A Night to Remember
Theatrical release poster
Directed byRoy Ward Baker
Screenplay byEric Ambler
Story byWalter Lord
Based onA Night to Remember
1955 book
by Walter Lord
Produced byWilliam MacQuitty
StarringKenneth More
CinematographyGeoffrey Unsworth
Music byWilliam Alwyn
Distributed byThe Rank Organisation
Release date
  • 3 July 1958 (1958-07-03)
Running time
123 minutes
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Budget£500,000[1] or £530,000[2] or £600,000; [3] upper bounds of approximately £11.5 million or £13.1 million adjusted for inflation (2019)
Box officePrecise figure unknown, but it had failed to make its budget back by 2001

A Night to Remember is a 1958 British historical disaster docudrama film based on the eponymous 1955 book by Walter Lord. The film and book recount the final night of RMS Titanic, which sank on her maiden voyage after she struck an iceberg in 1912. Adapted by Eric Ambler and directed by Roy Ward Baker, the film stars Kenneth More as the ship's Second Officer Charles Lightoller and features Michael Goodliffe, Laurence Naismith, Kenneth Griffith, David McCallum and Tucker McGuire. It was filmed in the United Kingdom and tells the story of the sinking, portraying the main incidents and players in a documentary-style fashion with considerable attention to detail.[4] The production team, supervised by producer William MacQuitty (who saw the original ship launched) used blueprints of the ship to create authentic sets, while Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall and ex-Cunard Commodore Harry Grattidge worked as technical advisors on the film. Its estimated budget of up to £600,000 (£13.1 million adjusted for inflation [2019]) was exceptional and made it the most expensive film ever made in Britain up to that time.[3] The film's score was written by William Alwyn.

The film disappointed at the box office.[1] However, it received critical acclaim and won the 1959 "Samuel Goldwyn International Award" at the Golden Globe Awards.[5] Among the many films about the Titanic, A Night to Remember is regarded highly by Titanic historians and survivors for its accuracy, despite its modest production values, compared with the 1997 Hollywood film Titanic.[6][7][8] Retrospective analysis by both critics and regular viewers has been favourable; for example, on Rotten Tomatoes, the movie has a score of 100% based on twenty-two critical reviews and a 90% value according to audience responses.[9]

Plot

In 1912, the luxurious Titanic is the largest vessel afloat and is widely believed to be unsinkable. On 10 April, Titanic sails from Southampton on her maiden voyage to New York. On 14 April, in the Atlantic, the ship receives a number of ice warnings from steamers, which are relayed to Captain Edward Smith, who orders a lookout. That evening, the SS Californian spots floating ice in the distance and tries to send a telegraph message to Titanic.

On Titanic, first class passengers Sir Richard and Lady Richard, and second class passengers the Clarkes, a young newlywed couple, overhear the band, led by Wallace Hartley. The band plays various songs, while steerage passengers Pat Murphy, Martin Gallagher, and James Farrel enjoy a party in third class, where Murphy becomes attracted to a young Polish girl and dances with her.

In the telegraph room, operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride are changing shifts. Phillips receives an ice warning, but when more messages arrive for him to send out, the warning is lost under them. On the Californian, field ice is spotted. The ship stops due to the risk, and a message is sent to Titanic. Because the Californian is so close, the telegraph message is very loud, and Phillips cuts it off abruptly. Titanic's passengers begin to settle in for the night, while gamblers Hoyle and Jay Yates stay up.

Suddenly, the vessel collides with an iceberg. Captain Smith sends for Thomas Andrews, the ship's builder, to inspect the damage, who determines that Titanic will sink within two hours, and both realise that the ship lacks sufficient lifeboat capacity for all the passengers. Distress signals are sent out, but the Californian's radio operator is off duty. 58 miles away, the RMS Carpathia radio operator receives the distress call and alerts Captain Arthur Rostron, who orders Dean to turn around the RMS Carpathia. Unfortunately, it will take around four hours to reach the Titanic.

Seeing the Californian on the horizon 10 miles away, Titanic begins to signal the ship, but the Californian's crew fails to comprehend why a ship within sight is firing rockets, as Captain Smith orders Second Officer Charles Lightoller to start lowering the lifeboats, while the orchestra performs ragtime. In the Grand Staircase, passenger Robbie Lucas is told the truth by Andrews and he gets his wife and children safely into a boat.

Murphy, Gallagher and Farrel help the Polish girl and her mother to the boat deck and get them to a boat. The Richards and Hoyle are admitted to a boat by First Officer William McMaster Murdoch. Yates gives a female passenger a note to send to his sister. Ida and Isidor Straus refuse to be separated, inadvertently setting an example for Mrs Clarke, who decides to stay with her husband until Andrews advises them on how to survive.

As the crew struggles to hold back the third-class passengers, most first- and second-class passengers board lifeboats and row away. As Titanic leans, passengers begin to realise the danger; when the third-class passengers are finally allowed up, chaos ensues. White Star Line Chairman J. Bruce Ismay steps into one of the last lifeboats. Passengers—among them Murphy, Gallagher and Farrel—retreat towards the stern as it rises into the air, while Lightoller and other able seamen struggle to free the two remaining collapsible lifeboats, as the Titanic's bow submerges. Captain Smith gives the final order to abandon ship, and orders every man to save himself.

The Clarkes use a rope to get down the ship's side and the orchestra performs the hymn, "Nearer, My God, to Thee", as Smith returns to the bridge to go down with his ship. Titanic begins its final plunge; Lightoller and many others are swept off. Andrews awaits his fate in the first-class smoking room, while a kindly steward comforts a lost boy separated from his mother. Lucas looks out towards the lifeboats, realising that he will never see his family again, while the Clarkes are killed by a falling funnel. The passengers pray as the stricken liner rapidly sinks into the ocean.

In the freezing water, many die of hypothermia. Lucas's dead body floats by an overturned collapsible, as Yates, unwilling to overcrowd the boat, swims away to his death. Lightoller takes charge on the boat as Murphy and Gallagher make it aboard, although Farrel is lost. Chief Baker Charles Joughin, after having given up his lifeboat seat and turning to the bottle to ease his ailments, also climbs aboard. The men are saved by another boat. The Carpathia arrives to rescue the survivors, as a shaken Lightoller tells Colonel Archibald Gracie, "I don't think I'll ever feel sure again, about anything."

On the ship, as a group prayer is held, Murphy and Gallagher stand with the Polish girl and her mother, while Mrs Farrel and Mrs Lucas and her children mourn the loss of their loved ones. Rostron takes Lightoller on deck as Carpathia sails by the remaining floating wreckage from the Titanic. Rostron informs Lightoller that 705 were saved and 1,500 lost. The Carpathia receives a message from the Californian, which heard of the disaster, but Rostron informs them that "everything that was humanly possible has been done".

Cast

Cast notes:

Production

Original book

The film is based on Walter Lord's book A Night to Remember (1955), but in Ray Johnson's documentary The Making of 'A Night to Remember' (1993), Lord says that when he wrote his book, there was no mass interest in the Titanic,[13] and he was the first writer in four decades to attempt a grand-scale history of the disaster, synthesising written sources and survivors' first-hand accounts. Lord dated the genesis of his interest in the subject to childhood. So did producer MacQuitty, who had vivid memories of, as a boy of six, watching the launch of the Titanic at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast on 31 May 1911 and seeing it depart on its maiden voyage the following April.[14]

1956 television adaptation

Main article: A Night to Remember (Kraft Television Theatre)

The book had previously been adapted as a live American TV production, screened by NBC and sponsored by Kraft Foods as part of the Kraft Television Theatre series on 28 March 1956.[15] It has been described as "the biggest, most lavish, most expensive thing of its kind" attempted up to that point, with 31 sets, 107 actors, 72 speaking parts, and 3,000 gallons of water and costing $95,000 ($787,000 at 2022 prices). George Roy Hill directed and Claude Rains narrated[16] – a practice borrowed from radio dramas, which provided a template for many television dramas of the time.[17] It took a similar approach to the book, lacking dominant characters and switching between a multiplicity of scenes. Rains's narration was used "to bridge the almost limitless number of sequences of life aboard the doomed liner", as a reviewer put it,[18] and closed with his declaration that "never again has Man been so confident. An age had come to an end."[19]

The production was a major hit, attracting 28 million viewers, and greatly boosted the book's sales.[16] It was rerun on kinescope on 2 May 1956, five weeks after its first broadcast.[15][20]

Development

The film adaptation came about after its eventual director, Roy Ward Baker, and its producer, Belfast-born William MacQuitty, both acquired copies of the book -– Baker from his favourite bookshop and MacQuitty from his wife – and decided to obtain the film rights. MacQuitty succeeded in raising finance from John Davis at the Rank Organisation, who in the late 1950s were expanding into bigger-budgeted filmmaking. The job of directing was assigned to Roy Baker, who was under contract to Rank, and Baker recommended Ambler be given the job of writing the screenplay.[2] Lord was brought on board as a consultant.[21]

In addition to basing the script – both in action and dialogue – on Lord's book, the filmmakers achieved nuanced performances and authentic atmosphere by consulting several actual Titanic survivors, who served as technical advisors. Among them were Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall and passengers Edith Russell and Lawrence Beesley.[4] One day during shooting, Beesley famously gatecrashed the set. He infiltrated the set during the sinking scene, hoping to 'go down with the ship', but was discovered by the director, who ordered him off and vetoed this unscheduled appearance due to the actors' union rules. Thus, as Julian Barnes puts it, "for the second time in his life, Beesley left the Titanic just before it was due to go down".[22] Charles Lightoller's widow Sylvia was also consulted during production, at one point visiting Pinewood Studios and meeting with Kenneth More, whom she introduced to her children on set. Sylvia commended More for his portrayal of her husband.[23] When Helen Smith, Captain Smith's daughter, visited the set, she was overcome by the striking physical resemblance between Laurence Naismith and her father.[24]

There were numerous changes made to real events to increase the drama and appeal. For example, there is a limited involvement of American passengers (with the exception of the Strauses, Guggenheim, "the unsinkable" Molly Brown and Colonel Gracie), and several characters based on Americans are depicted as being British. When questioned as to why he did this, Roy Baker noted that "it was a British film made by British artists for a British audience".[25] Also, the film diverges from both the book and the NBC TV adaptation in focusing on a central character, Second Officer Charles Lightoller, who does and says some things that other crewmembers are reported to have done and said during the actual disaster. Its conclusion reflects Lord's world-historical theme of a "world changed forever" with a fictional conversation between Lightoller and Colonel Archibald Gracie, sitting on a lifeboat. Lightoller declares that the disaster is "different ... Because we were so sure. Because even though it's happened, it's still unbelievable. I don't think I'll ever feel sure again. About anything."[19] Rank wanted a star for the part, so it was offered to Kenneth More, who accepted. It was the first film that he made under a new contract with Rank to make seven films in five years for a fee of £40,000 per film (about £902,000 in 2019 terms, with a total of £6,600,000 for all seven).[26]

Producer MacQuitty had originally contracted with Shaw, Savill & Albion Line to use its former flagship QSMV Dominion Monarch to shoot scenes, but the company pulled out of the production at the last minute, citing that they did not want to use one of their liners to recreate the Titanic sinking. However, according to MacQuitty, the Shaw Savill Line at the time was managed by Basil Sanderson, son of Harold Sanderson, the White Star Line's director in the US at the time of the sinking. Harold Sanderson would later succeed J. Bruce Ismay as president of the International Mercantile Marine Company, J.P. Morgan's shipping conglomerate that owned the White Star Line. This connection to White Star, according to MacQuitty, is what actually led the Shaw Savill Line to pull out. MacQuitty eventually got permission from Ship Breaking Industries in Faslane, Scotland to film scenes aboard RMS Asturias, a 1920s ocean liner that the company was scrapping. The liner's port side had been demolished, but its starboard was still intact, so MacQuitty got art students to paint the liner the White Star Line colours and used mirrors to recreate scenes that took place on the port side. 30 sets were constructed using the builders' original plans for Titanic.[27]

Shooting

Filming began on 15 October 1957 at Pinewood Studios, until 5 March 1958. When the set was being raised at an angle, the microphones picked up the sounds of the set creaking. The director kept them in the sinking scenes because they made the scenes more realistic. The last shot to be filmed was Sir Richard and Lady Richard's departure from their home pass the waving orphans, according to Ray Johnson's documentary The Making of 'A Night to Remember' (1993).

Kenneth More recalled the production of the film in his autobiography, published 20 years later in 1978. There was no tank big enough at Pinewood Studios to film the survivors struggling to climb into lifeboats, so it was done in the open-air swimming bath at Ruislip Lido, at 2:00 am on an icy November morning. When the extras refused to jump in, Moore realised he would have to set an example. He called out: "Come on!".

I leaped. Never have I experienced such cold in all my life. It was like jumping into a deep freeze. The shock forced the breath out of my body. My heart seemed to stop beating. I felt crushed, unable to think. I had rigor mortis, without the mortis. And then I surfaced, spat out the dirty water and, gasping for breath, found my voice.

"Stop!" I shouted. "Don't listen to me! It's bloody awful! Stay where you are!"

But it was too late ....[28]

Four clips from the Nazi propaganda film Titanic (1943) were used in A Night to Remember; two of the ship sailing in calm waters during the day, and two of a flooding walkway in the engine room.[29] As Brian Hawkins writes, the British came closest "to the Titanic truth in 1958 with their black-and-white production of Walter Lord's novel A Night to Remember, seamlessly incorporating sequences from director Herbert Selpin's 1943 (Nazi) Titanic without giving any screen credits for these incredible scenes".[30] Selpin himself was arrested on the instruction of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels during production in early August 1942, for offering a negative opinion of the German military while directing this earlier Nazi-era film. He was then found dead in his prison cell.

Historical accuracy

Illustration of the sinking of the Titanic

The film is regarded as the most historically accurate Titanic film, except for not featuring the ship breaking in two. (There was still doubt about this fact when the book and film were produced. The accepted view at the time, and the result of the inquiries, was that she sank intact; it was only confirmed that she split after the wreck was found in 1985).[31][32] Lightoller's widow Sylvia praised the film's historical accuracy in an interview with The Guardian, stating "The film is really the truth and has not been embroidered".[23]

While some events are based on history, some of the characters and their storylines are fictional or dramatised; the characters of Mr Murphy, Mr Hoyle, and Jay Yates being composites of several men.[33] Murphy, who leads the steerage girls to the lifeboat, is a composite of several Irish emigrants. Although there was, in fact, a Martin Gallagher travelling steerage aboard the Titanic, his actions in the film are fictionalised and although he survives the sinking, he actually died in real life. Hoyle, the gambler who gets into the lifeboat on the starboard side, is a composite of several such figures, men determined to save themselves at all costs. Robbie Lucas and Mrs Liz Lucas are composites of several married couples, notably Mr Lucian Smith and Mrs Eloise Hughes Smith. Lucas even says the words actually spoken by Lucien Smith to his wife: "I never expected to ask you to obey me, but this is one time you must".[34] Mr Clarke and Mrs Clarke are composites of several honeymoon couples, notably Mr John Chapman and Mrs Sarah Chapman, a pair of newlyweds from second class who died during the sinking. John Chapman's body was recovered by the cable ship Mackay-Bennett, and there were no mentions or indications that suggest that he had been killed by a falling funnel.[35] The involvement of American passengers was either limited or left out (with the exception of the Strauses, Guggenheim, Margaret Brown and Colonel Gracie).[25]

Several historical figures were renamed or went unnamed to avoid potential legal action. Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon and Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon are depicted as Sir Richard and Lady Richard (Lady Duff's secretary Miss Francatelli is completely omitted) and Bruce Ismay is referred to throughout only as "The Chairman".

The film omits several key historical figures, including John Jacob Astor IV, the wealthiest passenger aboard the Titanic, and Stoker Frederick Barrett, with Second Engineer Officer John Henry Hesketh's role being expanded to include duties and actions that were performed by Barrett and others.[33]

In reality, the American gambler Jay Yates (played as British by the distinctive British actor Ralph Michael), travelling under the name of J.H. Rogers, was never on board, and the note he was said to have handed to a passenger was a hoax. Yates wrote the note in New York and then had a woman accomplice pose as a survivor and deliver the note to the newspaper. Yates did this in order to make the police think he was dead. They didn't fall for the ruse, and Yates was captured a couple of months later (he was wanted on federal charges connected with postal thefts). The fictional Yates says, "Good luck and God bless you", the words spoken by an unknown swimmer at Collapsible B, whom survivor fireman Walter Hurst thought was Captain Smith.[36]

The painting in the first class smoking room is incorrectly shown as depicting the entrance to New York Harbour, while it actually depicted the entrance to Plymouth Sound, which Titanic had been expected to visit on her return voyage (there was a painting of New York Harbour at this spot on RMS Olympic, a sister ship of Titanic). This was an error made by Walter Lord in his research, which he acknowledged in the documentary The Making of A Night to Remember.[37][38][39]

The first scene of A Night to Remember depicts the christening of the ship at its launch. However, the Titanic was never christened, as it was not the practice of the White Star Line to stage this sort of ceremony.[40] This has come down in popular lore as one of the many contributing factors to the ship's "bad luck".

Stanley Lord was upset over his negative portrayal; he was depicted wearing pyjamas and as being asleep in his cabin while the Titanic was sinking. In fact, Lord was sleeping in the chart room wearing his uniform.

The film makes a hero of second officer Lightoller, who seems to have launched almost every single lifeboat. Actions that were actually performed by others were attributed to Lightoller.[41] Lightoller is also depicted as nearly being crushed by the fourth funnel falling in the ship's last moments. It was actually the first funnel that fell near Lightoller.[42][43][33]

Some historical figures have the 'wrong' accent: The portrayal of Thomas Andrews by British actor Michael Goodlife was believable, but the accent should have been not British but Irish. Murdoch's accent should have been Scottish.[44]

Murphy and Gallagher make it to the overturned Collapsible B with a child in their arms, which they pass to Lightoller. Lightoller realises the child is dead and puts it back in the water. This was inspired by several accounts that Captain Smith reportedly carried a child to the boat, which later died. Along with these accounts being of dubious nature, Lightoller never reported receiving a child on Collapsible B.[45]

Release

The world premiere was on 3 July 1958, at the Odeon Leicester Square. Boxhall and Third Officer Herbert Pitman attended the premier along with survivor Walter Nichols.[24] Titanic survivor Elizabeth Dowdell attended the American premiere in New York on Tuesday 16 December 1958.[46]

Reception

Critical reception

After its December 1958 US premiere, Bosley Crowther called the film a "tense, exciting and supremely awesome drama...[that] puts the story of the great disaster in simple human terms and yet brings it all into a drama of monumental unity and scope"; according to Crowther:[47]

this remarkable picture is a brilliant and moving account of the behavior of the people on the Titanic on that night that should never be forgotten. It is an account of the casualness and flippancy of most of the people right after the great ship has struck (even though an ominous cascade of water is pouring into her bowels); of the slow accumulation of panic that finally mounts to a human holocaust, of shockingly ugly bits of baseness and of wonderfully brave and noble deeds.

The film won numerous awards, including a Golden Globe Award for Best English-Language Foreign Film, and received high praise from reviewers on both sides of the Atlantic.[48]

Box office

The film was one of the twenty most popular films of the year in Britain according to Motion Picture Herald, but it was only a modest commercial success due to the size of its original budget and its relative underperformance at the American box office.[49]

Kinematograph Weekly listed it as being "in the money" at the British box office in 1958.[50]

By 2001, it had still not made a profit, in part because it was issued as part of a slate of ten films and all of its profits were cross-collateralised.[49]

Reputation today

According to Professor Paul Heyer, the film helped to spark the wave of disaster films that included The Poseidon Adventure (1972) and The Towering Inferno (1974).[48] Heyer comments that it "still stands as the definitive cinematic telling of the story and the prototype and finest example of the disaster-film genre".[51] On Rotten Tomatoes, the movie has a score of 100% based on twenty-two critical reviews and a 90% value according to audience responses.[9] The film has been described as "the definitive cinematic telling of the story". [51] It is considered "the best Titanic film before Titanic (1997)", "the most accurate of all Titanic films",[31] and "the definitive Titanic tale",[52] especially for its social realism, reflecting, in the words of one critic, "the overwhelming

historical evidence that the class rigidity of 1912, for all its defects, produced a genuine sense of behavioural obligation on the Titanic among rich and poor alike; that the greatest number of people aboard faced death or hardship with a stoic and selfless grace that the world has wondered at for most of this century".[53] Film critic Barry Norman called it "more moving" than Titanic (1997). Andrew Collins of Empire gave the film five out of five, writing that "this is a landmark in British cinema, as good today as it's always been".[54] Filmink argued this was the best film Kenneth More ever starred in.[55]

Titanic experts Fitch, Layton and Wormstedt point out that the film is based on the bestseller published by Walter Lord two and a half years earlier. In addition, the Fourth Officer helped Boxhall as an advisor. Although the film is described as particularly accurate, it does contain some errors. However, the 1958 film was a huge step forward in terms of correctness compared to the 1953 film. The special effects were not as good as those of the predecessor, but effort was made to depict the interior of the ship more accurately.

'The film was also a masterpiece in that it did not use a fictional plot and primary characters to draw audiences in; instead, it primarily relied upon historical figures and showed them in such a way that audiences cared about what happened to them.'[56]

Home video

A Night to Remember was released by the Criterion Collection on DVD in May 1998.[57] Initial versions of the DVD omitted Lightoller finding the child to be dead and putting it in the water. A new DVD and a high-definition Blu-ray edition were released on 27 March 2012 to commemorate the centennial of the sinking.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Harper, Sue; Porter, Vincent (10 July 2018). British Cinema of the 1950s: The Decline of Deference. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198159346 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ a b Richards 2001, p. 29.
  3. ^ a b Street 2004, p. 143.
  4. ^ a b Ward 2012, p. 226.
  5. ^ Night To Remember, a Archived 14 April 2013 at archive.today HFPA Retrieved 2010-01-04.
  6. ^ Janice Hooker Rushing and Thomas S. Frentz, "Singing over the bones: James Cameron's Titanic", Critical Studies in Media Communication (ICMC), Volume 17, Issue 1 (1 March 2000), pp. 1–27.
  7. ^ Celeste Cumming Mt. Lebanon, "Early Titanic Film A Movie to Remember", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (11 September 1998), p. 39.
  8. ^ P. Parisi, Titanic and the making of James Cameron (New York: Newmarket Press, 1998), p. 127.
  9. ^ a b A Night To Remember Rotten Tomatoes
  10. ^ "A Night to Remember (1958)".
  11. ^ "Gordon Holdom" on the British Pathé website
  12. ^ A Night to Remember at IMDb
  13. ^ Sragow, Michael (26 March 2012). "Nearer, My Titanic to Thee". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  14. ^ Mayer 2004, p. 31.
  15. ^ a b Anderson 2005, p. 97.
  16. ^ a b Biel 1996, p. 151.
  17. ^ Anderson 2005, p. 98.
  18. ^ Biel 1996, p. 160.
  19. ^ a b Biel 1996, p. 161.
  20. ^ Rasor 2001, p. 119.
  21. ^ Heyer 2012, p. 149.
  22. ^ Barnes 2010, p. 175.
  23. ^ a b "Widow of Titanic Officer visits Chorley". Encyclopedia Titanica. 30 January 2005. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  24. ^ a b Fitch, Layton & Wormstedt 2012, pp. 278.
  25. ^ a b The Titanic on Film: Myth versus Truth Linda Maria Koldau; McFarland, 2012 307 pages, page 139
  26. ^ Richards 2001, pp. 35–36.
  27. ^ Aldridge 2008, p. 89.
  28. ^ Moore, Kenneth (1978). More or Less. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-22603-2."
  29. ^ "Matte Shot: a Tribute to Golden Era special fx". 26 May 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  30. ^ Brian Hawkins, The Titanic's last victim: in 1942, a German film director put a uniquely Nazi take on the great ship's sinking. The reviews were deadly, The National Post, Thursday 12 April 2012, p.A10
  31. ^ a b Michael Janusonis, "VIDEO – Documentary just the tip of the iceberg for Titanic fans", The Providence Journal (5 September 2003), E-05.
  32. ^ "Titanic". Variety. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  33. ^ a b c The Goofs of A Night To Remember (1958, Rank Pictures)
  34. ^ Melissa Jo Peltier (1994). Titanic: Death of a Dream (documentary). United States: A&E Network.
  35. ^ Smith, Richard (21 February 2009) Frozen in time...the watch which shows the moment newlywed Titanic passengers fell into sea and died
  36. ^ A Night to Remember
  37. ^ Eaton & Haas 1994, p. 155.
  38. ^ Lord 1988, p. 113
  39. ^ Chirnside 2004, p. 177
  40. ^ Tad Fitch, J. Kent Layton, Bill Wormstedt: On a Sea of Glass. The Life & Loss of the RMS Titanic. Amberley, Stroud 2015, p. 27/28.
  41. ^ Tad Fitch, J. Kent Layton, Bill Wormstedt: On a Sea of Glass. The Life & Loss of the RMS Titanic. Amberley, Stroud 2015, p. 278.
  42. ^ Barczewski 2006, p. 28.
  43. ^ Winocour 1960, p. 299.
  44. ^ Tad Fitch, J. Kent Layton, Bill Wormstedt: On a Sea of Glass. The Life & Loss of the RMS Titanic. Amberley, Stroud 2015, p. 278.
  45. ^ Fitch, Layton & Wormstedt 2012, pp. 331–333.
  46. ^ "Miss Elizabeth Dowdell". encyclopedia titanica. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  47. ^ Crowther, Bosley (17 December 1958). "Screen: Sinking of Titanic; A Night to Remember Opens at Criterion". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  48. ^ a b Heyer 2012, p. 151.
  49. ^ a b Richards 2001, p. 98.
  50. ^ Billings, Josh (18 December 1958). "Others in the Money". Kinematograph Weekly. p. 7.
  51. ^ a b Heyer 2012, p. 104.
  52. ^ Howard Thompson, "Movies This Week", The New York Times (9 August 1998), p. 6, col. 1.
  53. ^ Ken Ringle, "Integrity Goes Down With the Ship; Historical Facts, Including True-Life Gallantry, Lost in Titanic", The Washington Post (22 March 1998), p. G08.
  54. ^ "A Night to Remember".
  55. ^ Vagg, Stephen (16 April 2023). "Surviving Cold Streaks: Kenneth More". Filmink.
  56. ^ Tad Fitch, J. Kent Layton, Bill Wormstedt: On a Sea of Glass. The Life & Loss of the RMS Titanic. Amberley, Stroud 2015, p. 278.
  57. ^ "A Night to Remember Blu-ray Review (The Criterion Collection)".

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