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Manhwa
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanizationmanhwa
McCune–Reischauermanhwa

Manhwa (Korean만화; Hanja漫畵; Korean pronunciation: [manhwa]) is the general Korean term for comics and print cartoons. Outside Korea, the term usually refers to South Korean comics.[1] Manhwa is greatly influenced by Japanese Manga comics. Modern Manhwa has extended its reach to many other countries. These comics have branched outside of Korea by access of Webtoons and have created an impact that has resulted in many movie and television show adaptations.

Characteristics

The author or artist of a manhwa is called a manhwaga (만화가; 漫畵家). They take on the task of creating a comic that fits a certain format. Manhwa is read in the same direction as English books, horizontally and from left to right, because Korean is normally written and read horizontally. It can also be written and read vertically from right to left, top to bottom.[2] Webtoons tend to be structured differently in the way they are meant for scrolling where manga is meant to be looked at page by page. Manhwa, unlike their manga counterpart, is often in color when posted on the internet, but in black & white when in a printed format.[3]

Manhwa art differs from manga and manhua as well with its distinct features. The bodies of characters are often realistically proportioned, while the faces remain unrealistic. Manhwas also often have very detailed clothing on their characters as well as intricate backgrounds. Webtoons use vertical scrolling to their advantage to demonstrate movement or the passage of time. Manhwa webtoons are also recognized for having simplified dialogue compared to print.[4]

Etymology and influence

Linguistically, manhwa, manga (漫画) and manhua (漫画) all mean 'comics' in Korean, Japanese and Chinese respectively. According to its Wikipedia article, "manga comes from the Japanese word 漫画,[5] (katakana: マンガ; hiragana: まんが) which is composed of two kanji 漫 (man) meaning 'whimsical or impromptu' and 画 (ga) meaning 'pictures.'[6][7] The same term is the root of the Korean word for comics, 'manhwa,' and the Chinese word 'manhua.'"[8] The Korean manhwa, the Japanese manga and the Chinese phrase manhua are cognates (transl. "impromptu sketches")[9] and their histories and influences intertwine with each other.

Originally the term manhua in Chinese vocabulary was an 18th-century term used in Chinese literati painting. The term  manga was used in Japan to mean "comics" in the late 19th century, when it became popular. Since then, accordingly  manhwa, manga (漫画) and manhua (漫画) are all became to mean 'comics' in Korean, Japanese and Chinese.[citation needed]

The current usage of the terms manhwa and manhua in English is largely explained by the international success of Japanese manga. Although in a traditional sense, the terms manga/manhua/manhwa had a similar meaning of comical drawing in a broad way, in English the terms manhwa and manhua generally designate the manga-inspired comic strips. Manga influenced manhwa from the medium’s beginnings during the Japanese occupation of Korea and continued to exert a powerful influence as the manga industry became a major force within Japanese culture and began to export comics abroad. Manhwaga were not culturally isolated, and the influx of manga into the Korean comics market had a strong effect on the art and content of many artists’ manhwa.[10]

History

The first woodcut manhwa, published in 1908
The first woodcut manhwa, published in 1908

Korea was under Japanese occupation from 1910 to 1945 and during this time elements of Japanese language and culture were incorporated into Korean society.[11] The term manhwa came into popular use in Korea during the 1920s,[12] when it was applied to cartoons. By the mid 1920s, most newspapers were shut down,[13] and political and social cartoons were abandoned, replaced by humorous illustrations and cartoons geared towards children.

Political cartoon slowly reemerged following the establishment of the Republic of Korea (commonly known as South Korea) in 1948.[14] During the early years of Japanese occupation, newspaper comics featured a great deal of social criticism. Popular artist Kim Yong-hwan started Korea’s first comic magazine, Manhwa Haengjin, in 1948,[15] but it was quickly shut down because the authorities disapproved of the cover.

During the Korean war, Manhwa was used with the aim of boosting the morale of the public.[16]The popularity of comics rose during the 1950s and 1960s,[17] creating diversity of styles and subject matter which led to the construction of new genres such as sunjeong (or soonjung),[18] stories containing romance that are aimed at young women (equivalent to the Japanese genre shoujo). Also around this time another more humorous genre, myeongnyang or happy comics had become popular in order to counteract gritty ones.[16] Manhwabang (lit. comics room), comics cafés and stores that allowed readers to pay a set rate to sit and read comics were also introduced to the public, creating a positive atmosphere around the comics.[19] In response to the increasing publication of comics, as well as social and political changes within South Korea, the government began to enforce censorship laws and, by the mid-1960s, created a comics distribution monopoly that further censored manhwa.[20]

In the 1990s, the ban on Japanese media was lifted, which helped to influence the present-day art and styles of contemporary Manhwa. Around this time was when Manhwa had come up in North Korea as well. Then in the early 2000s, the majority of Manhwa was transferred to online sources due to economic collapse that South Korea had experienced at the end of the millennium. because of its transfer to online sources, its popularity overseas has risen. This led to the South Korean search portal to launch LINE Webtoon, a platform for distributing online Manhwa.[16]

Webtoons

The term "Webtoon" (웹툰) is a portmanteau of the Korean words 웹 meaning web and 카툰 meaning cartoon. The term was first coined on 8 August 2000, by Chollian, one of South Korea's oldest and now discontinued internet service engines.[21] Webtoons are the digital form of manhwa that first came into popularity in the early 2000s due to their free access and availability on the internet.[22] It was also beneficial to creators because it helped them get around strict South Korean censorship laws. [23] Webtoons encourage amateur writers to publish their own stories for others to read.[21] Since their creation, webtoons have gained popularity around the globe and have even been adopted outside of Korea as another form of comic publication.[24] This is credited to their unique format and pay model.

In 2014 WEBTOON's global website and mobile app were launched, revolutionizing the comic world's way of reading for entertainment. Also, around this time JunKoo Kim, the person that started LINE Webtoon, had reported that Webtoon was used in 60 countries, had 55 million monthly users, and 100 billion annual views. In 2019, Japan Times reported on the growth in the popularity of Webtoons had made digital Manhwa competitive and also was "overshadowing the global presence of Manga" even with it being not as well known to western audiences.[25]

Manhwa outside of Korea

Manhwa has reached all over the world now. With websites such as TopToon, a webtoon company from Korea that also has a global service in TopToonPlus, people are able to access a wide variety of comics from their phones. [26] There are also places like WEBTOON that not only allow people to read original comics, but make them as well, opening up this aspect of Korean culture for everyone to take part in.

But despite that, the relative obscurity of Korean culture in the Western world has caused the word manhwa to remain somewhat unknown in the English-speaking countries.[citation needed] English translations of manhwa have achieved success by targeting the manga and anime community, to the extent that manhwa were marketed as manga by the American publisher Tokyopop. [27]

United States

Sanho Kim was the first manhwa artist working in the States. During the 1960s and 1970s, he worked for publishers Charlton Comics, Warren Publishing, Iron Horse Publishing, Skywald Publications, DC Comics, and Marvel Comics.[28]

According to journalist Paul Gravett, in 1987 Eastern Comics published the first original manhwas in the United States.[29]

Due to the explosion of manga's popularity in the Americas, many of the licensed titles acquired for the American market seek to emulate the popular elements of other successful series.[30] Recently, long-running webtoons serialized via Internet portal sites (e.g. by Daum Media),[31] like Lezhin Comics and personal homepages have become both the creative and popular destination among the younger generation in Korea.[citation needed] With manga proving to be both popular and commercially successful in Europe and the United States, a number of publishers imported and translated manhwa titles in the hope of reaching the same audience. The readability and left-to-right orientation of manhwa contributed to its growing popularity, as did the realism of the characters and the combination of Eastern and Western styles and mythologies.

Media franchise

See also: Category:Works based on manhwa

Animations based on Korean comics are still relatively rare (though there were several major hits in the late 1980s and early 90s with titles such as Dooly the Little Dinosaur and Fly! Superboard). However, live-action drama series and movie adaptations of manhwa have occurred more frequently in recent years. Full House in 2004 and Goong ("Palace" or "Princess Hours") in 2006 are prominent examples. Below is a list of manhwa titles adapted into television series, web series, and films. Not to be confused to another adapted works of adapted from Webtoons.

Title Author Format Premiere Notes Reference
Meongteong-guli Heotmulkyeogi
(멍텅구리 헛물켜기)
Lee Sang-hyeop and Ahn Jae-hong and Noh Soo-hyun Film 1926 [32]
Gobau
(고바우)
Kim Seonghwan Film 1958 [32]
Walsun Ajimae
(왈순 아지매)
Jeong Woon-kyung Film 1963 [32]
Geokkuligungwa Jangdaligun
(거꾸리군과 장다리군)
Kim Seonghwan Film 1977 [32]
Bridal Mask
(각시탈)
Huh Young-man Film 1978 [33]
Animated film 1986 [34]
TV series 30 May 2012 Bridal Mask SPC
Pan Entertainment
KBS N
[35]
Space Black Knight
(우주 흑기사)
Huh Young-man Animated film 1979 [36]
Alien Baseball Team
(외인구단)
Lee Hyun-se Film 2 August 1986 [37][38]
The Last Station
(퇴역전선)
Huh Young-man TV series 14 September 1987 Broadcast on MBC [39]
Dooly the Little Dinosaur
(아기공룡 둘리)
Kim Soo-jung Animation 7 October 1987 - 1989 Daewon Media
Broadcast on KBS
[40]
OVA 1995 Tooniverse [41]
Animated film 24 July 1996 Dooly Nara (Dooly Nation), Seoul Movie [42]
Animation 8 January 2009 Broadcast on SBS, Tooniverse [43]
The Chameleon's Poem
(카멜레온의 시)
Huh Young-man TV series 14 May 1988 [44]
Mr. Sohn
(미스터손)
Fly! Superboard
(날아라 슈퍼보드)
Huh Young-man Animation 15 August 1990, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2001 Hanho Heung-Up Co., Ltd.
Broadcast on KBS1
[45]
Asphalt Man
(아스팔트 사나이)
Huh Young-man TV series 17 May 1995 Broadcast on SBS [46]
48+1 Huh Young-man Film 4 November 1995 [47]
Beat
(비트)
Huh Young-man Film 3 May 1997 [48]
Mr. Q
(미스터 Q)
Huh Young-man TV series 20 May 1998 Broadcast on SBS [49]
Nudlnude
(누들누드)
Yang Young-soon OVA October 1998, 1999 Seoul Movie [50]
We Saw the Bird Lost in the Middle of the Road
(우리는 길 잃은 작은 새를 보았다)
Hwang Mi-na TV series 19 April 1999 Broadcast on KBS2 [51][52]
Blade of the Phantom Master
(신암행어사)
Youn In-wan and Yang Kyung-il Animated film 4 December 2004 Oriental Light and Magic and Character Plan [53]
Full House
(풀하우스)
Won Soo-yeon TV series 14 July 2004 Kim Jong-hak Production [52]
Hammerboy
(망치)
Huh Young-man Animated film 6 August 2004 [54]
Goong ("Palace" or "Princess Hours")
(궁)
Park So-hee TV series 11 January 2006 Eight Peaks [55]
Tajja
(타짜)
Kim Se-yeong and Huh Young-man Film 28 September 2006 Sidus FNH [56]
TV series 16 September 2008 Olive9 and Dong-ah Institute of Media and Arts [56]
War of Money
(쩐의 전쟁)
Park In-kwon TV series 16 May 2007 Victory Production
Broadcast on SBS
[57]
TV series 7 March 2008 Broadcast on tvN [58]
TV series 6 January 2015 Kansai Television Co. Ltd. [59]
Sikgaek
Le Grand Chef
Gourmet
(식객)
Huh Young-man Film 1 November 2007 ShowEast Co Ltd [60]
TV series 17 June 2008 Broadcast on SBS [61]
Film 28 January 2010 IROOM Pictures [62]
Saranghae
(사랑해)
Huh Young-man TV series 7 April 2008 Broadcast on SBS [63]
Priest
(프리스트)
Hyung Min-woo Film 13 May 2011 Screen Gems [64]
The 7th Team
(제7구단)
Mr. Go
(미스터 고)
Huh Young-man Film 17 July 2013 (South Korea)
18 July 2013 (China)
Showbox/Mediaplex (South Korea)
Huayi Brothers (China)
[65]
Would You Like a Cup of Coffee?
(허영만의 커피 한잔 할까요?)
Huh Young-man Web series 24 October 2021 Broadcast on KakaoTV [66]

Korean manhwa publishers

Note: select publishers only

North American manhwa imprints

See also

Citations

  1. ^ "Mangaka". www.mangaka.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
  2. ^ McKinney, DW (24 October 2020). "Riding the Wave: The Steady Rise of Korean Manhwa". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  3. ^ Peralta, Ederlyn (24 July 2020). "The Differences Between Manga, Manhwa and Manhua, Explained". CBR.com. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  4. ^ "Differences between manga, manhua, and manhwa". Dear Otaku Friend. Archived from the original on 17 October 2022.
  5. ^ Rousmaniere 2001, p. 54, Thompson 2007, p. xiii, Prohl & Nelson 2012, p. 596,Fukushima 2013, p. 19
  6. ^ "Shiji no yukikai(Japanese National Diet Library)".
  7. ^ Webb 2006,Thompson 2007, p. xvi,Onoda 2009, p. 10,Petersen 2011, p. 120
  8. ^ Thompson 2007, p. xiii, Onoda 2009, p. 10, Prohl & Nelson 2012, p. 596, Fukushima 2013, p. 19
  9. ^ Petersen 2011.[page needed]
  10. ^ Sugiyama, Rika. Comic Artists—Asia: Manga, Manhwa, Manhua. New York: Harper, 2004. Introduces the work of comics artists in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong through artist profiles and interviews that provide insight into their processes.
  11. ^ Blakemore, Erin. "How Japan Took Control of Korea". HISTORY. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  12. ^ Qui, Shelley. "Manhwa". Professor LatinX. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
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  14. ^ "South Korea - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  15. ^ Russell, Mark James (20 October 2012). Pop Goes Korea: Behind the Revolution in Movies, Music, and Internet Culture. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-61172-542-1.
  16. ^ a b c "What Is Manhwa?". Manga Planet Blog. 24 April 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  17. ^ Qui, Shelley. "Manhwa". Professor LatinX. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  18. ^ Russell, Mark James (20 October 2012). Pop Goes Korea: Behind the Revolution in Movies, Music, and Internet Culture. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-61172-542-1.
  19. ^ Yadao, Jason S. (1 October 2009). The Rough Guide to Manga. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-4053-8423-0.
  20. ^ Kim, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Youngmin (7 March 2014). The Korean Popular Culture Reader. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-7756-6.
  21. ^ a b "What are webtoons?". Manga Planet Blog. 22 May 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  22. ^ Acuna, Kirsten. "Millions in Korea are obsessed with these revolutionary comics — now they're going global". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
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  24. ^ "Webtoon, Why So Popular?". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  25. ^ "Los Angeles Review of Books". Los Angeles Review of Books. 24 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  26. ^ "Toptoon Global to being services for English-speaking countries in full swing as the members surpass 200,000 in number". 13 August 2021.
  27. ^ "Publishers want you to know: Manhwa is not manga". CNN.
  28. ^ Kim entry, Lambiek's Comiclopedia. Accessed 9 June 2011.
  29. ^ Paul Gravett. Make Mine Manhwa!: Exporting Korean Comics
  30. ^ Arnold, Andrew D. (25 January 2006). "Life and Literature Without Robots". Time. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  31. ^ "Daum 웹툰". Daum 웹툰.
  32. ^ a b c d "'미생' 전에 '멍텅구리 헛물켜기' 있었다" [Before 'Misaeng', there was 'Meongteong-guli heotmulkyeogi']. Nocut News (in Korean). 14 November 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  33. ^ "정보+재미 '허영만 브랜드'의 힘" [Information + fun The power of 'Huh Young-man brand']. The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). 7 November 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  34. ^ "고전 애니메이션을 무료로 만나보자! <한국영상자료원 '애니메이션 디지털 아카이빙 사업'>: 네이버블로그" [Let's meet the classic animation for free! <Korean Film Archive 'Animation Digital Archiving Project'>: Naver Blog]. Naver Blog (in Korean). 26 April 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  35. ^ Choi, Tae-hwan (15 August 2012). "Korea and Japan". The Korea Times. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  36. ^ "추억의 애니 '전자인간 337', DVD로 제작됐다" [The nostalgic anime 'Electronic Human 337' was made into a DVD]. Star News (in Korean). 2 August 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  37. ^ 이장호 [47] - <공포의 외인구단>제작착수와 <어우동>기획까지. Cine21 (in Korean). 14 March 2000. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  38. ^ Chung, Suzy (11 January 2012). "V-I-C-T-O-R-Y! Korean sports movies". The Korea Blog. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  39. ^ "만화를 원작으로 한 최고 드라마는?" [What is the best drama based on a manhwa?]. My Daily (in Korean). 19 November 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  40. ^ "어린이용 우수 비디오" [Excellent video for children]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 2 May 1990. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  41. ^ "SBS 새 만화「둘리의 배낭여행」" [SBS New Comic 「Dooly's Backpacking Trip」]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 14 September 1999. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  42. ^ "만화영화 '둘리', 99년 1월 獨 14개 극장서 상영" [Animated film 'Dooly', screened at 14 theaters in Germany in January 1999]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 14 September 1999. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  43. ^ "투니버스 "둘리의 모든것 알려드려요"" [Tooniverse "I'll tell you everything about Dooly"]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 14 September 1999. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  44. ^ "'허영만 vs 이현세' 영화-드라마 원작만화의 지존" ['Huh Young-man vs. Lee Hyun-se' Movie-Drama Original Comics Supreme]. OhmyNews (in Korean). 28 March 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  45. ^ "<방송> KBS-2 새 만화시리즈 `...슈퍼보드'" [<Broadcasting> KBS-2's new cartoon series '...Super Board']. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 30 June 1998. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  46. ^ "<스케치> 새 드라마 「아스팔트 사나이」 촬영 현장" [<Sketch> new drama 「Asphalt Man」 shooting site]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 29 April 1995. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  47. ^ "<영화화제> 만화토대로 한 영화 제작 늘어" [<Movie topic> More and more movies based on cartoons]. Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). 25 July 1995. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
  48. ^ "'배고픈' 만화, 영화화가 탈출구?" ['Hungry' Comics, Is Filming the Escape?]. The Hankyoreh (in Korean). 29 September 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2022 – via Naver.
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  53. ^ Doyle, Jonathan (2005). "Phantom Master: Dark Hero From Ruined Empire". Fantasia Fest Official Website. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
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Sources