|Cessna Citation II / IISP / SII |
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||31 January 1977|
|Number built||1184: 688 II, 336 Bravo, 160 S550|
|Developed from||Cessna Citation I|
|Variants||Cessna Citation V|
The Cessna Citation II are light corporate jets built by Cessna as part of the Citation family. Stretched from the Citation I, the Model 550 was announced in September 1976, first flew on January 31, 1977, and was certified in March 1978. The II/SP is a single pilot version, the improved S/II first flew on February 14, 1984 and the Citation Bravo upgraded with new avionics and P&WC PW530A turbofans on April 25, 1995. The United States Navy adopted a version of the aircraft as the T-47A. Production ceased in 2006 after 1,184 of all variants were delivered.
The Citation II (Model 550) stretches the Citation I fuselage by 1.14m (3 ft 9in), increasing seating capacity to 10 and baggage capacity. Wingspan was increased, its larger fuel capacity and more powerful, 2,500 lbf (11 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-4 engines provided higher cruise speeds and longer range.
The stretched Citation was announced in September 1976, it first flew on January 31 1977 and FAA certification was awarded in March 1978, the II/SP is the single pilot version. A total of 688 aircraft were delivered.
The improved Citation S/II (Model S550) was announced in October 1983 and first flew on February 14, 1984, before certification in July. It gained a supercritical airfoil developed for the Citation III and JT15D-4B turbofans. It replaced the II from 1984, but the II resumed production from late 1985, and both were built until the Bravo introduction. Deliveries of the S/II amount to 160.
The improved 2,500 lbf (11 kN) JT15D-4B has higher temperatures components, allowing more thrust at higher altitudes. It could seat 11 people and fuel capacity was increased to 5820 lbs. TKS fluid de-icing was used on airfoils leading edges in addition to bleed air for the engines.
By 2018, 1970s-1980s model IISPs were valued at $300,000-700,000.
The Citation Bravo first flew on April 25, 1995, was granted certification in August 1996 and was first delivered in February 1997. It features new P&WC PW530A turbofans, modern Honeywell Primus EFIS avionics, a revised Citation Ultra interior and a trailing link main undercarriage. Production of the Bravo ceased in late 2006 after 336 had been delivered.
Its more efficient PW530A generates 15% more thrust at takeoff and 23% more at altitude. It burns 1,100 lb (500 kg) of fuel in the first hour, dropping to 750–830 lb (340–380 kg) the second hour cruising at 360–365 kn (667–676 km/h) at FL410-430 and then 637 lb (289 kg) the third hour at 350 kn (650 km/h) and FL450. The engine overhaul every 4,000 hours cost $1 million or $275 at power by the Hour. In 2018, early 1997 models starts at $800,000, up to $1.7 million for 2006 planes. The Bravo was replaced by the better-but-more-expensive Citation CJ3. The competing Beechjet 400A is roomier and faster but needs more fuel and more runway while the compact Learjet 31A competitor is faster but has less range. The faster and more expensive Citation V Ultra's have a longer cabin but consume more fuel.
The US Customs & Border Protection purchased ten Citation IIs configured with fire control radar (initially the F-16's AN/APG-66(V), later the Selex ES Vixen 500E system) and the WF-360TL imaging system. These aircraft have been used effectively in Panama, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico and Aruba. The similar OT-47B aircraft are based on the Cessna Citation V airframe.
The T-47A was a modified version of the Citation S/II (Model 552) for the U.S. Navy, featuring a 5 ft (1.5 m) wingspan reduction and hydraulically boosted ailerons for enhanced maneuverability, 2,900 lbf (13 kN) thrust JT15D-5 engines, a cockpit roof window for better pilot visibility during hard maneuvering, strengthened windshields for protection against bird strikes during high-speed low-altitude sorties, multiple radar consoles, and the AN/APQ-167 radar system. Intended to replace the North American T-39D as a radar systems trainer aircraft, fifteen aircraft were purchased to train naval radar intercept officers.
All T-47A aircraft were operated with civil aircraft registration numbers by Training Air Squadron VT-86 based at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. On 20 July 1993, thirteen of the fifteen aircraft were destroyed when a roofing contractor accidentally set fire to a hangar at Forbes Field where the aircraft were being stored by Cessna. The navy replaced the lost trainers with upgraded T-39D aircraft and the two survivors were transferred to civil owners.
By December 2006, Clifford Development in Ohio had launched a program to re-engine Citation IIs with 3,000 lbf (13 kN) Williams FJ44-3 engines for $1.9 million. Clifford expected a STC within 12 months, 21% faster long-range cruise, 29% longer range, 34% better single-engine climb rate and 20% better fuel efficiency. By May 2007, Sierra Industries in Texas was also developing a similar modification, as 900 Citations qualify for it, directly as a broker and MRO provider, while Clifford should license its STC.
In September 2008, the FAA granted a STC to Sierra Industries. The Super S-II made its first flight on September 26. The conversion cost $1.9 million in 2009, resulting in a $3.5-4.6 million value for a converted Citation II. Ceiling is increased from FL 410 to FL 430, reached directly in 25 min at max takeoff weight with a thrust increased from 2,500 to 2,820 lbf (11.1 to 12.5 kN) each. Dual-channel FADEC allows a much lower residual thrust, eliminating the need for thrust reversers. Max fuel payload is bumped from 328 to 1,278 lb (149 to 580 kg) for the Citation II, and the S-II can carry 400 lb (180 kg) more than the initial 1,036 lb (470 kg).
Cruise speeds are faster by 45 to 400 kn (83 to 741 km/h) for the 550, and by 35 to 420 kn (65 to 778 km/h) for the Citation S-II. The converted 550 is 25% more fuel efficient than the JT15D-powered original at the same speed, and burns 775 lb (352 kg) of fuel per hour at 390 kn (720 km/h). The 550 Range is improved by 397 to 1,775 nmi (735 to 3,287 km), and by 461 to 2,300 nmi (854 to 4,260 km) for the S550. The re-engined S550 can reach 446 kn (826 km/h) at FL270. Clifford and its partner Stevens Aviation could also update the flight deck with Collins ProLine 21 avionics and refurbish the cabin. Clifford was touting a 14% faster optimum cruise speed, and a 32% lower fuel burn for the S550. Sierra was announcing a 1,890 and 2,064 nmi (3,500 and 3,823 km) IFR/VFR range for the re-engined Super II; or a 2,340 and 2,610 nmi (4,330 and 4,830 km) IFR/VFR range for the re-engined Super S-II. By June 2012, Sierra Industries had re-engined 59 various Citations with FJ44s, among avionics retrofit and airframe modifications.
The Citation was also operated by at least one airline in scheduled passenger service being Enterprise Airlines in the U.S. from the late 1980s to 1990.
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1993–94
Performance(above 29,315 ft (8,935 m))