The Book of Malachi (Hebrew: מַלְאָכִ֔י, Malʾāḵī) is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In most Christian orderings, the grouping of the prophetic books is the last section of the Old Testament, making Malachi the last book before the New Testament.

Most scholars consider the Book of Malachi to be the work of a single author who may or may not have been identified by the title Malachi. Its title has frequently been understood as a proper name, although its Hebrew meaning is simply "My Messenger" (the Septuagint reads "his messenger") and would not have been a proper name at the time of its writing. "Malachi" is often assumed to be a pseudonym used by the real writer so he would not face retribution for his prophecies. Jewish tradition states that the book was written by Ezra the scribe.[1]

Oldest surviving manuscripts

The whole Book of Malachi in Latin as a part of Codex Gigas, made around 13th century.

The original manuscript of this book is lost, as are many centuries worth of copies. The oldest surviving manuscripts containing some or all of this book in Hebrew are in the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Aleppo Codex (10th century), and Codex Leningradensis (1008).[2]: 35–37  Fragments containing parts of this book were also found among Dead Sea Scrolls 4Q76 (150–125 BCE) and 4Q78 (75–50 BCE).[3][4][5]

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (6th century).[2]: 73–74 


Little is known of the biography of the author of the Book of Malachi, although it has been suggested that he may have been Levitical. Due to the similarities between Malachi and Ezra's emphasis on forbidding marriage to foreign pagan women, the Talmud and certain Targums, such as Targum Jonathan, identify Ezra as the author of Malachi. This is the traditional view held by most Jews and some Christians.[6][7] The Catholic priest and historian Jerome suggests that this may be because Ezra is seen as an intermediary between the prophets and the "great synagogue." According to Josephus, Ezra died and was buried "in a magnificent manner in Jerusalem."[8] If the tradition that Ezra wrote under the name "Malachi" is correct, then he was probably buried in the Tomb of the Prophets, the traditional resting place of Malachi, Haggai, and Zechariah.

The name "Malachi" occurs in the superscription at 1:1 and in 3:1, although most consider it unlikely that the word refers to the same character in both of these references. According to the editors of the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary, some scholars believe the name "Malachi" is not a proper noun but rather an abbreviation of "messenger of Yah".[9] This reading could be based on Malachi 3:1, "Behold, I will send my messenger...", if "my messenger" is taken literally as the name Malachi.[10] Thus, there is substantial debate regarding the identity of the book's author and many assume that "Malachi" is an anonymous pen-name. However, others disagree. However, other scholars, including the editors of the Catholic Encyclopedia, argue that the grammatical evidence leads us to conclude that Malachi is in fact a name, asserting: "We are no doubt in presence of an abbreviation of the name Mál'akhîyah, that is Messenger of Elohim."[11]

Some scholars consider both Zechariah 914 and Malachi to be anonymous, which explains their placement at the end of the twelve minor prophets.[10] Julius Wellhausen, Abraham Kuenen, and Wilhelm Gustav Hermann Nowack argue that Malachi 1:1 is a late addition, pointing to Zechariah 9:1 and 12:1.[citation needed] Another interpretation of the authorship comes from the Septuagint superscription, ὲν χειρὶ ἀγγήλου αὐτοῦ, which can be read as either "by the hand of his messenger" or as "by the hand of his angel". The "angel" reading found an echo among the ancient Church Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, and even gave rise to the "strangest fancies", especially among the disciples of Origen.[11][12]


There are very few historical details in the Book of Malachi. The greatest clue as to its dating may lie in the fact that the Persian-era term for governor (Imperial Aramaic: פח, romanized: peḥ) is used in 1:8. This points to a post-exilic (that is, after 538 BC) date of composition both because of the use of the Persian period term and because Judah had a king before the exile. Since, in the same verse, the temple has been rebuilt, the book must also be later than 515 BC.[13] Malachi was apparently known to the author of the Book of Sirach early in the second century BC. Because of the development of themes in the book of Malachi, most scholars assign it to a position after the Book of Haggai and the Book of Zechariah,[14][15] close to the time when Ezra and Nehemiah[15] came to Jerusalem in 445 BC.[16]


Israeli West Bank barrier with quotation from Malachi 2:10: "Do we not have one father? Has not one God created us? Why does each of us act deceitfully, each man against his own brother, to profane the covenant of our ancestors?"

The Book of Malachi was written to correct the lax religious and social behavior of the Israelites – particularly the priests – in post-exilic Jerusalem. Although the prophets urged the people of Judah and Israel to see their exile as punishment for failing to uphold their covenant with God, it was not long after they had been restored to the land and to Temple worship that the people's commitment to their God began, once again, to wane. It was in this context that the prophet commonly referred to as Malachi delivered his prophecy.

In 1:2, Malachi has the people of Israel question God's love for them. This introduction to the book illustrates the severity of the situation which Malachi addresses. The graveness of the situation is also indicated by the dialectical style with which Malachi confronts his audience. Malachi proceeds to accuse his audience of failing to respect God as God deserves. One way in which this disrespect is made manifest is through the substandard sacrifices which Malachi claims are being offered by the priests. While God demands animals that are "without blemish" (Leviticus 1:3, NRSV), the priests, who were "to determine whether the animal was acceptable" (Mason 143), were offering blind, lame and sick animals for sacrifice because they thought nobody would notice.

In 2:1, Malachi states Yahweh Sabaoth is sending a curse on the priests who have not honored him with appropriate animal sacrifices: "Now, watch how I am going to paralyze your arm and throw dung in your face--the dung from your very solemnities--and sweep you away with it. Then you shall learn that it is I who have given you this warning of my intention to abolish my covenant with Levi, says Yahweh Sabaoth."

In 2:10, Malachi addresses the issue of divorce. On this topic, Malachi deals with divorce both as a social problem ("Why then are we faithless to one another ... ?" 2:10) and as a religious problem ("Judah ... has married the daughter of a foreign god" 2:11). In contrast to the book of Ezra, Malachi urges each to remain steadfast to the wife of his youth.

Malachi also criticizes his audience for questioning God's justice. He reminds them that God is just, exhorting them to be faithful as they await that justice. Malachi quickly goes on to point out that the people have not been faithful. In fact, the people are not giving God all that God deserves. Just as the priests have been offering unacceptable sacrifices, so the people have been neglecting to offer their full tithe to God. The result of these shortcomings is that the people come to believe that no good comes out of serving God.

Malachi assures the faithful among his audience that in the eschaton, the differences between those who served God faithfully and those who did not will become clear. The book concludes by calling upon the teachings of Moses and by promising that Elijah will return prior to the Day of Yahweh.


The book of Malachi is divided into three chapters in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint and four chapters in the Latin Vulgate. The fourth chapter in the Vulgate consists of the remainder of the third chapter starting at verse 3:19.


The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible supplies headings for the book as follows:

Verse/Chapter Headings in the NRSV
Verse Reference Heading
1:1 (Superscription)
1:2–2:9 Israel Preferred to Edom
2:10–17 The Covenant Profaned by Judah
3:1–7 The Coming Messenger
3:8–18 Do Not Rob God
4:1–5 (3:19–24 in Hebrew) The Great Day of the Lord

The majority of scholars consider the book to be made up of six distinct oracles. According to this scheme, the book of Malachi consists of a series of disputes between Yahweh and the various groups within the Israelite community. In the course of the book's three or four chapters, Yahweh is vindicated while those who do not adhere to the law of Moses are condemned. Some scholars have suggested that the book, as a whole, is structured along the lines of a judicial trial, a suzerain treaty or a covenant—one of the major themes throughout the Hebrew Scriptures. Implicit in the prophet's condemnation of Israel's religious practices is a call to keep Yahweh's statutes.

The Book of Malachi draws upon various themes found in other books of the Bible. Malachi appeals to the rivalry between Jacob and Esau and of Yahweh's preference for Jacob contained in Book of Genesis 25–28. Malachi reminds his audience that, as descendants of Jacob (Israel), they have been and continue to be favoured by God as God's chosen people. In the second dispute, Malachi draws upon the Levitical Code (e.g. Leviticus 1:3) in condemning the priest for offering unacceptable sacrifices.

In the third dispute (concerning divorce), the author of the Book of Malachi likely intends his argument to be understood on two levels. Malachi appears to be attacking either the practice of divorcing Jewish wives in favour of foreign ones (a practice which Ezra vehemently condemns) or, alternatively, Malachi could be condemning the practice of divorcing foreign wives in favour of Jewish wives (a practice which Ezra promoted). Malachi appears adamant that nationality is not a valid reason to terminate a marriage, "For I hate divorce, says the Lord . . ." (2:16).

In many places throughout the Hebrew Scriptures – particularly the Book of Hosea – Israel is figured as Yahweh's wife or bride. Malachi's discussion of divorce may also be understood to conform to this metaphor. Malachi could very well be urging his audience not to break faith with Yahweh (the God of Israel) by adopting new gods or idols. It is quite likely that, since the people of Judah were questioning Yahweh's love and justice (1:2, 2:17), they might be tempted to adopt foreign gods. William LaSor suggests that, because the restoration to the land of Judah had not resulted in anything like the prophesied splendor of the messianic age which had been prophesied, the people were becoming quite disillusioned with their religion.

Illustration of the coming of God's Messenger in 3:1, by Franciszek Żmurko

Indeed, the fourth dispute asserts that judgment is coming in the form of a messenger who "is like refiner's fire and like fullers' soap . . ." (3:2).

Following this, the prophet provides another example of wrongdoing in the fifth dispute – that is, failing to offer full tithes. In this discussion, Malachi has Yahweh request the people to "Bring the full tithe . . . [and] see if I will not open the windows of heaven for you and pour down on you an overflowing blessing" (3:10). This request offers the opportunity for the people to amend their ways. It also stresses that keeping the Lord's statutes will not only allow the people to avoid God's wrath, but will also lead to God's blessing. (It is this portion of Malachi which is used as support for the view that tithing is required of Christians.)

In the sixth dispute, the people of Israel illustrate the extent of their disillusionment. Malachi has them say "'It is vain to serve God . . . Now we count the arrogant happy; evildoers not only prosper, but when they put God to the test they escape'" (3:14–15). Once again, Malachi has Yahweh assure the people that the wicked will be punished and the faithful will be rewarded.

In the light of what Malachi understands to be an imminent judgment, he exhorts his audience to "Remember the teaching of my servant Moses, that statutes and ordinances that I commanded him at Horeb for all Israel" (4:4; 3:22, MT). Before the Day of the Lord, Malachi declares that Elijah (who "ascended in a whirlwind into heaven . . . [,]" 2 Kings 2:11) will return to earth in order that people might follow in God's ways.

Primarily because of its messianic promise, the Book of Malachi is frequently referred to in the Christian New Testament. What follows is a brief comparison between the Book of Malachi and the New Testament texts which refer to it (as suggested in Hill 84–88).

Quotation from Malachi 3:1 in an Austrian church: "The Lord shall come to his temple."
Use of the book of Malachi in the New Testament (NRSV)
Malachi New Testament
"Yet I have loved Jacob but I have hated Esau" (1:23) "'I have loved Jacob, but I have hated Esau.'" (Romans 9:13)
"And if I am a master, where is the respect due me?" (1:6) "Why do you call me "Lord, Lord,' and do not do what I tell you?" (Luke 6:46)
"the table of YHWH" (1:7,12) "the table of the Lord" (1 Corinthians 10:21)
"For from the rising of the sun to its setting my name is great among the nations," (1:11) "so that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you" (2 Thessalonians 1:12)
"Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name?" (Revelation 15:4)
"For the lips of a priest should guard knowledge, and people should seek instruction from his mouth, for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts. But you have turned aside from the way; you have caused many to stumble by your instruction; you have corrupted the covenant of Levi, says the Lord of hosts," (2:7–8) "therefore, do whatever they teach you and follow it; but do not do as they do, for they do not practice what they teach" (Matthew 23:3)
"Have we not all one father?" (2:10) "yet for us there is one God, the Father" (1 Corinthians 8:6)
"See, I am sending my messenger to prepare the way before me" (3:1) "See, I am sending my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way" (Mark 1:2)
"See, I am sending my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way before you" (Matthew 11:10†, Luke 7:27)
"But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears?" (3:2) "for the great day of their wrath has come, and who is able to stand?" (Revelation 6:17)
"and he will purify the descendants of Levi and refine them like gold and silver" (3:3) "so that the genuineness of your faith . . . being more precious than gold that, though perishable, is tested by fire . . ." (1 Peter 1:7)
"against those who oppress the hired workers in their wages" (3:5) "Listen! The wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you kept back by fraud" (James 5:4)
"For I, Jehovah, change not;" (3:6) "Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever." (Hebrews 13:8)
"Return to me, and I will return to you," (3:7) "Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you" (James 4:8)
"But for you who revere my name the sun of righteousness shall rise," (4:2) "By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us," (Luke 1:78)
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah come." (4:5) "he is Elijah who is to come." (Matthew 11:14)
"Elijah has already come," (Matthew 17:12)
"Elijah has come," (Mark 9:13)
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah come. And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers; lest I come and smite the earth with a curse." (4:5–6) "With the spirit and power of Elijah he will go before him, to turn the hearts of parents to their children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous," (Luke 1:17)

Although many Christians believe that the messianic prophecies of the Book of Malachi have been fulfilled in the life, ministry, transfiguration, death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, most Jews continue to await the coming of the prophet Elijah who will prepare the way for the Lord.


  1. ^ "Ezra the Scribe by Mendel Adelman,".
  2. ^ a b Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0788-7. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  3. ^ Ulrich, Eugene, ed. (2010). The Biblical Qumran Scrolls: Transcriptions and Textual Variants. Brill. pp. 623–624.
  4. ^ Dead sea scrolls - Malachi
  5. ^ Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (2008). A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 38. ISBN 9780802862419.
  6. ^ "Megillah 15a, the William Davidson Talmud (Koren - Steinsaltz)".
  7. ^ Introduction to the Aramaic Targum of Yonathan ben Uzziel on the Prophet Malachi (Minor Prophets); Yehoshua b. Ḳarḥa (Megillah 15a) .
  8. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, book XI, chapter 5, paragraph 5
  9. ^ Malachi at the Easton's Bible Dictionary
  10. ^ a b Eissfeldt, Otto (1965). The Old Testament: An Introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 440.
  11. ^ a b A. VAN HOONACKER, "Malachias" Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Original Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved 12 February 2011.
  12. ^ Prefaces to the Commentaries on the Minor Prophets., Jerome, 406: Origen and his followers believe that (according to his name) he was an angel. But we reject this view altogether, lest we be compelled to accept the doctrine of the fall of souls from heaven.
  13. ^ LaSor, William Sanford; Hubbard, David Allan; Bush, Frederic William; Allen, Leslie C. (3 Sep 1996). Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 415. ISBN 9780802837882.
  14. ^ "Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi: Back in the Land | My Jewish Learning". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
  15. ^ a b "Malachi | התנך". Retrieved 2018-05-10.
  16. ^ Cheyne, T. K. (1899). "The Times of Nehemiah and Ezra". The Biblical World. 14 (4): 238–250. doi:10.1086/472543. JSTOR 3137145.


Book of Malachi Minor prophets Preceded byZechariah Hebrew Bible Succeeded byPsalms ChristianOld Testament Succeeded byNew Testament:Matthew