Norwalk, California
From left to right: Norwalk Town Square sign, Norwalk City Hall
Flag of Norwalk, California
Official seal of Norwalk, California
Official logo of Norwalk, California
Motto: 
"A Connected Community"
Location of Norwalk in Los Angeles County, California
Location of Norwalk in Los Angeles County, California
Norwalk is located in the United States
Norwalk
Norwalk
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 33°54′25″N 118°05′00″W / 33.90694°N 118.08333°W / 33.90694; -118.08333
Country United States
State California
CountyLos Angeles
IncorporatedAugust 26, 1957[1]
Government
 • TypeCouncil/Manager[2]
 • City council[2]Rick Ramirez
Jennifer Perez
Tony Ayala
 • MayorAna Valencia
 • Vice MayorMargarita L. Rios
 • City managerJesus Gomez[3]
 • Finance Director/ Treasurer
Jana Stuard
Area
 • Total9.75 sq mi (25.24 km2)
 • Land9.71 sq mi (25.14 km2)
 • Water0.04 sq mi (0.10 km2)  0.40%
Elevation92 ft (28 m)
Population
 • Total102,773
 • Rank14th in Los Angeles County
72nd in California
335th in the United States
 • Density11,000/sq mi (4,100/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
90650–90652, 90659
Area code562
FIPS code06-52526
GNIS feature IDs1661123, 2411281
Websitewww.norwalk.org

Norwalk is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 102,773 at the 2020 census.[7]

Founded in the late 19th century, Norwalk was incorporated as a city in 1957. It is located 17 miles (27 km) southeast of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the Greater Los Angeles area.

Norwalk is a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments. Norwalk's sister cities are Morelia in the Mexican state of Michoacán, and Hermosillo, in the Mexican state of Sonora.[8]

History

Much of modern-day Norwalk was part of Rancho Los Cerritos, owned by Don Juan Temple.
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The area known as "Norwalk" was first home to the Shoshonean Native American tribe. They survived primarily on honey, an array of berries, acorns, sage, squirrels, rabbits and birds. Their huts were part of the Sejat Indian village.

In the late 1760s, settlers and missions flourished under Spanish rule with the famous El Camino Real trail traversing the area. Manuel Nieto, a Spanish soldier, received a Spanish land grant (Rancho Los Nietos) in 1784 that included Norwalk.

After the Mexican–American War in 1848, the Rancho and mining days ended. Portions of the land were subdivided and made available for sale when California was admitted into the union of the United States. Word of this land development reached the Sproul Brothers in Oregon. They recalled the fertile land and huge sycamore trees they saw during an earlier visit to the Southern California area. In 1869, Atwood Sproul, on behalf of his brother, Gilbert, purchased 463 acres (1.87 km2) of land at $11 an acre ($2,700/km2) in an area known as Corazón de los Valles, or "Heart of the Valleys".[9]

By 1873, railroads were being built in the area and the Sprouls deeded 23 acres (93,000 m2), stipulating a "passenger stop" clause in the deed. Three days after the Anaheim Branch Railroad crossed the "North-walk" for the first time, Gilbert Sproul surveyed a town site. In 1874, the name was recorded officially as Norwalk. While a majority of the Norwalk countryside remained undeveloped during the 1880s, the Norwalk Station allowed potential residents the opportunity to visit the "country" from across the nation.[10]

The families referred to as the "first families" of Norwalk (including the Sprouls, the Dewitts, the Settles, and the Orrs) settled in the area in the years before 1900. D.D. Johnston pioneered the first school system in Norwalk in 1880. Johnston was also responsible for the first real industry in town, a cheese factory, by furnishing Tom Lumbard with the money in 1882. Norwalk's prosperity was evident in the 1890s with the construction of a number of fine homes that were located in the middle of orchards, farms and dairies. Headstones for these families can be found at Little Lake Cemetery, which was founded in 1843 on the border between Norwalk and Santa Fe Springs at Lakeland Road.

Norwalk, CA depot with deep eaves, loading docks and storefronts. A wagon, fully laden with milk cans is in front.
Norwalk depot and a wagon loaded with milk cans, 1910

At the turn of the 19th century, Norwalk had become established as a dairy center. Of the 50 local families reported in the 1900 census, most were associated with farming or with the dairy industry. Norwalk was also the home of some of the largest sugar beet farms in all of Southern California during this era. Many of the dairy farmers who settled in Norwalk during the early part of the 20th century were Dutch.

After the 1950s, the Hispanic population in Norwalk grew significantly as the area became increasingly residential.

Airplane disaster

In February 1958, two military aircraft, a Douglas C-118A military transport and a U.S. Navy P2V-5F Neptune patrol bomber, collided over Norwalk at night. Forty-seven servicemen were killed, as was a civilian 23-year-old woman on the ground who was hit by falling debris. A plaque commemorating the disaster and erected by the American Legion in 1961 marks the spot of the accident, today a mini-mall at the corner of Firestone Boulevard and Pioneer Boulevard.

The Hargitt House

Built in 1891 by the D.D. Johnston family, the Hargitt House was built in the architectural style of Victorian Eastlake. The Hargitt House Museum, located at 12426 Mapledale, was donated to the people of Norwalk by Charles ("Chun") and Ida Hargitt.[11]

The Sproul House

façade of the historical Sproul house in Norwalk. There is a porch on the right and a a flagpole in front flying an American flag.
Historic Sproul House

The Sproul House is a Stick Style-influenced,[12][13][14] Victorian farm house built in 1870 by the founder of Norwalk, Gilbert Sproul. He and his family lived there while he founded Norwalk. His descendants lived in the house continually until 1962 when it was donated to the city.[15] Today it houses the Gilbert Sproul Museum which covers Norwalk history through artifacts, photos, documents and other interpretive elements.[16][17]


Geography

Norwalk is located at 33°54′25″N 118°5′0″W / 33.90694°N 118.08333°W / 33.90694; -118.08333 (33.906914, -118.083398).[18]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.243 km2 (10 sq mi). 9.707 square miles (25.14 km2) of it is land and 0.039 square miles (0.10 km2) of it (0.40%) is water.

Norwalk is bordered by Downey to the northwest, Bellflower to the southwest, Cerritos and Artesia to the south, and Santa Fe Springs and Whittier to the north and east.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
196088,739
197090,1641.6%
198084,901−5.8%
199094,27911.0%
2000103,2989.6%
2010105,5492.2%
2020102,773−2.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[19][20]

67.7% of persons age 5 years+, 2014–2018 live in a home where another language than English is spoken.[21]

2010

The 2010 United States Census[22] reported that Norwalk had a population of 105,549. The population density was 10,829.6 inhabitants per square mile (4,181.3/km2). The racial makeup of Norwalk was 52,089 (49.4%) White (12.3% Non-Hispanic White),[23] 4,593 (4.4%) African American, 1,213 (1.1%) Native American, 12,700 (12.0%) Asian (5.3% Filipino, 2.5% Korean, 0.9% Chinese, 0.8% Indian, 0.8% Vietnamese, 0.6% Cambodian, 0.3% Thai, 0.3% Japanese), 431 (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 29,954 (28.4%) from other races, and 4,569 (4.3%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 74,041 persons (70.1%)

The Census reported that 103,934 people (98.5% of the population) lived in households, 315 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,300 (1.2%) were institutionalized.

There were 27,130 households, out of which 13,678 (50.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15,190 (56.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 5,045 (18.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,348 (8.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,712 (6.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 178 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,417 households (12.6%) were made up of individuals, and 1,631 (6.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.83. There were 22,583 families (83.2% of all households); the average family size was 4.10.

The population was spread out, with 29,164 people (27.6%) under the age of 18, 12,026 people (11.4%) aged 18 to 24, 30,138 people (28.6%) aged 25 to 44, 23,790 people (22.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 10,431 people (9.9%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males.

There were 28,083 housing units at an average density of 2,881.4 per square mile (1,112.5/km2), of which 17,671 (65.1%) were owner-occupied, and 9,459 (34.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.8%. 70,180 people (66.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 33,754 people (32.0%) lived in rental housing units.

During 2009–2013, Norwalk had a median household income of $60,770, with 12.9% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[23]

2000

As of the census[24] of 2000, there were 103,298 people, 26,887 households, and 22,531 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,667.6 inhabitants per square mile (4,118.8/km2). There were 27,554 housing units at an average density of 2,845.5 per square mile (1,098.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 44.82% White, 4.62% African American, 1.16% Native American, 11.54% Asian, 0.39% Pacific Islander, 32.75% from other races, and 4.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 62.89% of the population.

There were 26,887 households, out of which 46.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 16.2% were non-families. 12.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.79 and the average family size was 4.08.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 32.1% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $46,047, and the median income for a family was $47,524. Males had a median income of $31,579 versus $26,047 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,022. About 9.5% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.

Government and infrastructure

City government

Norwalk City Hall

Norwalk operates under a Council/Manager form of government, established by the Charter of the City of Norwalk which was drafted in 1957. The five-member City Council acts as the city's chief policy-making body. Every two years, Council members are elected by the citizens of Norwalk to serve four-year, overlapping terms. Council members are not limited to the number of terms they may serve. The Mayor is selected by the council and serves a one-year term.

According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $78.2 million in Revenues, $79.1 million in Expenditures, $107.2 million in Total Assets, $48.7 million in Total Liabilities, and $54.8 million in Cash and Investments.[25]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[26]

Department Director
City Manager Jesus M. Gomez
Director of Finance/City Treasurer Jana Stuard
Director of Transportation James C. Parker
Director of Community Development Michael Garcia (Acting)
Director of Personnel/Risk Manager Cathy Thompson
Director of Public Services Gary DiCorpo
Director of Recreation and Park Services Bill Kearns
Director of Public Safety (Vacant)
Director of Social Services Veronica Garcia
City Clerk Theresa Devoy

Public safety

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Norwalk is a contract city, in which the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department provides police services. It maintains its own station, which also provides police services to La Mirada and unincorporated South Whittier. At one time the station also provided contracted police services to Santa Fe Springs, but those services ended when the city entered into a contract with the Whittier Police Department. The station is staffed with 206 sworn personnel.

Fire protection in Norwalk is provided by the Los Angeles County Fire Department with ambulance transport by Care Ambulance Service.

Registrar/recorder

Norwalk is the home of the Los Angeles County Registrar/Recorder. The Los Angeles County Registrar's Office is responsible for the registration of voters, maintenance of voter files, conduct of federal, state, local and special elections and the verification of initiative, referendum and recall petitions. There are approximately 4.1 million registered voters, and 5 thousand voting precincts established for countywide elections. The office also has jurisdiction over marriage license issuance, the performance of civil marriage ceremonies, fictitious business name filings and indexing, qualification and registration of notaries and miscellaneous statutory issuance of oaths and filings. The office issues approximately 75,000 marriage licenses and processes 125,000 fictitious business name filings annually. The Recorder's Office is responsible for recording legal documents which determine ownership of real property and maintains files of birth, death and marriage records for Los Angeles County. It serves the public and other County departments such as the Assessor, Health Services, Public Social Services and Regional Planning. The office processes 2 million real and personal property documents and 750,000 birth, death and marriage records annually and services approximately 2,000 customers daily.[27]

County, state, and federal representation

In the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, Norwalk is in the Fourth District, represented by Janice Hahn.[28]

In the California State Senate, Norwalk is in the 32nd Senate District, represented by Republican Kelly Seyarto.[29] In the California State Assembly, it is split between the 57th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Reggie Jones-Sawyer, and the 58th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Sabrina Cervantes.[30]

In the United States House of Representatives, Norwalk is in California's 38th congressional district, represented by Democrat Linda Sánchez.[31]

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Whittier Health Center in Whittier, serving Norwalk.[32]

The United States Postal Service operates the Norwalk Post Office at 14011 Clarkdale Avenue and the Paddison Square Post Office at 12415 Norwalk Boulevard.[33][34]

Superior Court

The Southeast District of the Los Angeles County Superior Court is located in Norwalk.

Metropolitan State Hospital

The Metropolitan State Hospital

The 162-acre (0.66 km2) Metropolitan State Hospital, a psychiatric and mental health facility operated by the California Department of State Hospitals, is located in Norwalk. It has four different types of categories for patient intake. The four categories being; incompetent to stand trial (PC 1370), offender with a mental health disorder (PCS 2962/2972), not guilty by reason of insanity (PC 1026), and conservatorship lanterman-petris-short (LPS) Act.[35]

Transportation

Freeways

Three freeways travel through the city. The Santa Ana Freeway (I-5) and San Gabriel River Freeway (I-605) pass through and intersect just above its northern edge, while the Century Freeway (I-105) ends in Norwalk at Studebaker Road.

Norwalk Transit

Norwalk Transit serves Norwalk and its adjacent communities. Six bus lines operate in Norwalk and adjacent cities, including Artesia, Bellflower, Cerritos, La Mirada and Whittier. Norwalk Transit Buses make connections with Los Angeles Metro Rail C Line from Route 2 and Metrolink from Route 7[36]

Long Beach Transit

Long Beach Transit provides service to the Metro C Line Station via Studebaker Road from Long Beach.

Los Angeles Metro

The Los Angeles MTA ("Metro") provides both bus and rail service from Norwalk. The Metro C Line (formerly the Green Line) light rail provides service from the Norwalk C Line station to LAX (via shuttle from Aviation Station) and Redondo Beach. Metro bus routes provide service to the west on Florence Avenue, Firestone Boulevard, Imperial Highway, and Rosecrans Avenue from the Norwalk C Line Station. Express routes also connect to Disneyland, El Monte Bus Station, Long Beach and downtown Los Angeles.

Metrolink

The Metrolink Orange County Line and 91/Perris Valley Line (which operate on the same track in this area) trains connect Norwalk (the Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station) with Orange County, Riverside County, and Downtown Los Angeles.

Economy

Top employers

According to the city's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[37] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District 2,057
2 Cerritos College 1,570
3 Los Angeles County Registrar/Recorder 1,564
4 Metropolitan State Hospital 1,466
5 Target 442
6 City of Norwalk 409
7 Costco 317
8 Doty Brother's Construction 300
9 Coast Plaza Hospital 295
10 Los Angeles Community Hospital 250
11 Little Lake School District 242
12 Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department 240
13 Walmart 238
14 Kerber Brothers Inc 200
15 Southland Care Center 180
16 Double Tree Hotel 169
17 McDonald's 168
18 Keystone Collision Center 150
19 Prudential California Realty 150
20 US Post Office 130

Education

Although Norwalk is credited with being the home to Cerritos College, only the east half of the campus is actually in Norwalk, the west half is in Cerritos. Founded in 1955, Cerritos College is a public community college serving an area of 52 square miles (130 km2) of southeastern Los Angeles county. The college offers degrees and certificates in 87 areas of study in nine divisions. Over 1,200 students complete their course of studies each year.

Norwalk Grammar School class in 1890. Cora Hargitt Middle School Academy (operated 1980–2008) was named after the teacher, at top left.

Most of Norwalk is served by the Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District,[38]

headquartered at 12820 Pioneer Boulevard in Norwalk. NLMUSD also contains The California distinguished school J.B. Morrison Elementary Magnet School in Norwalk.

Certain areas of Norwalk are served by the Little Lake City School District (elementary school district), headquartered in Santa Fe Springs, and the Whittier Union High School District. Another section is within the ABC Unified School District, based in Cerritos.[38]

Among the several parochial schools in Norwalk are Saint John of God School (Roman Catholic, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles), Pioneer Baptist School (Baptist Christian), and Saint Linus School (Roman Catholic).

Media

The independent TV station KHJ-TV/KCAL-TV channel 9 was licensed to Norwalk for a year in 1989 during an ownership transfer as part of a settlement with the FCC by former owner RKO General; the one-year change in city of license was barely noted on-air (it returned to a city of license of Los Angeles in 1990), and the station never had any actual assets based in Norwalk.

Notable people

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Neighborhoods

Sports

The Falcon Field is the largest venue by capacity (12,000) in Norwalk. It is the home of the public community college football team Cerritos Falcons and a major venue for track and field events.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on February 21, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "MAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL INFORMATION". Norwalk, California. City of Norwalk. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  3. ^ "City Administration". City of Norwalk, CA. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
  4. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  5. ^ "Norwalk". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
  6. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts". Census.gov. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  7. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts". Census.gov. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  8. ^ "City of Norwalk - Commissions". Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  9. ^ Long Beach Press-Telegram, Dec 23, 1923 Page 44
  10. ^ McGroarty, J. S. (1923). History of Los Angeles County. United States: American Historical Society, Incorporated. p.544 “ in the winter of 1868 he and his brother Gilbert H. bought 457 acres of unimproved land at what is now Norwalk, the original portion of the Sproul ranch costing only eleven dollars an acre. The village of Norwalk stands on this ranch. Immediately after locating on the property, Atwood Sproul built a livery barn and began buying, selling and training horses. A number of splendid horses were kept there. One of them was Conveth, a chestnut horse that sold for $ 10,000 as a yearling . The Sproul Brothers gave the right of way and depot grounds, altogether twenty-three acres, to the railroad . In the deed conveying this property was a clause compelling maintenance of daily train service for the station at Norwalk. This clause proved very valuable to the citizens of the community. At one time the railroad declined to stop for passengers. "
  11. ^ "Parks & Recreation: Historic Norwalk". City of Norwalk. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  12. ^ Perissinotti, Frank (2002). "Diagram of a Stick-Eastlake house". Visual Communications - History of Architecture.
  13. ^ Shrock, Joel (2004). The Gilded Age. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-313-32204-4. small wooden boards [...] that were often horizontal, diagonal, and vertical. [...] These decorative cross timbers were also called stickwork.
  14. ^ McAlester, Virginia & Lee (1984). A Field Guide to American Houses. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 254–261. ISBN 0-394-73969-8.
  15. ^ Burt, Tim (3 Jul 1977) "Early Norwalk Lives at Sproul Museum" Long Beach Press-Telegram, Page 31 "Not many families open up their houses to thousands of visitors a year But that’s what Vida Sproul Hunter did in 1962 when she donated the home of her grandfather Gilbert H Sproul to the city of Norwalk Since then schoolchildren and history buffs have visited the museum taking particular interest in such items as Civil War guns an old-fashioned disc-record set and farming equipment of the pre-1900s There is also an 1877 piano which according to museum curator Billie Robinson still sounds good A 1910 Edison phonograph is also on display...Sproul purchased the property in 1868 and built the house in 1870. The house was moved in 1962 to its current location on Sproul Street and was opened to tourists in 1964. 'Most of the items we collected from residents when we opened in 1962' Mrs Robinson said 'All of the guns are from the Sproul family '. Vida Sproul Hunter was the last Sproul to live in the house After that the house was rented for a while and then donated to the city. During one year 28000 people toured the house. They’ve come from all over the area to see it. The house has remained basically the same structurally according to Mrs Robinson 'It’s a well-built house to stand up this long We added a workshop and an office for me but those are the only changes '"
  16. ^ Reece, Daphne (1983). Historic Houses of California. San Francisco, CA : Chronicle Books. p. 114. ISBN 0877012725. Archived from the original on January 23, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2023. Gilbert Sproul House 1970 Norwalk's founder, Gilbert Sproul, built this simple redwood home with few pretensions to architectural style. An adventurous Yankee from Maine, Sproul had traveled widely in the West Indies and the Orient before settling down as a lumber baron in Oregon; he also was quick to sense the opportunities when Southern California's great ranchos were subdivided and settlers poured into the state. His house became the scene of many of Norwalk's early town meetings. Donated with all its original furnishings to the city by Sproul's granddaughter in 1964, it is now a museum furnished with contemporary antiques.
  17. ^ A Guide to historic places in Los Angeles County : prepared under the auspices of the History Team of the City of Los Angeles American Revolution Bicentennial Committee. Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. 1978. pp. 232–233. Retrieved May 3, 2023. Gilbert Sproul, founder of Norwalk, built this redwood home for himself and his family in 1870. Many town meetings were held in this house, which was one of the first homes in the Norwalk area. Sproul's granddaughter, Vida Sproul Hunter, donated the home to the City, which moved the building about 100 yards to its present location, where since 1964 it has been open to the public as the Sproul Museum. Inside is now a city museum in Norwalk Park. Original furniture, much of which dates back to 1870, along with materials relating to the history of Norwalk, such as maps, early school pictures, and other city photographs. In addition there are displays of dolls, guns, and Indian artifacts.
  18. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
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  21. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Norwalk city, California". Census.gov. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  22. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Norwalk city". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 18, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  23. ^ a b "Norwalk (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  24. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  25. ^ City of Norwalk 2007-08 CAFR Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2009-06-07
  26. ^ City of Norwalk Website retrieved 2014-17-12
  27. ^ "Error". Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  28. ^ "Fourth District - Supervisor Janice Hahn". Fourth District - Supervisor Janice Hahn. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  29. ^ "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  30. ^ "Communities of Interest — City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  31. ^ "California's 38th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC.
  32. ^ "Whittier Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  33. ^ "Post Office Location - NORWALK." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  34. ^ "Post Office Location - PADDISON SQUARE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
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  36. ^ "Norwalk Transit Fares and Routes". City of Norwalk. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". norwalk.org. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ a b "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Los Angeles County, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 10 (PDF p. 11/19). Retrieved November 23, 2023.
  39. ^ Baker, Kenneth (August 6, 2013). "California sculptor Ruth Asawa dies". SFGate. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  40. ^ "Mark Schubert | socalswimhistory". socalswimhistory.com. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  41. ^ "Shirley Babashoff | American athlete".
  42. ^ Los Angeles Times[dead link]
  43. ^ Myers, William Starr (2000). Prominent Families of New Jersey. ISBN 9780806350363.
  44. ^ Orlean, Susan (2002). The Bullfighter Checks Her Makeup: My Encounters with Extraordinary People. ISBN 9780375758638.
  45. ^ "Keith Ginter Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
  46. ^ a b c d e "Norwalk Streets - BlockShopper.com". losangeles.blockshopper.com.