|Cessna Citation II / IISP / SII |
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||31 January 1977|
|Number built||1184: 688 II and II/SP, 160 S/II, 336 Bravo|
|Developed from||Cessna Citation I|
|Developed into||Cessna Citation V|
The Cessna Citation II are light corporate jets built by Cessna as part of the Citation family. Stretched from the Citation I, the Model 550 was announced in September 1976, first flew on January 31, 1977, and was certified in March 1978. The II/SP is a single pilot version, the improved S/II first flew on February 14, 1984 and the Citation Bravo, a stretched S/II with new avionics and more powerful P&WC PW530A turbofans, first flew on April 25, 1995. The United States Navy adopted a version of the S/II as the T-47A. Production ceased in 2006 after 1,184 of all variants were delivered.
The Citation II (Model 550) was developed to provide the same docile low-speed handling and good short-field performance as the preceding Citation I while addressing a primary criticism of that aircraft — its relatively slow cruise speed of around 350 kn (650 km/h) at altitude. The II stretches the Citation I fuselage by 1.14m (3 ft 9in), increasing seating capacity to ten (two pilots and eight passengers) and gross weight to 13,300 lb (6,000 kg). Wingspan was increased by 5.1 ft (1.6 m), fuel capacity was increased from 544 US gal (2,060 L) to 742 US gal (2,810 L), and more powerful, 2,500 lbf (11 kN) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-4 engines were installed for a higher cruise speed of 385 kn (713 km/h) and a longer range of 1,159 nmi (2,146 km). The cabin interior was also redesigned to increase headroom by 5 in (13 cm).
The stretched Citation was announced in September 1976, it first flew on January 31 1977 and FAA certification was awarded in March 1978. The II/SP (Model 551) is the single pilot version, type certificated to slightly less stringent FAR Part 23 standards, with a slightly reduced maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) at 12,500 lb (5,700 kg) and minor changes in cockpit equipment. As the II and II/SP are otherwise largely similar, the 800 lb (360 kg) reduction in MTOW of the II/SP often mandates operating with a reduced fuel load, shortening the aircraft's loaded range compared to the standard II. Both the II and II/SP require special training to be operated by a single pilot. A total of 688 II and II/SP aircraft were delivered.
The improved Citation S/II (Model S550) was announced in October 1983 and first flew on February 14, 1984, before certification in July. It gained a supercritical airfoil with swept wing roots, aileron and flap gap seals, and a fluid deicing system instead of the pneumatic deicing boots used on earlier Citations. To further reduce drag, the fuselage and engine nacelle pylons were redesigned, and nacelle fairings were added. Fuel capacity was increased by 120 US gal (450 L). The result of the improvements was a cruise speed of 403 kn (746 km/h) — exceeding 400 kn, felt to be an important marketing benchmark by Cessna — and a range of 1,378 nmi (2,552 km) with a 45-minute fuel reserve. The improved 2,500 lbf (11 kN) JT15D-4B engines had higher temperature-rated components, allowing more thrust at higher altitudes.
The S/II replaced the II from 1984, but some potential buyers objected to the sharp price increase from US$2.6 million for the II to US$3.3 million for the S/II, prompting Cessna to reintroduce the II in late 1985; both were built until the Bravo introduction. Deliveries of the S/II amounted to 160, including fifteen T-47A aircraft purchased by the U.S. Navy. The S/II's higher performance coupled with its lower production numbers led to substantially higher demand on the used aircraft market compared to the standard II and II/SP.
The US Customs & Border Protection purchased ten Citation IIs configured with fire control radar (initially the F-16's AN/APG-66(V), later the Selex ES Vixen 500E system) and the WF-360TL imaging system. These aircraft have been used effectively in Panama, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico and Aruba. The similar OT-47B aircraft are based on the Cessna Citation V airframe.
The T-47A was a modified version of the Citation S/II (Model 552) for the U.S. Navy, featuring a 5 ft (1.5 m) wingspan reduction and hydraulically boosted ailerons for enhanced maneuverability, 2,900 lbf (13 kN) thrust JT15D-5 engines, a cockpit roof window for better pilot visibility during hard maneuvering, strengthened windshields for protection against bird strikes during high-speed low-altitude sorties, multiple radar consoles, and the AN/APQ-167 radar system. Intended to replace the North American T-39D as a radar systems trainer aircraft, fifteen aircraft were purchased in 1984 to train naval radar intercept officers.
All T-47A aircraft were operated with civil aircraft registration numbers by Training Air Squadron VT-86 based at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. On 20 July 1993, thirteen of the fifteen aircraft were destroyed when a roofing contractor accidentally set fire to a hangar at Forbes Field where the aircraft were being stored by Cessna. The navy replaced the lost trainers with upgraded T-39D aircraft and the two survivors were transferred to civil owners.
The Citation Bravo first flew on April 25, 1995, was granted certification in August 1996, and was first delivered in February 1997. It features new P&WC PW530A turbofans, modern Honeywell Primus EFIS avionics, a revised Citation Ultra interior and a trailing link main undercarriage. Production of the Bravo ceased in late 2006 after 336 had been delivered.
Its more efficient PW530A generates 15% more thrust at takeoff and 23% more at altitude. It burns 1,100 lb (500 kg) of fuel in the first hour, dropping to 750–830 lb (340–380 kg) the second hour cruising at 360–365 kn (667–676 km/h) at FL410-430 and then 637 lb (289 kg) the third hour at 350 kn (650 km/h) and FL450. The engine overhaul every 4,000 hours cost $1 million or $275 at power by the Hour. In 2018, early 1997 models starts at $800,000, up to $1.7 million for 2006 planes. The Bravo was replaced by the better-but-more-expensive Citation CJ3. The competing Beechjet 400A is roomier and faster but needs more fuel and more runway, while the compact Learjet 31A is faster but has less range. The faster and more expensive Citation V Ultra has a longer cabin but consumes more fuel.
By December 2006, Clifford Development in Ohio had launched a program to re-engine Citation IIs with 3,000 lbf (13 kN) Williams FJ44-3 engines for $1.9 million. Clifford expected a STC within 12 months, 21% faster long-range cruise, 29% longer range, 34% better single-engine climb rate and 20% better fuel efficiency. By May 2007, Sierra Industries in Texas was also developing a similar modification, as 900 Citations qualify for it, directly as a broker and MRO provider, while Clifford should license its STC.
In September 2008, the FAA granted a STC to Sierra Industries. The Super S-II made its first flight on September 26. The conversion cost $1.9 million in 2009, resulting in a $3.5-4.6 million value for a converted Citation II. Ceiling is increased from FL 410 to FL 430, reached directly in 25 min at max takeoff weight with a thrust increased from 2,500 to 2,820 lbf (11.1 to 12.5 kN) each. Dual-channel FADEC allows a much lower residual thrust, eliminating the need for thrust reversers. Max fuel payload is bumped from 328 to 1,278 lb (149 to 580 kg) for the Citation II, and the S-II can carry 400 lb (180 kg) more than the initial 1,036 lb (470 kg).
Cruise speeds are faster by 45 to 400 kn (83 to 741 km/h) for the 550, and by 35 to 420 kn (65 to 778 km/h) for the Citation S-II. The converted 550 is 25% more fuel efficient than the JT15D-powered original at the same speed, and burns 775 lb (352 kg) of fuel per hour at 390 kn (720 km/h). The 550 Range is improved by 397 to 1,775 nmi (735 to 3,287 km), and by 461 to 2,300 nmi (854 to 4,260 km) for the S550. The re-engined S550 can reach 446 kn (826 km/h) at FL270. Clifford and its partner Stevens Aviation could also update the flight deck with Collins ProLine 21 avionics and refurbish the cabin. Clifford was touting a 14% faster optimum cruise speed, and a 32% lower fuel burn for the S550. Sierra was announcing a 1,890 and 2,064 nmi (3,500 and 3,823 km) IFR/VFR range for the re-engined Super II; or a 2,340 and 2,610 nmi (4,330 and 4,830 km) IFR/VFR range for the re-engined Super S-II. By June 2012, Sierra Industries had re-engined 59 various Citations with FJ44s, among avionics retrofit and airframe modifications.
The Citation was also operated by at least one airline in scheduled passenger service being Enterprise Airlines in the U.S. from the late 1980s to 1990.
Main article: 2022 Baltic Sea Cessna Citation crash
On September 4, 2022, a Cessna 551 heading from Jerez, Spain did not land at its intended destination, Cologne, Germany, but instead kept flying across Germany and the Baltic Sea where it eventually ran out of fuel and crashed in the sea off Ventspils, Latvia. The pilot had reported problems with air conditioning and pressurization early in the flight but later stopped responding to communications. A possible cause of the crash is that loss of cabin pressure rendered everyone on board unconscious.
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1993–94
Performance(above 29,315 ft (8,935 m))
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era