Ashoka Chakra

Ashoka Chakra and its ribbon
Awarded forAwarded for most conspicuous bravery, or some act of daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice otherwise than in the face of the enemy.[1]
DescriptionIndia's highest peacetime military decoration
CountryIndia India
Presented byIndia Republic of India
  • Officers, men and women of all ranks of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force, of the Territorial Army, Militia and of any other lawfully constituted forces.
  • Members of the Nursing Services of the Armed Forces.
  • Civilian Citizens of either sex in all walks of life and members of Police Forces including Central Para-Military Forces and Railway protection Force.[1]
Established1952; 72 years ago (1952)
First awarded1952
Last awarded2021
Total98 (As of 2023)[2][3]
Total awarded posthumously68
Total recipients98
Next (higher) Bharat Ratna
Equivalent Param Vir Chakra[a][5][6][7]
Next (lower) Padma Vibhushan[8]

The Ashoka Chakra (alternative spelling: Ashok Chakra) is India's highest peacetime military decoration awarded for valor, courageous action, or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peacetime equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra (PVC) and is awarded for the "most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice" other than in the face of the enemy. The decoration may be awarded either to military or civilian personnel.

Havildar Bachittar Singh and Naik Narbahadur Thapa were the first recipients of the Ashoka Chakra. Subsequent awards of the Ashoka Chakra are recognized by a bar to the medal ribbon. A recipient can be awarded the Kirti Chakra or Shaurya Chakra in addition to separate acts of gallantry.


The medal was originally established on 4 January 1952 as the "Ashoka Chakra, Class I" as the first step of a three-class sequence of non-combatant bravery decorations. In 1967, these decorations were removed from the "class-based" system and renamed as the Ashoka Chakra, Kirti Chakra, and Shaurya Chakra. This is an important point in understanding the independent Indian view of decorations. It would also lead to changes in the Padma Vibhushan series, the distinguished service medal series, the life-saving medal series, and the Defence Security Corps medal series.

From 1 February 1999, the central government instituted a monthly stipend for Ashoka Chakra recipients of Rs. 1400. Jammu and Kashmir awarded a cash award of Rs. 1500 for recipients of this award.


Obverse: Circular gold gilt, 1-3/8 inches in diameter. In the center, the chakra (wheel) of Ashoka, is surrounded by a lotus wreath with an ornate edge. Suspended by a straight bar suspender. The medal is named on the edge.

Reverse: Blank in the center, with "Ashoka Chakra" in Hindi along the upper edge on the medal and the same name in English along the lower rim. On either side is a lotus design. The center is blank, perhaps with the intent that details of the award be engraved there. There is no indication of the class on the pre-1967 awards, and, in fact, there is no difference between these medals & the post-1967 awards.

Ribbon: 32 mm, dark green with a 2 mm central saffron stripe.

Ashoka Chakra recipients

As of August 2021, the medal has been awarded to 86 awardees, of which 68 were to posthumous recipients. The rank refers to the rank held by the recipient at the time of award. Action refers to the conflict or event during which the Ashoka Chakra was awarded.

* Indicates posthumous honour
List of award recipients, showing the year
Year Rank Recipient Branch Action Refs.
2021 Assistant Sub-Inspector Babu Ram * Jammu and Kashmir Police Kashmir insurgency [9]
2019 Lance Naik Nazir Ahmad Wani * Territorial Army (Indian Army) [10]
2018 Corporal Jyoti Prakash Nirala * Indian Air Force [3]
2017 Havildar Hangpan Dada * Indian Army [11]
2016 Lance Naik Mohan Nath Goswami * [11]
2014 Major Mukund Varadarajan * [11]
Naik Neeraj Kumar Singh * [11]
Sub-Inspector K. Prasad Babu * Andhra Pradesh Police Naxalite–Maoist insurgency [12]
2012 Lieutenant Navdeep Singh * Indian Army Kashmir insurgency [11]
2011 Major Laishram Jyotin Singh * February 2010 Kabul attack [11]
2010 Havildar Rajesh Kumar * Kashmir insurgency [11]
Major D. Sreeram Kumar Manipur insurgency [11]
Mohit Sharma * Kashmir insurgency [11]
2009 Havildar Bahadur Singh Bohra * [13]
Joint Commissioner of Police Hemant Karkare * Maharashtra Police 2008 Mumbai attacks [13]
Inspector Vijay Salaskar * [13]
Additional Commissioner of Police Ashok Kamte * [13]
Assistant Sub-Inspector Tukaram Omble * [13]
Havildar Gajender Singh Bisht * National Security Guard [13]
Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan * [13]
Inspector Mohan Chand Sharma * Delhi Police Batla House encounter [13]
Colonel Jojan Thomas * Indian Army Kashmir insurgency [13]
Deputy Superintendent of Police R. P. Diengdoh * Meghalaya Police Meghalaya Insurgency [13]
Assistant Commandant of Police Pramod Kumar Satapathy * Odisha Police Naxalite–Maoist insurgency [13]
2008 Major Dinesh Raghu Raman * Indian Army Kashmir insurgency [14]
2007 Captain Harshan Radhakrishnan Nair * [14]
Naib Subedar Chuni Lal * [14]
Colonel Vasanth Venugopal * [14]
2004 Lieutenant Triveni Singh * [14]
Paratrooper Sanjog Chhetri * [14]
2003 Subedar Major Suresh Chand Yadav * National Security Guard Akshardham Temple attack [15]
2002 Subedar Surinder Singh * Indian Army Kashmir insurgency [14]
Naik Rambeer Singh Tomar * [14]
2001 Shri Jagdish Prasad Yadav * Rajya Sabha Secretariat 2001 Indian Parliament attack
Shri Matbar Singh Negi *
Constable Kamlesh Kumari Yadav * Central Reserve Police Force [14]
2000 Major Sudhir Kumar Walia * Indian Army Kashmir insurgency [14]
1997 Second Lieutenant Puneet Nath Datt * [14]
Lieutenant Colonel Shanti Swarup Rana * [14]
1996 Captain Arun Singh Jasrotia * [14]
1995 Major Rajiv Kumar Joon * [14]
Subedar Sujjan Singh Yadav * [14]
Lieutenant Colonel Harsh Uday Singh Gaur * [14]
1994 Colonel Neelakantan Jayachandran Nair * [14]
1993 Second Lieutenant Rakesh Singh Malhan * [14]
1992 Captain Sandeep Sankhla * [16]
1991 Superintendent of Police Randhir Prasad Verma * Bihar Police Bank robbery [16]
1987 Flight Attendant Neerja Bhanot * Pan Am Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking [16]
1986 Shri Vijay Jagirdar * Civilian 1984 anti-Sikh riots
1985 Lance Havildar Chhering Mutup Indian Army Siachen conflict [16]
Naik Nirbhay Singh Sisodiya * Operation Blue Star [16]
Bhawani Datt Joshi * [16]
Lieutenant Ram Prakash Roperia * [16]
Captain Jasbir Singh Raina [16]
Major Bhukant Mishra * [16]
Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma Indian Air Force Soyuz T-11 [16]
1984 Flight Engineer Gennadi Strekalov Roscosmos [16]
Colonel Yury Malyshev Soviet Air Forces [16]
1981 Second Lieutenant Cyrus Addie Pithawalla Indian Army Manipur insurgency [16]
1974 Shri Munni Lal * Civilian Dacoit attack
Naib Subedar Gurnam Singh * Indian Army [16]
1972 Shri Bhure Lal Madhya Pradesh Police Dacoit attack
Captain Ummed Singh Mahra * Indian Army Nagaland insurgency [16]
1971 Shri Baij Nath Singh * Civilian Dacoit attack
1969 Captain Jas Ram Singh Indian Army Mizo insurgency [16]
1968 Shri Takhat Singh * Civilian Dacoit attacks [17]
Lakhan Singh
Hukum Singh
Govind Singh
Dhanpat Singh
1967 Head Constable (Retired) Shankar Lal Shrivastava * Madhya Pradesh Police
1965 Shri Tej Singh * Civilian
Lajja Ram *
Chaman Lal *
Purshottam * [16]
1962 Subedar Major Sal Bahadur Limbu * Indian Army Nagaland insurgency [16]
Captain Man Bahadur Rai [16]
1958 Eric James Tucker * [16]
1957 Lieutenant Colonel Jagannath Raoji Chitnis * [16]
Second Lieutenant Pollur Mutthuswamy Raman * [16]
Havildar Joginder Singh * [16]
1956 Lance Naik Sundar Singh [16]
1955 Pilot Damodar Kashinath Jatar * Air India
1953 Flight Lieutenant Suhas Biswas Indian Air Force [16]
1952 Naik Narbahadur Thapa Indian Army Operation Polo [16]
Havildar Bachittar Singh * [16]

Ashoka Chakra recipients by year and service

Award recipients by year
Year Number of recipients
Award recipients by service
Field Number of recipients
Indian Army
Indian Air Force
Indian Navy
Indian Civilians
Indian State Police


This section contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (August 2021)

See also


  1. ^ Though the Ashoka Chakra is placed below the PVC in order of wear, it is considered as a peacetime equivalent to Param Vir Chakra).[4]
  • Chakravorty, B.C. (1995). Stories of Heroism: PVC & MVC Winners. New Delhi: Allied Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7023-516-3.
  1. ^ a b "Official Website of Indian Army". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  2. ^ "Awardees - Gallantry Awards".
  3. ^ a b "Martyred Corporal Jyoti Prakash Nirala joins elite IAF club tomorrow | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. 25 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Awards Warb" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  5. ^ Chakravorty 1995, p. 40.
  6. ^ "Precedence of Medals". Indian Army. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  7. ^ "Precedence of Medals". Indian Army. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  8. ^ "Precedence of Medals". Indian Army, Govt of India official website.
  9. ^ "As Jammu and Kashmir Police bags gallantry medals, DGP heaps praises". Hindustan Times. 14 August 2021.
  10. ^ "411 Republic Day Gallantry and Other Defence Decorations Announced". Press Information Bureau, Government of India.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Ashoka Chakra recipients (2009–16)". Indian Army Web Portal. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  12. ^ "The President, Shri Pranab Mukherjee giving away the highest gallantry award Ashok Chakra to Shri K. Venkatraman father of the Reserve Inspector, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Shri K.L.V.S.S.H.N.V. Prasad Babu, (Posthumous), during the 65th Republic Day Parade 2014, in New Delhi on January 26, 2014". Press Information Bureau, India. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Ashoka Chakra awardees and their saga of gallantry" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, India. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Ashoka Chakra recipients (1993–2009)". Indian Army Web Portal. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Suresh Chand Yadav". National Security Guards. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Ashoka Chakra recipients (1952–92)". Indian Army Web Portal. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  17. ^ Aggarwal, Rashmi (2021). "Sri Takhat Singh". Ashoka Chakra Recipients. p. 63.
  18. ^ "Saluting Lt Col Harsh Uday Singh Gaur, Ashok Chakra (Posthumous)". My Nation. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2023.