channing The Vamp Flora Weems
Nancy Walker Phoenix '55 Various Characters
11th Tony Awards
Judy Holliday Bells Are Ringing Ella Peterson
Julie Andrews My Fair Lady Eliza Doolittle
Ethel Merman Happy Hunting Liz Livingstone
12th Tony Awards
Thelma Ritter New Girl in Town Marthy Owen
Gwen Verdon Anna Christopherson
Lena Horne Jamaica Savannah
Beatrice Lillie Ziegfeld Follies of 1957 Various Characters
13th Tony Awards
Gwen Verdon Redhead Essie Whimple
Miyoshi Umeki Flower Drum Song Mei-Li


Year Actress Musical Character
14th Tony Awards
Mary Martin The Sound of Music Maria von Trapp
Carol Burnett Once Upon a Mattress Princess Winnifred
Dolores Gray Destry Rides Again Frenchy
Eileen Herlie Take Me Along Lily Miller
Ethel Merman Gypsy Rose
15th Tony Awards
Elizabeth Seal Irma La Douce Irma La Douce
Julie Andrews Camelot Guenevere
Carol Channing Show Girl Various Characters
Nancy Walker Do Re Mi Kay Cram
16th Tony Awards
Anna Maria Alberghetti Carnival! Lili Daurier
Diahann Carroll No Strings Barbara Woodruff
Molly Picon Milk and Honey Clara Weiss
Elaine Stritch Sail Away Mimi Paragon
17th Tony Awards
Vivien Leigh Tovarich Tatiana
Georgia Brown Oliver! Nancy
Nanette Fabray Mr. President Nell Henderson
Sally Ann Howes Brigadoon Fiona MacLaren
18th Tony Awards
Carol Channing Hello, Dolly! Dolly Gallagher Levi
Beatrice Lillie High Spirits Madame Arcati
Barbra Streisand Funny Girl Fanny Brice
Inga Swenson 110 in the Shade Lizzie Curry
19th Tony Awards
Liza Minnelli Flora the Red Menace Flora Mezaros
Elizabeth Allen Do I Hear a Waltz? Leona Samish
Nancy Dussault Bajour Emily Kirsten
Inga Swenson Baker Street Irene Adler
20th Tony Awards
Angela Lansbury Mame Mame Dennis
Barbara Harris On a Clear Day You Can See Forever Daisy Gamble / Melinda Wells
Julie Harris Skyscraper Georgina Allerton
Gwen Verdon Sweet Charity Charity Hope Valentine
21st Tony Awards
Barbara Harris The Apple Tree Eve / Princess Barbara / Ella and Passionella
Lotte Lenya Cabaret Fraulein Schneider
Mary Martin I Do! I Do! She (Agnes)
Louise Troy Walking Happy Maggie Hobson
22nd Tony Awards
Patricia Routledge Darling of the Day Alice Challice
Leslie Uggams Hallelujah, Baby! Georgina
Melina Mercouri Illya Darling Illya
Brenda Vaccaro How Now, Dow Jones Cynthia Pike
23rd Tony Awards
Angela Lansbury Dear World Countess Aurelia
Maria Karnilova Zorba Madame Hortense
Dorothy Loudon The Fig Leaves Are Falling Lillian Stone
Jill O'Hara Promises, Promises Fran Kubelik


Year Actress Musical Character
24th Tony Awards
Lauren Bacall Applause Margo Channing
Katharine Hepburn Coco Coco Chanel
Dilys Watling Georgy Georgina "Georgy" Parkin
25th Tony Awards
Helen Gallagher No, No, Nanette Lucille Early
Sandy Duncan The Boy Friend Maisie
Susan Browning Company April
Elaine Stritch Joanne
26th Tony Awards
Alexis Smith Follies Phyllis Rogers Stone
Jonelle Allen Two Gentlemen of Verona Silvia
Dorothy Collins Follies Sally Durant Plummer
Mildred Natwick 70, Girls, 70 Ida Dodd
27th Tony Awards
Glynis Johns A Little Night Music Desiree Armfeldt
Leland Palmer Pippin Fastrada
Debbie Reynolds Irene Irene O'Dare
Marcia Rodd Shelter Maud
28th Tony Awards
Virginia Capers Raisin Lena Younger
Carol Channing Lorelei Lorelei Lee
Michele Lee Seesaw Gittel Mosca
29th Tony Awards
Angela Lansbury Gypsy Rose
Lola Falana Doctor Jazz Edna Mae Sheridan
Bernadette Peters Mack & Mabel Mabel Normand
Ann Reinking Goodtime Charley Joan of Arc
30th Tony Awards
Donna McKechnie A Chorus Line Cassie Ferguson
Vivian Reed Bubbling Brown Sugar Marsha / Young Irene
Chita Rivera Chicago Velma Kelly
Gwen Verdon Roxie Hart
31st Tony Awards
Dorothy Loudon Annie Miss Hannigan
Clamma Dale Porgy and Bess Bess
Ernestine Jackson Guys and Dolls Sarah Brown
Andrea McArdle Annie Annie
32nd Tony Awards
Liza Minnelli The Act Michelle Craig
Madeline Kahn On the Twentieth Century Lily Garland / Mildred Plotka
Eartha Kitt Timbuktu! Shaleem La Lume
Frances Sternhagen Angel Eliza Gant
33rd Tony Awards
Angela Lansbury Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Mrs. Lovett
Tovah Feldshuh Saravá Flor
Dorothy Loudon Ballroom Bea Asher
Alexis Smith Platinum Lila Halliday


Year Actress Musical Character
34th Tony Awards
Patti LuPone Evita Eva Perón
Christine Andreas Oklahoma! Laurey Williams
Sandy Duncan Peter Pan Peter Pan
Ann Miller Sugar Babies Ann
35th Tony Awards
Lauren Bacall Woman of the Year Tess Harding
Meg Bussert Brigadoon Fiona MacLaren
Chita Rivera Bring Back Birdie Rosie Alvarez
Linda Ronstadt The Pirates of Penzance Mabel
36th Tony Awards
Jennifer Holliday Dreamgirls Effie White
Lisa Mordente Marlowe Emelia Bossano
Mary Gordon Murray Little Me Belle Poitrine
Sheryl Lee Ralph Dreamgirls Deena Jones
37th Tony Awards
Natalia Makarova On Your Toes Vera Barnova
Lonette McKee Show Boat Julie LaVerne
Chita Rivera Merlin The Queen
Twiggy My One and Only Edith Herbert
38th Tony Awards
Chita Rivera The Rink Anna
Rhetta Hughes Amen Corner Sister Margaret Alexander
Liza Minnelli The Rink Angel
Bernadette Peters Sunday in the Park with George Dot / Marie
39th Tony Awards
40th Tony Awards
Bernadette Peters Song and Dance Emma
Debbie Allen Sweet Charity Charity Hope Valentine
Cleo Laine The Mystery of Edwin Drood Angela Prysock / The Princess Puffer
Chita Rivera Jerry's Girls Various Characters
41st Tony Awards
Maryann Plunkett Me and My Girl Sally Smith
Catherine Cox Oh, Coward! Various Characters
Teresa Stratas Rags Rebecca Hershkowitz
42nd Tony Awards
Joanna Gleason Into the Woods The Baker's Wife
Alison Fraser Romance/Romance Josefine Weninger / Monica
Judy Kuhn Chess Florence Vassy
Patti LuPone Anything Goes Reno Sweeney
43rd Tony Awards
Ruth Brown Black and Blue Various Characters
Charlotte d'Amboise Jerome Robbins' Broadway Anita / Peter Pan / Company
Linda Hopkins Black and Blue Various Characters
Sharon McNight Starmites Diva / Mother


Year Actress Musical Character
44th Tony Awards
Tyne Daly Gypsy Rose
Georgia Brown The Threepenny Opera Celia Peachum
Beth Fowler Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Mrs. Lovett
Liliane Montevecchi Grand Hotel Elizaveta Grushinskaya
45th Tony Awards
Lea Salonga Miss Saigon Kim
June Angela Shōgun: The Musical Lady Mariko
Dee Hoty The Will Rogers Follies Betty Blake
Cathy Rigby Peter Pan Peter Pan
46th Tony Awards
Faith Prince Guys and Dolls Miss Adelaide
Jodi Benson Crazy for You Polly Baker
Josie de Guzman Guys and Dolls Sarah Brown
Sophie Hayden The Most Happy Fella Rosabella
47th Tony Awards
Chita Rivera Kiss of the Spider Woman Aurora / Spider Woman
Ann Crumb Anna Karenina Anna Karenina
Stephanie Lawrence Blood Brothers Mrs. Johnstone
Bernadette Peters The Goodbye Girl Paula McFadden
48th Tony Awards
Donna Murphy Passion Fosca
Susan Egan Beauty and the Beast Belle
Dee Hoty The Best Little Whorehouse Goes Public Mona Stangley
Judy Kuhn She Loves Me Amalia Balash
49th Tony Awards
Glenn Close Sunset Boulevard Norma Desmond
Rebecca Luker Show Boat Magnolia Hawks
50th Tony Awards
Donna Murphy The King and I Anna Leonowens
Julie Andrews (nomination declined)[5] Victor/Victoria Victoria Grant
Crista Moore Big: The Musical Susan Lawrence
Daphne Rubin-Vega Rent Mimi Marquez
51st Tony Awards
Bebe Neuwirth Chicago Velma Kelly
Pamela Isaacs The Life Queen
Tonya Pinkins Play On Lady Liv
Karen Ziemba Steel Pier Rita Racine
52nd Tony Awards
Natasha Richardson Cabaret Sally Bowles
Betty Buckley Triumph of Love Hesione
Marin Mazzie Ragtime Mother
Alice Ripley & Emily Skinner Side Show Violet and Daisy Hilton
53rd Tony Awards
Bernadette Peters Annie Get Your Gun Annie Oakley
Carolee Carmello Parade Lucille Frank
Dee Hoty Footloose Vi Moore
Siân Phillips Marlene Marlene Dietrich


Year Actress Musical Character
54th Tony Awards
Heather Headley Aida Aida
Toni Collette The Wild Party Queenie
Rebecca Luker The Music Man Marian Paroo
Marin Mazzie Kiss Me, Kate Lilli Vanessi / Katherine
Audra McDonald Marie Christine Marie Christine L'Adrese
55th Tony Awards
Christine Ebersole 42nd Street Dorothy Brock
Blythe Danner Follies Phyllis Rogers Stone
Randy Graff A Class Act Sophie
Faith Prince Bells Are Ringing Ella Peterson
Marla Schaffel Jane Eyre Jane Eyre
56th Tony Awards
Sutton Foster Thoroughly Modern Millie Millie Dillmount
Louise Pitre Mamma Mia! Donna Sheridan
Nancy Opel Urinetown Penelope Pennywise
Jennifer Laura Thompson Hope Cladwell
Vanessa Williams Into the Woods The Witch
57th Tony Awards
Marissa Jaret Winokur Hairspray Tracy Turnblad
Melissa Errico Amour Isabella
Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio Man of La Mancha Aldonza / Dulcinea
Elizabeth Parkinson Movin' Out Brenda
Bernadette Peters Gypsy Rose
58th Tony Awards
Idina Menzel Wicked Elphaba
Kristin Chenoweth Wicked Glinda
Stephanie D'Abruzzo Avenue Q Kate Monster / Lucy the Slut / Company
Donna Murphy Wonderful Town Ruth Sherwood
Tonya Pinkins Caroline, or Change Caroline Thibodeaux
59th Tony Awards
Victoria Clark The Light in the Piazza Margaret Johnson
Christina Applegate Sweet Charity Charity Hope Valentine
Erin Dilly Chitty Chitty Bang Bang Truly Scrumptious
Sutton Foster Little Women Josephine 'Jo' March
Sherie Rene Scott Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Christine Colgate
60th Tony Awards
LaChanze The Color Purple Celie Harris Johnson
Sutton Foster The Drowsy Chaperone Janet Van De Graaff
Patti LuPone Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Mrs. Lovett
Kelli O'Hara The Pajama Game Catherine 'Babe' Williams
Chita Rivera Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life Chita Rivera
61st Tony Awards
Christine Ebersole Grey Gardens 'Little Edie' Beale
Laura Bell Bundy Legally Blonde Elle Woods
Audra McDonald 110 in the Shade Lizzie Curry
Debra Monk Curtains Carmen Bernstein
Donna Murphy LoveMusik Lotte Lenya
62nd Tony Awards
Patti LuPone Gypsy Rose
Kerry Butler Xanadu Kira / Clio
Kelli O'Hara South Pacific Ensign Nellie Forbush
Faith Prince A Catered Affair Agnes 'Aggie' Hurley
Jenna Russell Sunday in the Park with George Dot / Marie
63rd Tony Awards
Alice Ripley Next to Normal Diana Goodman
Stockard Channing Pal Joey Vera Simpson
Sutton Foster Shrek the Musical Princess Fiona
Allison Janney 9 to 5 Violet Newstead
Josefina Scaglione West Side Story Maria


Year Actress Musical Character
64th Tony Awards
Catherine Zeta-Jones A Little Night Music Desiree Armfeldt
Kate Baldwin Finian's Rainbow Sharon McLonergan
Montego Glover Memphis Felicia Farrell
Christiane Noll Ragtime Mother
Sherie Rene Scott Everyday Rapture Sherie Rene Scott
65th Tony Awards
Sutton Foster Anything Goes Reno Sweeney
Beth Leavel Baby It's You! Florence Greenberg
Patina Miller Sister Act Deloris Van Cartier
Donna Murphy The People in the Picture Bubbie / Raisel
66th Tony Awards
Audra McDonald Porgy and Bess Bess
Jan Maxwell Follies Phyllis Rogers Stone
Cristin Milioti Once Girl
Kelli O'Hara Nice Work If You Can Get It Billie Bendix
Laura Osnes Bonnie and Clyde Bonnie Parker
67th Tony Awards
Patina Miller Pippin The Leading Player
Stephanie J. Block The Mystery of Edwin Drood Edwin Drood / Miss Alice Nutting
Carolee Carmello Scandalous Aimee Semple McPherson
Valisia LeKae Motown: The Musical Diana Ross
Laura Osnes Rodgers + Hammerstein's Cinderella Ella
68th Tony Awards
Jessie Mueller Beautiful: The Carole King Musical Carole King
Mary Bridget Davies A Night with Janis Joplin Janis Joplin
Sutton Foster Violet Violet Karl
Idina Menzel If/Then Elizabeth Vaughan
Kelli O'Hara The Bridges of Madison County Francesca Johnson
69th Tony Awards
Kelli O'Hara The King and I Anna Leonowens
Kristin Chenoweth On the Twentieth Century Lily Garland / Mildred Plotka
Leanne Cope An American in Paris Lise Dassin
Beth Malone Fun Home Alison Bechdel
Chita Rivera The Visit Claire Zachanassian
70th Tony Awards
Cynthia Erivo The Color Purple Celie Harris Johnson
Laura Benanti She Loves Me Amalia Balash
Carmen Cusack Bright Star Alice Murphy
Jessie Mueller Waitress Jenna Hunterson
Phillipa Soo Hamilton Eliza Hamilton
71st Tony Awards
Bette Midler Hello, Dolly! Dolly Gallagher Levi
Denée Benton Natasha, Pierre & The Great Comet of 1812 Natasha Rostova
Christine Ebersole War Paint Elizabeth Arden
Patti LuPone Helena Rubinstein
Eva Noblezada Miss Saigon Kim
72nd Tony Awards
Katrina Lenk The Band's Visit Dina
Lauren Ambrose My Fair Lady Eliza Doolittle
Hailey Kilgore Once on This Island Ti Moune
LaChanze Summer: The Donna Summer Musical Diva Donna / Mary Gaines
Taylor Louderman Mean Girls Regina George
Jessie Mueller Carousel Julie Jordan
73rd Tony Awards
Stephanie J. Block The Cher Show Star
Caitlin Kinnunen The Prom Emma Nolan
Beth Leavel Dee Dee Allen
Eva Noblezada Hadestown Eurydice
Kelli O'Hara Kiss Me, Kate Lilli Vanessi / Katharine


Year Actress Musical Character
74th Tony Awards
Adrienne Warren Tina Tina Turner
Karen Olivo Moulin Rouge! Satine
Elizabeth Stanley Jagged Little Pill Mary Jane Healy
Ceremony not held
75th Tony Awards
Joaquina Kalukango Paradise Square Annabelle "Nelly" Freeman
Sharon D. Clarke Caroline, or Change Caroline Thibodeaux
Carmen Cusack Flying Over Sunset Clare Boothe Luce
Sutton Foster The Music Man Marian Paroo
Mare Winningham Girl from the North Country Elizabeth Laine
76th Tony Awards
Annaleigh Ashford Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Mrs. Lovett
Sara Bareilles Into the Woods The Baker's Wife
Victoria Clark Kimberly Akimbo Kimberly Levaco
Lorna Courtney & Juliet Juliet
Micaela Diamond Parade Lucille Frank

Multiple wins

Multiple nominations

Multiple character wins

3 Wins
2 Wins

Multiple character nominations

Musicals with multiple lead nominations

Winners are in boldface

Multiple awards and nominations

Actress who have been nominated multiple times in any acting categories

Awards Nominations Recipient
6 10 Audra McDonald
5 10 Julie Harris
7 Angela Lansbury
4 6 Gwen Verdon
4 Zoe Caldwell
3 8 Patti LuPone
5 Irene Worth
Jessica Tandy
4 Glenn Close
Mary Martin
3 Shirley Booth
2 10 Chita Rivera
8 Colleen Dewhurst
7 Bernadette Peters
Frances Sternhagen
Sutton Foster
6 Andrea Martin
Laurie Metcalf
Maureen Stapleton
5 Cherry Jones
Donna Murphy
Mary-Louise Parker
Swoosie Kurtz
4 Christine Ebersole
Cynthia Nixon
Judith Ivey
Judy Kaye
Margaret Leighton
3 Anne Bancroft
Helen Gallagher
Helen Hayes
Jennifer Ehle
Judith Light
Liza Minnelli
Phylicia Rashad
Viola Davis
2 Bebe Neuwirth
Christine Baranski
Katie Finneran
Lauren Bacall
Sandy Dennis
Tammy Grimes
Uta Hagen
1 9 Rosemary Harris
8 Jane Alexander
Stockard Channing
7 Kelli O'Hara
6 Linda Lavin
5 Glenda Jackson
Jayne Houdyshell
Laura Benanti
Marian Seldes
Victoria Clark
4 Blythe Danner
Carol Channing
Carole Shelley
Celia Keenan-Bolger
Debra Monk
Diana Rigg
Faith Prince
Jessie Mueller
Julie White
Karen Ziemba
Madeline Kahn
3 Amanda Plummer
Annaleigh Ashford
Barbara Harris
Beth Leavel
Dorothy Loudon
Elizabeth Ashley
Elizabeth Franz
Ethel Merman
Helen Mirren
Idina Menzel
Jane Krakowski
Janet McTeer
Joanna Gleason
Kristin Chenoweth
Lois Smith
Maggie Smith
Mercedes Ruehl
Rae Allen
Stephanie J. Block
Tonya Pinkins
Tyne Daly
Vanessa Redgrave
2 Adriane Lenox
Adrienne Warren
Alexis Smith
Alice Ghostly
Alice Ripley
Anika Noni Rose
Anna Manahan
Barbara Cook
Betty Buckley
Cady Huffman
Dolores Gray
Frances McDormand
Gretha Boston
Jo Van Fleet
Joan Allen
Joaquina Kalukango
Judith Anderson
Karen Olivo
Leora Dana
Leslie Uggams
Liliane Montevecchi
Lillias White
Linda Hopkins
Lindsay Duncan
Lotte Lenya
Lynne Thigpen
Marcia Gay Harden
Margaret Tyzack
Maria Karnilova
Mary Alice
Mary Louise Wilson
Nanette Fabray
Natasha Richardson
Nina Arianda
Patina Miller
Patricia Elliott
Patsy Kelly
Phyllis Newman
Priscilla Lopez
Randy Graff
Rosalind Russell
Ruthie Ann Miles
Shirley Knight
Sophie Okonedo
Nominations Recipient
5 Dana Ivey
Laura Linney
Estelle Parsons
Jan Maxwell
4 Condola Rashad
Eileen Atkins
Elaine Stritch
Geraldine Page
Judy Kuhn
Kate Nelligan
Tovah Feldshuh
Zoë Wanamaker
3 Brenda Vaccaro
Carolee Carmello
Dee Hoty
Eileen Heckart
Julie Andrews
Kate Burton
Linda Emond
Louise Troy
Lynn Redgrave
Marin Mazzie
Martha Plimpton
Mary Beth Hurt
Mary Testa
Rebecca Luker
Rosemary Murphy
Sandy Duncan
2 Alison Fraser
Allison Janney
Amy Morton
Amy Ryan
Ann Reinking
Anne Pitoniak
Annette Bening
Barbara Bel Geddes
Barbra Streisand
Beatrice Lillie
Beth Fowler
Carmen Cusack
Carol Burnett
Charlotte d'Amboise
Charlotte Rae
Christine Andreas
Claudia McNeil
Crista Moore
Daphne Rubin-Vega
Debbie Allen
Diana Sands
Eartha Kitt
Elizabeth Allen
Ernestine Jackson
Eva Noblezada
Eve Best
Fionnula Flanagan
Georgia Brown
Gladys Cooper
Inga Swenson
Jane Fonda
Jayne Atkinson
Jennifer Simard
Jessica Hecht
Johanna Day
Josephine Premice
Josie de Guzman
Julienne Marie
Kate Baldwin
Kara Young
Kate Reid
Katharine Hepburn
Kathleen Turner
Kim Stanley
Kristine Nielsen
Laura Osnes
Leland Palmer
Liv Ullmann
Marcia Lewis
Mare Winningham
Mary Beth Peil
Michele Lee
Mildred Natwick
Millicent Martin
Nancy Dussault
Nancy Walker
Penny Fuller
Pert Kelton
Ruth Wilson
S. Epatha Merkerson
Sarah Stiles
Sherie Rene Scott
Sinéad Cusack
Siobhán McKenna
Spencer Kayden
Susan Browning
Tammy Blanchard
Vivian Reed
Zohra Lampert

See also


  1. ^ Gelb, Arthur. "Popularizing the 'Tony' Awards", The New York Times, April 1, 1956, p.93
  2. ^ Freedman, Samuel G. The New York Times, June 3, 1985, p.C15
  3. ^ Mandelbaum, Ken."Ken Mandelbaum's Aisle View: Tony Highs And Lows", May 11, 1997
  4. ^ History, Ties in Tony History", accessed June 13, 2014
  5. ^ Viagas, Robert. "Julie Andrews Declines Tony Nomination", May 8, 1996