National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain... remember Dec. 7th!.jpg
Office of War Information poster memorializing the Pearl Harbor attack (1942)
DateDecember 7
FrequencyAnnual

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, also referred to as Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day or Pearl Harbor Day, is observed annually in the United States on December 7, to remember and honor the 2,403 Americans who were killed in the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941, which led to the United States declaring war on Japan the next day and thus entering World War II.

In 1994, the United States Congress, by Pub.L. 103–308, 108 Stat. 1169, designated December 7 of each year as National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day.[1] The joint resolution was signed by President Bill Clinton on August 23, 1994. It became 36 U.S.C. § 129 (Patriotic and National Observances and Ceremonies) of the United States Code.[2] On November 29, Clinton issued a proclamation declaring December 7, 1994, the first National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day.[3]

On Pearl Harbor Day, the American flag should be flown at half-staff until sunset to honor those who died as a result of the attack on U.S. military forces in Hawaii.[4] Pearl Harbor Day is not a federal holiday – government offices, schools, and businesses do not close. Some organizations may hold special events in memory of those killed or injured at Pearl Harbor.[4]

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Main article: Attack on Pearl Harbor

On Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service attacked the neutral United States at Naval Station Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii, killing 2,403 Americans and injuring 1,178 others. The attack sank four U.S. Navy battleships and damaged four others. It also damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, and one minelayer. Aircraft losses were 188 destroyed and 159 damaged.

Aftermath

Main article: Consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor

Canada declared war on Japan within hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor,[5] the first Western nation to do so. On December 8, the United States declared war on Japan and entered World War II on the side of the Allies. In a speech to Congress, President Franklin D. Roosevelt called the bombing of Pearl Harbor "a date which will live in infamy."[4][6]

Pearl Harbor and Ford Island historic sites

In Pearl Harbor:

Also on Ford Island. Note: Ford Island remains an active military installation therefore public access is restricted to approved tours, military personnel, military retirees, NOAA personnel and their family members only.

Pearl Harbor tributes

USS Missouri at the observance of the 50th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack (December 7, 1991)
USS Missouri at the observance of the 50th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack (December 7, 1991)

In 1990, leading up to the 50th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Congress established the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal. This is also known as the Pearl Harbor Survivor's medal and was awarded to anyone who was in the U.S. Armed Forces and who was present in Hawaii on December 7, 1941, and participated in combat operations that day against the attack. The medal was also awarded to civilians who were killed or injured in the attack. A few years later, Congress amended the law to allow any person who was present in Hawaii on December 7, 1941, and was involved in combat operations against Japanese military forces attacking Hawaii, to receive the award. In both instances, there was a limited time period to apply for the award, and it is no longer issued.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Official Guide to Government Information and Services – USAGov". answers.usa.gov. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  2. ^ Clerk of the United States House of Representatives (August 23, 1994). "National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day". United States House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: United States Congress. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  3. ^ Proclamation 6758 – National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 1994, November 29, 1994
  4. ^ a b c "Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day in the United States". www.timeanddate.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  5. ^ "Parliament, The National Defence Act, and the Decisions to Participate". Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
  6. ^ For the full text of the speech, see Pearl Harbor speech
  7. ^ "USS Oklahoma Memorial" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  8. ^ "USS Utah at Pearl Harbor". Pearl Harbor Oahu. March 28, 2012. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  9. ^ "USS Bowfin Submarine". Pearl Harbor Historic Sites. Archived from the original on November 3, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  10. ^ "Battleship Missouri Memorial". Pearl Harbor Historic Sites. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  11. ^ "Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor". Pearl Harbor Historic Sites. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  12. ^ "Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor". Archived from the original on September 2, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  13. ^ 104 Stat. 1721, 110 Stat. 2654