Wolfsangel.svg
Wolfsangel 1.svg
Hameçon.svg
Stylizied horizontal (left) and vertical (centre) forms of the Wolfsangel (or Crampon), and a stylized Wolfsanker (or Hameçon) (right)

Wolfsangel (German pronunciation: [ˈvɔlfsˌʔaŋəl], translation "wolf's hook") or Crampon (French pronunciation: ​[kʁɑ̃pɔ̃]) is a heraldic charge from Germany and eastern France, which was inspired by medieval European wolf traps that consisted of a Z-shaped metal hook (the Wolfsangel or Crampon) hung by a chain from a crescent-shaped metal bar (the Wolfsanker or the Hameçon in French). The stylised symbol of the Z-shape (also called the Doppelhaken, or "double-hook") can include a bar to give a Ƶ-symbol, which is often reversed and/or rotated.

Early medieval pagans believed the symbol possessed magical powers and could ward off wolves.[1] It became an early symbol of German liberty and independence after its adoption as an emblem in various 15th-century peasant revolts, and also in the 17th-century Thirty Years War.[1] In pre-war Germany, interest in the Wolfsangel was revived by the popularity of Hermann Löns's 1910 novel Der Wehrwolf. The Ƶ symbol was adopted by the Nazi Party,[2] and was used by various German Wehrmacht and SS units such as the Waffen-SS Division Das Reich and the Waffen-SS Division Landstorm Nederland.[2] The US-based Anti-Defamation League lists the Ƶ symbol as a hate symbol and a neo-Nazi symbol.[3]

Origins

Hunting tool

8th century wolf hook from the Carolingian Villa Arnesburg in Lich.[4]
Reconstruction of a wolf hook (Z) chained to a wolf anchor (crescent bar)

The Wolfsangel was a medieval wolf hunting technique in Europe whereby the hook was concealed inside a chunk of meat that would impale the unsuspecting wolf who ate the meat by gulping it in one movement.[5]

The tool was further developed by attaching the hook via a chain or rope to a larger bar (often with a double crescent or half-moon shape per photo opposite) that could be lodged between the overhanging branches of a tree. The wolf would therefore be encouraged to jump up to gulp the hanging chunk of meat (with the hook concealed inside), thus further impaling itself in the manner of a fish caught on a fishing hook.[5]

Medieval hunters were known to use "blood trails" to lead the wolf to the Wolfsangel trap, and also used wattle fencing nearer to the trap to create narrow channels that would guide the wolf to the trap.[5]

Names and symbols

1299 seal of Countess Udilhild, née von Wolfach
Municipal coat of arms of Wolfach
Horizontal Wolfsangel as a mason's mark, 15-century church

Other German names for the Wolfsangel include Wolfsanker ("wolf anchor", the cresent-shaped bar holding the hook), Wolfshaken ("wolf hook"), and Doppelhaken ("double hook"); French names include hameçon ("fish hook"), hameçon de loup ("fish hook for wolves") and fer-a-loup ("wolf iron"), as well as crampon ("iron hook").[6][7]

The stylised version of the Z-shaped Wolfsangel developed into a popular medieval symbol in Germany that was associated with magical powers, and was believed to have the ability to ward off wolves.[1][6] The symbol appears on early medieval banners and town seals in Germany (particularly in forested regions where wolves were present in large numbers); for example, as early as 1299 the symbol can be found on seals relating to the Lords of the German Black Forest town of Wolfach (see opposite, the seal of the widow Countess Udilhild von Fürstenberg [de], the sole heiress of the Lords of Woflach); and their Wolfsangel banner eventually became the municipal coat of arms for the town (see opposite).[8] The symbol can also be found as a mason's mark in medieval stonework (see opposite).[9]

The Wolfsangel Z-symbol bears a visual resemblance to the proto-Germanic Eihwaz rune, historically part of the runic alphabet.[2] While the Wolfsangel is sometimes referred to as a "runic symbol",[6]

Peasant revolts

Academic Akbar Ahmed writes that the Wolfsangel was adopted by 15th-century German peasants during revolts against oppressive German princes and their foreign mercenaries, and thus became an important early popular Germanic symbol of independence and liberty.[1]

Ahmed further notes that during the 17th-century Thirty Years War, groups of German militia waged a guerilla war against foreign forces under the German name Wehrwolf, and also adopted the Wolfsangel symbol as their emblem; they reportedly carved the symbol on the trees from which they hanged captured foreign combatants.[1]

In heraldry

Municipal arms of Wolxheim, Grand Est, France
Municipal arms of Wolfisheim, Grand Est, France
A heraldic hameçon in the arms of the von Stein family
Municipal arms of Erwitte, North Rhine-Westphalia
Municipal arms of Idar-Oberstein, Rhineland-Palatinate
Municipal arms of Marpingen, Saarland
Municipal arms of Oestrich-Winkel, Hesse
Municipal arms Mommenheim, Rhineland-Palatinate
Municipal arms of Dassendorf, Schleswig-Holstein
Municipal arms of Ilvesheim, Baden-Württemberg
Municipal arms of Sibbesse, Lower Saxony
Municipal arms of Eppelborn, Saarland
Municipal arms of Burgwedel, Lower Saxony
Municipal arms of Kleinblittersdorf, Saarland

The term "Wolfs-Angel" (German) and "Hameçon" (French) appears in a 1714 German heraldic handbook titled Wappenkunst. However, the description is more specifically about the Wolfsanker (or Hameçon) component part of the Wolfsangel trap, and defines it as: "the shape of a crescent moon with a ring inside, at mid-height", which describes the bar from which the Z-shaped hook is hung (see the yellow coat of arms of the von Stein family in the table opposite for an example).[7]

In modern German-language heraldic terminology, the name Wolfsangel is de facto used for a variety of heraldic charges, including the Wolfsanker from above (i.e. the half-moon shape with a ring that is also called a Fer-de-loop), as well as the Wolfshaken or Crampon (i.e. the Z-shaped or double-hook that is also called a Mauerhaken or a Doppelhaken, and that can also appear with a ring or a transversal stroke, Ƶ, at the center).

The Z-shaped symbol is found comparatively frequently in municipal coats of arms in Germany, and also in eastern France (see Wolfisheim or Wolxheim), where it is often identified as a Wolfsangel. The Ƶ-design is rarer but is found in about a dozen contemporary municipal coats of arms, and is usually (but not exclusively) represented as a reversed Ƶ shape.[7]

In heraldry, the upright or vertical form of the Ƶ-symbol is associated with the Donnerkeil (or "thunderbolt"), while the horizontal form of the Ƶ-symbol is associated with the Werwolf (or "Werewolf").[10]

In forestry

Wolfsangel on a 1755 boundary marker near the wood of Barsinghausen
The Wolfsangel on an old field boundary stone in the Deister in Lower Saxony

In a 1616 boundary treaty concluded between Hesse and Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Brunswick forest boundary marker was called a Wulffsangel (a horizontal Wolfsangel). There is also evidence of its use in correspondence from the Forest Services in 1674.[11]

Later, the Wolfsangel was also used as a symbol on forest uniforms. In a document of 1792 regarding new uniforms, chief forester Adolf Friedrich von Stralenheim suggested a design for uniform buttons including the letters "GR" and a symbol similar to the Wolfsangel, which he called Forstzeichen. Later the Wolfsangel was also worn as a single badge in brass caps on the service and on the buttons of the Hanoverian forest supervisor. In Brunswick, it was prescribed for private forests and gamekeepers as a badge on the bonnet.[11]

The Wolfsangel is still used in the various forest districts in Lower Saxony as a boundary marker, and it is part of the emblem of the state of Lower Saxony and the hunters' association Hirschmann, dedicated to the breeding and training of Hanover Hounds.[11]

In literature

In pre-war 1930s Germany, interest in the Wolfsangel was revived by the popularity of Hermann Löns's 1910 novel entitled Der Wehrwolf (later published as Harm Wulf, a peasant chronicle, and as The Warwolf in English). The book is set in a 17th-century German farming community during the Thirty Years' War and the protagonist, a resistance fighter named Harm Wulf, adopts the symbol as his personal badge.[1]

Wolfsangel: German City on Trial is a 2000 book by August Niro on the 1944 Rüsselsheim massacre that occurred in the city of Rüsselsheim am Main, whose coat of arms features a Wolfsangel symbol. The book draws parallels with the origins and symbolism of the Wolfsangel, particularly resistance against foreign mercenaries, and the events of the massacre.[12]

As a Nazi symbol

In Nazi Germany, the Wolfsangel symbol was widely adopted in Nazi symbolism. It is not clear whether the driver of its adoption was Hitler's strong personal association with wolf imagery (the Wolf's Lair for example), or to create an association with the post-15th-century symbol of German independence and liberty.[1]

A Nazi leader and his family. The youngest girls wear Wolfsangel symbols in horizontal form as members of NS-Frauenschaft's Deutsche Kinderschar for children
A Nazi leader and his family. The youngest girls wear Wolfsangel symbols in horizontal form as members of NS-Frauenschaft's Deutsche Kinderschar for children

The symbol was used by a wide range of military and non-military Nazi-linked groups, including:

Post World War II symbolism

See also: Bans on Nazi symbols

Post WWII emblems resembling the Wolfsangel

After World War II, public exhibition of the Wolfsangel symbol became illegal in Germany if it was connected with Neo-Nazi groups.[14][15] On August 9, 2018, Germany lifted the ban on the usage of swastikas and other Nazi symbols in video games. "Through the change in the interpretation of the law, games that critically look at current affairs can for the first time be given a USK age rating," USK managing director Elisabeth Secker told CTV. "This has long been the case for films and with regards to the freedom of the arts, this is now rightly also the case with computer and videogames."[16][17]

Outside of Germany, the Wolfsangel symbol has been used by some Neo-Nazi organizations such as in the United States where the Aryan Nations organization uses a white Wolfsangel-like symbol with a sword replacing the cross-bar in its logo.[18] The US-based Anti-Defamation League (ADL) database lists the symbol as a hate symbol and a neo-Nazi symbol.[3][6]

Far-right movements in Ukraine like the Social-National Party of Ukraine,[19][20][21] Social-National Assembly,[22] and Azov Battalion[23][24][25][26] have used a similar symbol (but with an elongated centre bar and the Z being rotated but untypically not reversed) for their political slogan Ідея Нації (Ukrainian for "National Idea", where the symbol is a composite of the "N" and the "I"); they deny any connection or attempt to draw a parallel with Nazism.[27]

In 2020, there was a brief trend of Generation Z TikTok users tattooing a "Generation Ƶ" symbol on the arm as "a symbol of unity in our generation but also as a sign of rebellion" (in the manner of the 15th-century peasant's revolts). The originator of the trend later renounced it when the use of the symbol by the Nazis was brought to her attention.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Ahmed, Akbar (February 2018). Journey into Europe: Islam, Immigration, and Identity. Brookings Institution. p. 77. ISBN 9780815727583.
  2. ^ a b c Lumsden, Robin (2009). Himmler's SS: Loyal to the Death's Head. The History Press. pp. 201–206. ISBN 978-0752497228. Retrieved 24 March 2015 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ a b c Greenspan, Rachel (22 September 2020). "TikTok users recommended a Nazi symbol as a Gen Z tattoo idea to represent 'rebellion'". Insider. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  4. ^ Christoph Röder (2014). "Vier karolingerzeitliche Grubenhäuser bei der Junkermühle, Stadt Münzenberg". hessenARCHÄOLOGIE am.
  5. ^ a b c Almond, Richard (March 2011). Medieval Hunting. The History Press. ISBN 978-0752459493.
  6. ^ a b c d "Wolfsangel: General Hate Symbols, Neo-Nazi Symbols". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Gustav Adelbert Seyler (1890). "Geschichte der Heraldik (Wappenwesen, Wappenkunst und Wappenwissenschaft) ... Abt. A. des Siebmacher'schen Wappenbuches". Bauer & Raspe. p. 664. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Wolffs-Angel, frantz. hamecon, lat. uncus quo lupi capiuntur, ist die Form eines halben Mondes und hat inwendig in der Mitte einen Ring. Wolffs-Angel: French hameçon, Latin uncus quo lupi capiuntur ("hook with which wolves are caught") is the shape of a crescent moon with a ring inside, at mid-height.
  8. ^ Sadlier, Klemens (1971). German Coats-of-Arms. Federal Republic of Germany: Municipal Coats-of-Arms of the Federal State of Baden-Wurttemberg). Vol. 8. Angelsachsen-Verlag. p. 115.
  9. ^ Press release of the Regional Association of Westphalia-Lippe, 30 October 2009 No original ancient specimens of such hooks were known prior to 2009 when excavations at the Falkenburg ruin in Detmold yielded more than 25 wolf hooks dated to the 13th century. Video on YouTube
  10. ^ Yenne, Bill (October 2010). Hitler's Master of the Dark Arts: Himmler's Black Knights and the Occult Origins of the SS. Zenith Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0760337783.
  11. ^ a b c Gerhard Große Löscher: Die Wolfsangel als Forst- und Jagdzeichen in Niedersachsen. In: Jürgen Delfs u. a.: Jagd in der Lüneburger Heide. Beiträge zur Jagdgeschichte. Celle 2006, ISBN 3-925902-59-7, pp. 238–239
  12. ^ Niro, August (2000). Wolfsangel: German City on Trial. Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1574882452. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  13. ^ Watt, Roderick (October 1992). "Wehrwolf or Werwolf? Literature, Legend, or Lexical Error into Nazi Propaganda?". The Modern Language Review. 87 (4): 879–895. doi:10.2307/3731426. JSTOR 3731426. A study of the iconography of German nationalist groups between the wars and then of Nazi party, military, and paramilitary organizations from 1933 to 1945 proves beyond doubt that the 'Wolfsangel' symbol was widely, even indiscriminately used by them long before the formation of the Nazi Werwolf movement at the end of the war. Wolfsangel, if at all translatable, means, or at least originally meant, 'wolf trap', an instrument which is a threat to the wolf. Yet both Lons and the Nazis used it as a menacing symbol of intimidation representing the savage and relentless ferocity of the wolf... In the late summer or early autumn of 1944, when it was clear that Germany was committed to a European land war on two fronts, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler initiated Unternehmen Werwolf, ordering SS-Obergruppenführer Prutzmann to begin organizing an elite troop of volunteer special forces to operate secretly behind enemy lines.
  14. ^ "In Deutschland verbotene Zeichen und Symbole". Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum für Antirassismusarbeit in Nordrhein-Westfalen.
  15. ^ "Gruppierungen auf dem Index". Programm Polizeiliche Kriminalprävention.
  16. ^ "Germany lifts ban on Nazi symbols in video games". The Telegraph. 9 August 2018.
  17. ^ "Germany lifts ban on swastikas in videogames". PC Gamer. 9 August 2018.
  18. ^ "Aryan Nations". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  19. ^ "Kyiv's Next Image Problem". Open Democracy. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  20. ^ Analysing Fascist Discourse: European Fascism in Talk and Text,Per Anders Rudling "The Return of the Ukrainian Far Right: The Case of VO Svoboda" edited by Ruth Wodak, John E. Richardson. Routledge, 2012
  21. ^ Olszański, Tadeusz A. (4 July 2011). "Svoboda Party – The New Phenomenon on the Ukrainian Right-Wing Scene". Centre for Eastern Studies. OSW Commentary (56)
  22. ^ "Provoking the Euromaidan". Open Democracy. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  23. ^ "Look far right, and look right again". Open Democracy. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  24. ^ Alec Luhn (30 August 2014). "Preparing for War With Ukraine's Fascist Defenders of Freedom". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  25. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (13 December 2014). "A Pastor's Turn Fighting for Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  26. ^ Parfitt, Tom (11 August 2014). "Ukraine crisis: the neo-Nazi brigade fighting pro-Russian separatists". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  27. ^ "Profile: Who are Ukraine's far-right Azov regiment?". Al Jazeera. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.

Sources