Inland Empire
Location of Inland Empire
CountryUnited States
Ten largest cities by population (2010 U.S. Census)
 • Metro
27,298 sq mi (70,669 km2)
−220 – 11,499 ft (−67.1 – 3,507 m)
 • Density147.5/sq mi (56.9/km2)
 • Urban
1,932,666 (22nd)
 • Urban density3,434.1/sq mi (1,325.9/km2)
 • Metro
4,599,839 (12th)
 • Combined Statistical Area (CSA)
18,710,563 [1] (2nd)
 • MSA$237.9 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC−08:00 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−07:00 (PDT)

The Inland Empire (commonly abbreviated as the IE) is a metropolitan area and region inland of and adjacent to coastal Southern California, centering around the cities of San Bernardino and Riverside, and bordering Los Angeles County to the west and San Diego County to the south. The bulk of the population is centered in the cities of northwestern Riverside County and southwestern San Bernardino County, and is sometimes considered to include the desert communities of the Coachella and Victor Valleys, respectively on the other sides of the San Gorgonio Pass and San Bernardino Mountains from the Santa Ana River watershed that forms the bulk of the Inland Empire; a much broader definition includes all of Riverside and San Bernardino counties.[4] The combined land area of the counties of the Inland Empire is larger than ten U.S. statesWest Virginia, Maryland, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island.

The U.S. Census Bureau–defined Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan area, which comprises Riverside County and San Bernardino County, California, covers more than 27,000 sq mi (70,000 km2) and had a population of about 4.6 million in 2020.[5] At the end of the 19th century, the Inland Empire was a major center of agriculture, including citrus, dairy, and winemaking. Agriculture declined through the 20th century, and since the 1970s a rapidly growing population, fed by families migrating in search of affordable housing, has led to more residential, industrial, and commercial development.



The term Inland Empire is documented to have been used by the Riverside Enterprise newspaper (now The Press-Enterprise) as early as April 1914.[6] Developers in the area likely introduced the term to promote the region and to highlight the area's unique features. The "Inland" part of the name is derived from the region's location, generally about 60 miles (97 km) inland from Los Angeles and the Pacific Ocean. Originally, this area was called the Orange Empire due to the acres of citrus groves which extended from Pasadena to Redlands during the first half of the 20th century.[4][7] The boundaries of the Inland Empire are nebulous, but the region is generally defined as the cities of western Riverside County and southwestern San Bernardino County, adjacent to the Los Angeles metropolitan area. A broader definition includes Palm Springs and the surrounding desert communities, and a much more widespread definition includes all of San Bernardino and Riverside counties.[4]


Drawing of San Bernardino (1852)

What is now known as the Inland Empire was inhabited for thousands of years, prior to the late 18th century, by the Tongva, Taaqtam, Ivilyuqaletem and Payómkawichum Native Americans.The first American settlers, a group of Mormon pioneers, arrived over the Cajon Pass in 1851. Although the Mormons left a scant six years later, recalled to Salt Lake City by Brigham Young during the church's Utah War with the U.S. government, other settlers soon followed.

The entire landmass of Southern California was subdivided according to the San Bernardino Meridian, which was first plotted as part of the Public Land Survey System in November 1852, by Col. Henry Washington. Base Line Road, a major thoroughfare, today runs from Highland to San Dimas, intermittently along the absolute baseline coordinates plotted by Col. Washington.[8] San Bernardino County was first formed out of parts of Los Angeles County on April 26, 1853. While the partition once included what is today most of Riverside County, the region is not as monolithic as it may sound. Rivalries between Colton, Redlands, Riverside and San Bernardino over the location of the county seat in the 1890s caused each of them to form their own civic communities, each with their own newspapers. On August 14, 1893, the state Senate allowed Riverside County to form out of land previously in San Bernardino and San Diego counties, after rejecting a bill for Pomona to split from L.A. County and become the seat of what would have been called San Antonio County.[9]

The arrival of rail and the importation of navel and Valencia orange trees in the 1870s touched off explosive growth, with the area quickly becoming a major center for citrus production.[10][11][12] This agricultural boom continued with the arrival of water from the Colorado River and the rapid growth of Los Angeles in the early 20th century, with dairy farming becoming another staple industry. In 1926, Route 66 (now known as Foothill Boulevard and Interstate 215) came through the northern parts of the area, bringing a stream of tourists and migrants to the region. Still, the region endured as the key part of the Southern California "citrus belt" until the end of World War II, when a new generation of real-estate developers bulldozed acres of agricultural land to build suburbs.[10] The precursor to the San Bernardino Freeway, the Ramona Expressway, was built in 1944, and further development of the freeway system in the area facilitated the expansion of suburbs and human migration throughout the Inland Empire and Southern California.

The region experienced significant economic and population growth through most of the latter half of the 20th century. In the early 1990s, the loss of the region's military bases and reduction of nearby defense industries due to the end of the Cold War led to a local economic downturn.[13][14] The region as a whole had partially recovered from this downturn by the start of the 21st century through the development of warehousing, shipping, logistics and retail industries, primarily centered around Ontario.[15] During the 2008 Recession, industry suffered heavily but had begun to recover by 2010.[16][17]



Physical geography

Yucca Valley, within the Morongo Basin, is halfway between the San Bernardino Valley and the Arizona state line.

Physical boundaries between Los Angeles and the Inland Empire from west to east are the San Jose Hills splitting the San Gabriel Valley from the Pomona Valley, leading to the urban populations centered in the San Bernardino Valley.[18] From the south to north, the Santa Ana Mountains physically divide Orange County from Riverside County. The Santa Rosa Mountains, as well as the Southern California portion of the Sonoran Desert, physically divide Riverside County from San Diego County.[19]

Elevations range from 11,499 ft (3,505 m) at the top of San Gorgonio Mountain to −220 ft (−67 m) at the Salton Sea. The San Bernardino mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest and the resort communities of Big Bear Lake, Lake Arrowhead, and Running Springs. The Santa Ana River extends from Mt. San Gorgonio for nearly 100 miles (160 km) through San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties before it eventually spills into the Pacific Ocean at Newport Beach and Huntington Beach. While temperatures are generally cool to cold in the mountains, it can get hot in the valleys. In the desert resort of Palm Springs, near Joshua Tree National Park, summer temperatures can reach well over 110 °F (43 °C).

Political geography

View of the San Bernardino Valley from the San Bernardino Mountains. The Santa Ana Mountains are visible in the distance.

Unlike most metropolitan areas that have grown up around a central city, the Inland Empire has two main focus cities, Riverside and San Bernardino. Other major cities in the region include Rancho Cucamonga, Ontario, and Corona. Suburban sprawl spreads out to form a connection with the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Further development is steadily, if not heavily, encroaching past the mountains into the outlying desert areas. The Inland Empire borders both Los Angeles and Orange counties. Freeways in Southern California are heavily used, but this comprehensive freeway system has made travel between the Inland Empire and these two counties generally direct, especially to and from Los Angeles County.

The Inland Empire has also been referred to as the 909, after one of the region's most used area codes.[4][20] In 2004, because of growing demand for telephone numbers, most of western Riverside County was granted a second area code, 951, which is overlayed with the 909 area code (they have the same physical boundaries and new telephone subscribers likely receive a 951 area code telephone number).[20]

The Coachella Valley region of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, and Indio is located much farther east in Riverside County (the distance between the city of San Bernardino and Palm Springs is approximately 50 miles) and is part of the much larger 760 area code. This area is sometimes considered a sub-region of the Inland Empire or its own separate region, the Desert Empire. This is to help differentiate it from the urbanized area containing the cities of San Bernardino and Riverside.

The RPA definition includes the Inland Empire (San BernardinoRiverside) in the Southern California Megaregion, alongside Anaheim, Bakersfield, Huntington Beach, Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Diego, the geographically separate Las Vegas Valley, as well as the Tijuana area in Mexico. Orange County and San Diego County are completely encompassed within the megaregion.

Boundaries and definitions

Arlington Heights Citrus Groves, Riverside circa 1903

There is no universally accepted definition for the boundaries of the Inland Empire region. Some sources such as the Los Angeles Times[21][22][23][24][25] have referred to Riverside County and San Bernardino County as the Inland Empire, mirroring the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area. Kern County is occasionally included within the Inland Empire.[26][27]

Some residents of certain areas, such as Twentynine Palms or the Coachella and Temecula valleys, may consider themselves separate from the IE.[4] The California Travel and Tourism Commission (CTTC), a not-for-profit, nongovernmental[28] entity that promotes tourism in California,[29] divides the state into several regions for its own purposes. The CTTC defines the Inland Empire as being bounded by Los Angeles County and Orange County on the west and San Diego County on the south, stretching as far north as the Victor Valley area and as far east as Idyllwild in the San Jacinto Mountains.[30] The state of California's official website links to the CTTC's map with the description "Map of the Inland Empire region".[31]

Other sources, including Kevin Starr, former state librarian of California, include the eastern Los Angeles County cities of the Pomona Valley, such as Claremont, Pomona, La Verne, San Dimas, and Diamond Bar.[32] Other sources also include cities in Los Angeles County within the boundaries.[33][34]


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2020)
Boxcars, Rialto, California

Inexpensive land prices (compared with Los Angeles and Orange counties), a large supply of vacant land, and a transport network where many highways and railroads intersect have made the Inland Empire a major shipping hub.[35] Some of the nation's largest manufacturing companies have chosen the Inland Empire for their distribution facilities including Toyota Motor Corporation's North American Parts and Logistics Distribution (NAPLD) center in Ontario and APL Logistics in Rancho Cucamonga. In 2007, Whirlpool Corporation leased a 1,700,000-square-foot (160,000 m2) distribution center in Perris that is larger than 31 football fields but, more recently, 5,000,000 sqft warehouses are common.[36] These centers operate as part of the system that transports finished goods and materials from the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach to destinations to the north and east such as Las Vegas, Phoenix, and Denver. More than 80 percent of the state's imported cargo is shipped through the Los Angeles/Inland Empire Corridor.[37] During the late 2010s and early 2020s, Amazon, the largest private employer in the region, has rapidly expanded its facilities and warehouses there, responding to explosive growth in online retailing and shipping and increasing traffic and air pollution.[38]

Like most industrial areas, the Inland Empire is vulnerable to the effects of economic recessions. For example, during the global economic downturn of 2008–2009, industrial vacancies doubled from 6.2 percent in 2007 to 12.4 percent to 2008. In San Bernardino and Redlands, vacancies reached 22 percent.[39]

The Inland Empire area is one of the least educated areas of the state with the lowest average in annual wages in the country.[40] A 2006 study of salaries in 51 metropolitan areas of the country ranked the Inland Empire second to last, with an average annual wage of $36,924.[40] Nonetheless, inexpensive land prices and innovative institutional support networks have attracted some small businesses and technology startups into the area.[16]

While urbanization continues to cut into agricultural lands, the Inland Empire still produces substantial crops. Although 10,000 acres (40 km2) of irrigated land was lost between 2002 and 2004, agriculture still brought in more than $1.6 billion in revenues to the two-county region in 2006.[11]

Being a MSA, aggregate GDP figures are reported by the Bureau of Economic Analysis annually. The Inland Empire ranks 25th in the nation with a 2011 GDP of $109.8 billion, roughly a third of San Francisco–Oakland–Berkeley, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area despite their close population numbers. Per capita GDP was $25,993.34 in 2011, nearly half among the nation's top 50 Gross Metropolitan Product.[41] Due to the housing crisis, the GDP fell from $114.8 billion in 2007, despite a heavy influx of residents.

The unemployment rate in the Inland Empire has been consistently over the national average since 2007. 10.4 percent of Inland residents were unemployed as of August 2013, compared with the national rate of 7.3 percent. Due to the high unemployment and housing foreclosure rates, a higher percentage of Inland residents rely on public assistance. According to the Press-Enterprise, "twelve percent of Riverside County and 17 percent of San Bernardino County residents used food stamps in January 2012", as compared with "11 percent of those living in Los Angeles County, 8 percent of San Diego County residents and 7 percent of Orange County residents".[42]


Housing construction in Fontana, looking northeast along Interstate 15 during 2007. Since 1980, the city's population has grown by 170,000.

Since the 1950s, the area has changed from a rural to a suburban environment. The region now comprises numerous cities known as bedroom communities that are suburban cities to Los Angeles, Orange County, and San Diego. Affordable home ownership is the primary motivation behind the growth in these Inland Empire cities as homes in the region are generally less expensive than comparable homes in Los Angeles and Orange counties, but the pricing gap continues to shrink each year due to migration and increasing population. The steady rise in population and the demand for housing has led to a dramatic increase in the building of single-family homes on parcels of 0.25 acres (1,000 m2) or more, as opposed to the construction of high-density development such as multi-story apartment or condominium buildings. This low-density development has caused sprawl in the Inland Empire. Additionally, land that was used for agriculture is now being sold by owners for conversion to shopping centers, industrial warehouses, and more. Due to the lack of one central city in the Inland Empire, and the smaller geographical footprint that suburban cities tend to have, this continuous development has become seemingly unplanned suburban sprawl as local interest and zoning laws may quickly change from one city to the next city.[43] The Inland Empire was declared the nation's worst example of sprawl according to a study by Smart Growth America in 2002.[44][45]

During the housing bubble collapse of the late 2000s, foreclosures rose by 3,500 percent.[46] In 2010, the area ranked fourth in the nation in the number of foreclosures, with one filing for every 133 households.[47] The problem of abandoned homes became so great that the city of Perris initiated a program to paint the brown lawns of abandoned homes green as a way to reduce the appearance of blight.[48]

In 2019, the "bedroom community" nature of the Inland Empire led to a plan to increase the construction of new housing in coastal cities (known as "job centers") preferentially versus building more housing in the Inland Empire areas. Meghan Sahli-Wells, mayor of Culver City, said that she supported the coastal plan because of the urgent nature of climate change. However, the plan was described as "toothless".[49]

The attractiveness of Inland Empire cities for warehousing and logistics has resulted in warehouses being built incrementally closer and closer to residential areas. With air pollution from diesel-powered transport trucks being a serious and cumulative concern for human health, an effort was made to impose a 1,000-foot buffer zone (separation distance between residential and commercial land uses) for new construction. However, this effort was not successful, due to local municipal officials giving priority to maximizing the construction of both housing and warehouse facilities, with the goal of maximizing employment as well as property-tax revenue from both the residential and the commercial/industrial sectors.[50]



Retailing in the area has increased to try to keep abreast with the growing suburban population. The region is home to several large shopping malls, including the Promenade Shops at Dos Lagos and the Crossings in Corona; Ontario Mills in Ontario; Promenade Mall in Temecula; Galleria at Tyler, Riverside Plaza, and Canyon Crossings in Riverside; The Shoppes at Chino Hills in Chino Hills; Moreno Valley Mall in Moreno Valley; Victoria Gardens in Rancho Cucamonga; Montclair Place in Montclair; and the Inland Center mall in San Bernardino. In fiscal year 2006, retail sales in San Bernardino County grew by 11.9 percent to $31.2 billion, while sales in Riverside County were up 11.3 percent to $29.6 billion.[51]

Panorama of the "Town Square" at Victoria Gardens in Rancho Cucamonga

Environmental quality

The Inland Empire is subject to smog conditions on a regular basis as seen here, looking south, from the north terminus of Haven Avenue in Rancho Cucamonga. Note how the street "fades" into the smoggy haze and the Santa Ana Mountains are completely obscured.
The Inland Empire is also subject to Santa Ana Winds that lead to generally clear days, free of smog or the marine layer. Note how the street that "faded" into the smoggy haze and the Santa Ana Mountains that were completely obscured in the adjacent image are now visible.

The result of this ongoing development has resulted in greater homeownership for the region. Although the region saw an uptick in jobs over the past decade, it is not a heavy employment center, and many residents commute to Los Angeles and Orange counties for their work. With a lack of substantial public transportation in the Greater Los Angeles Area, this has led to traffic congestion and degradation in air quality for the Inland Empire.[52] The solution to these problems is not simple. The presence of so many city governments within the Inland Empire, which often have different 'visions' for their own municipalities, means that two cities in the region rarely agree on a solution; just as common, they may have unequal means for implementing one even if they were to agree. Having no region-wide governmental planning organization may undermine any solution that could be proposed. Lastly, the fast pace at which development occurs versus the limited ability of government to respond to changes means that it could easily take years, if not decades, for a viable solution (such as new roads, transit systems, or pollution controls) to go into effect.[53]

Air pollution


The Inland Empire routinely has some of the worst air quality in the United States. San Bernardino County and Riverside County are the first and second worst counties in the United States for tropospheric ozone air pollution.[54] Pollution in Southern California mostly is blown from the coast towards the mountains. Inland Empire counties are downwind of the highly populated counties of Los Angeles and Orange County. The largest sources of air pollution affecting the Inland Empire include off-road equipment (e.g., construction equipment, cargo-handling equipment), heavy-duty diesel trucks, ocean-going vessels, passenger vehicles, locomotives, aircraft, and industrial fuel combustion.[55] Southern California is in extreme nonattainment for ozone and severe nonattainment for particle pollution.

Multiple state and local efforts are underway to clean up the air, primarily focused on zero emissions vehicles. California has implemented some of the most aggressive vehicle electrification rules in the country, including the Advanced Clean Cars II rule that will mandate 100% zero-emission passenger vehicle sales in 2035,[56] and the Advanced Clean Fleets rule for trucks that will require all drayage trucks to be zero-emissions starting in 2024 and all trucks to ZEV by 2036.[57]

Water pollution


Water pollution has also been found in the Santa Ana River and Cajon wash, and pollutants from the March Air Reserve Base and Stringfellow Acid Pits have contaminated groundwater in parts of Riverside County.[19] In 1997, perchlorate, a chemical used to produce explosives, was discovered to be seeping into the groundwater under Rialto in a plume that continues to grow. In 2007, the Rialto city council petitioned the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for Superfund status to clean up the origin site. The sites comprising March Air Reserve Base, Norton Air Force Base and the Stringfellow Acid Pits have already been classified as EPA Superfund toxic waste sites.[58]


I-10I-215 Interchange traffic, south of downtown San Bernardino

Traffic congestion is a major issue in the Inland Empire. Many of the existing freeways were completed in the late 1970s with the exception of the segment of the Foothill Freeway, State Route 210 (SR 210) between San Dimas and San Bernardino, which was completed in July 2007. New freeways or highway "fix-ups" are either in progress or being planned, such as the construction of Mid County Parkway between Perris and San Jacinto or the addition of toll lanes on both I-15 and I-10 through heavily urbanized portions of Riverside and San Bernardino counties. Other problems exist, however, including the imbalance between housing and job availability. The Inland Empire population grew as a result of affordable housing, at least relative to the rest of Southern California, but most of the higher paying jobs are located in Los Angeles, San Diego and Orange counties. Thus, many workers must commute daily from the Inland Empire to their jobs in these counties—sometimes up to two hours each direction—and even longer if by public transportation. As the population increases, the problem is most certainly going to get worse. Forbes magazine ranked the area first in its 2007 list of most unhealthy commutes in the United States, beating out every other metropolitan area in the country, as Inland area drivers breathe the unhealthiest air and have the highest rate of fatal auto accidents per capita.[59]

According to a 1999 report by the Surface Transportation Policy Project, the Inland Empire leads in fatal crashes caused by road rage.[60][61] The theft of copper, brass and other metals from highway and road fixtures has also led to decreased public safety on IE roads and freeways.[62] Gas siphoning has also been noted as a problem for vehicles left unattended in the region.[63]

Public transportation

sbX Green Line's Civic Center station in downtown San Bernardino
sbX Hospitality West Station, downtown San Bernardino

The Inland Empire does not have a particularly extensive or robust public transportation system. Due to the large physical size and sprawl of the region, the primary means of transportation in the region is the automobile. Less than five percent of the IE's 1,249,224 working-age residents use public transportation to get to work.[64]

Omnitrans is the largest bus agency in San Bernardino County, while the Riverside Transit Agency (RTA) is the largest in Riverside County. Currently, some of Omnitrans' bus routes run on headways of an hour or more, and some routes stop service in the early evening or may not run on weekends. SunLine Transit Agency provides bus service in the Coachella Valley while the Victor Valley Transit Authority (VVTA) provides transit service in the High Desert, including to Barstow after the transit systems in the latter was merged into VVTA in 2015. Other operators in the region include Pass Transit serving the Banning Pass area, Needles Area Transit serving the city of Needles, Mountain Transit serving the communities in the San Bernardino Mountains including Lake Arrowhead, Big Bear, Running Springs, and Crestline, and the MBTA serving the Morongo Basin and Yucca Valley portions of San Bernardino County.

Although transit usage and infrastructure remains weak, several projects have moved forward and opened in the 2010s to improve transit accessibility in the region. Major projects include the Perris Valley portion of the Metrolink 91/Perris Valley Line, the San Bernardino Transit Center, and the Omnitrans sbX Green Line, which connects the cities of Loma Linda and San Bernardino, two universities, and the Loma Linda VA Hospital to the San Bernardino Transit Center.[65] In addition to sbX, there are other express services available to public transportation users in the region. RTA operates a BRT-lite system in the RapidLink Gold Line, which runs from UCR to the Corona Transit Center.[66]

Due to the physical size of the Inland Empire, transit connections between the nodes of the region are primarily served by freeway express services. Transit operators of the IE provide service between major destinations and transit centers around Southern California including the San Bernardino Transit Center, the Montclair Transcenter, Disneyland, Pomona–Downtown station, and Oceanside.

The region is also part of the five-county Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA) "Metrolink" commuter rail system. Of the seven lines that Metrolink operates, four of them directly serve the Inland Empire:

Future projects


Although a robust transit network has been lacking in the region for decades, steps are being made toward developing one in the future. The councils of governments and transportation commissions in both IE counties have identified and are working on future expansions of transit to better serve the region. These include the sbX West Valley Connector,[67][68] Arrow, the extension of the L Line to Montclair (to become part of the A Line), and daily train service to the Coachella Valley.[69] Additional routes have also been studied including extending the Metrolink's Perris Valley Line to San Jacinto and Temecula,[70] a passenger rail spur along I-15 to Lake Elsinore,[71] BRT routes throughout the respective service areas of Omnitrans and RTA,[72] and an aerial tram from Highland to Big Bear.[73]

The Inland Empire is the chosen route for connecting California High-Speed Rail service to San Diego. While a final alignment has yet to be finalized, concepts include stops at the Ontario International Airport, in Riverside, San Bernardino, Corona, and Temecula or Murrieta. These would occur as part of Phase II, however, which currently remains unfunded.[74][75][76]



Several airports are located in the Inland Empire. San Bernardino International Airport, Ontario International Airport and Palm Springs International Airport are commercial airports in their respective cities. A local joint powers agency has redeveloped the decommissioned Norton Air Force Base into San Bernardino International Airport. There are also several general aviation airports in the region.

Airport IATA code ICAO code County
Ontario International Airport ONT KONT San Bernardino
Palm Springs International Airport PSP KPSP Riverside
San Bernardino International Airport SBD KSBD San Bernardino

Active transportation


The region is making some progress in developing dedicated bicycle commuter and recreation trails. The largest of these, the Santa Ana River bicycle path, currently connects Corona to Huntington Beach, and is eventually projected to stretch for 84 miles all the way to Redlands when completed.[77] A shorter trail exists along the former path of the Pacific Electric Railway from Claremont to Rialto.[78] A number of communities have also built trails along the levees and maintenance roads of other waterways in the region, including the CV Link, which is under construction in the Coachella Valley area of the region. Other plans also exist to provide feeder trails to meet the main backbones such as the PE Trail and provide a network of connectivity to nonmotorized users throughout the region.



The majority of Inland Empire’s immigrants come from Mexico, the Philippines, El Salvador, Vietnam and Guatemala.[79]

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[80]
1790–1960[81] 1900–1990[82]

The population of the Greater Los Angeles area (which includes the Inland Empire) is about 18 million people according to the 2010 United States Census, and is the second largest metropolitan region in the country. The Metropolitan Statistical Area population of the Inland Empire (Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area) itself is more than 4.2 million people and is the 13th largest metropolitan area in the United States. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, it is the fastest growing area in the state. Between 1990 and 2000, Riverside and San Bernardino counties added 700,000 to their population totals, an increase of 26 percent.[64] Between 2000 and 2010 Inland Empire's population expanded by 970,000 or 30 percent, and between 2010 and 2020 it expanded by a further 375,000 or another 9 percent to reach 4.6 million. According to census bureau's 2005–2007 estimates 61.8 percent of the population was White (40.4 percent White Non-Hispanic), 7.5 percent Black, 5.7 percent Asian and 25.0 percent of other or mixed race. 43.9 percent were Hispanic of any race. 21.9 percent of the population was foreign born.

There is a large Mexican community in Inland Empire. Filipinos are the largest Asian immigrant group in Inland Empire.[85]

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that in 2006, 33.1 percent of people in the Greater San Bernardino Area were overweight, and 30.8 percent were obese. In 2019, San Bernardino County found that 34.1% of the county's population were obese, with an additional 34.5% being overweight.[86]

A substantial majority of residents (76.6 percent), last comparatively surveyed in 2001, rated their respective counties as good places to live. Over 81 percent of Riverside County residents indicated that their county is a very good or fairly good place to live, while about 72 percent of residents in San Bernardino County felt the same way. Survey respondents cited "nice living area", "good climate", and "affordable housing" as the top positive factors in assessing their respective communities. Smog was by far the most important negative factor affecting respondents' ratings in both counties, while traffic was the second highest concern in Riverside County and crime the second highest concern among San Bernardino County residents.[87]



While the region as a whole had traditionally leaned more Republican than the rest of California, newer[when?] residents are less likely to identify with the Republican party than longer-term residents (36 percent to 42 percent), and the total number of residents identifying with the Democrats (34 percent) slightly edged over the number identifying with the Republican party (33 percent).

In the 2008 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama carried both Riverside and San Bernardino counties, becoming only the second Democrat to carry both counties since Lyndon Johnson in 1964. In 2012, Obama repeated this feat and again carried both counties, and the two Inland Empire counties have stayed in the Democratic column in presidential elections since. Nonetheless, the area continues to be far friendlier to Republicans than Los Angeles County or the San Francisco Bay Area.

Non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks have the highest participation rates for nearly every type of political activity, while Latinos and Asian Americans lag significantly behind those groups in terms of volunteerism and organizational membership. The 2006 immigration protests have significantly boosted political participation among Latinos.[88]


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
The Redlands California Temple is one of four LDS temples in Southern California.

Many faiths and denominations are found and represented in the area. The Roman Catholic parishes in the region belong to the church's Diocese of San Bernardino.[89]

Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists have communities in the towns of Loma Linda and Redlands near San Bernardino. Mormons also have congregations in the High Desert region.[citation needed] Seventh-day Adventists operate Loma Linda University.[90]

The Inland Empire has a Jewish community, and additionally a Jewish American community is in and around the Sun City neighborhood of Menifee. According to the United Jewish Citizens of the Desert, the Coachella Valley has an estimated 20,000 American Jews, one of California's largest Jewish communities, as a result of being a major retirement destination.[91]

There are also some fast-growing Muslim communities with around 30,000 American Muslims in 2019, mostly concentrated around the UCR campus in Riverside, Irvine and central Corona. All locations have well-established Islamic Centers gathering faith members for weekly Juma prayers as well as other Islamic holidays.



While the crime index in Riverside and Ontario trends slightly over the state average, San Bernardino has a crime index consistently near or over twice that of the national average.[92][93][94][95] Reflecting nationwide trends, violent crime in the region overall declined or remained consistent in 2009, despite the recession. In the city of Riverside, 10 homicides occurred in 2005, down from 24 in 2003, its highest total since 2003. All but three cases resulted in arrests. In San Bernardino, by contrast, 58 killings occurred in 2005, but only a third of cases in San Bernardino led to arrests, due to a lack of witness cooperation in that city.[96]

Latino gangs have been active in the region since the area's citrus days while a continual migration of numerous African American gangs from the inner city of South LA have flowed into the region since the Watts Riots and 1992 Los Angeles Riots.[9][97] The increased diversity in the region between 1990 and 2000 is also associated with a 20 percent increase in hate crime in the same period, mostly ascribed to increased gang activity.[98][99] According to data from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program, taken together, Riverside and San Bernardino counties showed a total of 51,237 crimes reported to county police/sheriffs (but not to city or other agencies) in 2006; this combined total exceeded the totals for all other California counties – considered individually – except for Sacramento.[100]

The region has also been noted as a center of methamphetamine drug production.[101] The Riverside and San Bernardino county sheriffs' departments busted 635 meth labs in 2000; law enforcement has driven most of the meth production industry to Mexico since 2007, but many of the homes discovered to have been used as meth labs before 2006 have since been sold on the market before California law required rigorous decontamination, leading to a legacy of health hazards for unsuspecting renters and home-buyers in the area.[102]

In 2016 federal crime statistics stated that San Bernardino was ranked the most dangerous city in California.[103]


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2021)
California State University, San Bernardino
University of California, Riverside

There is a trend of lower educational attainment in the IE, which starts early. Only 37 percent of 3- and 4-year-olds in the region are enrolled in pre-school, with only one school in the region for every 343 children, as compared with 48 percent enrollment in San Diego County. Thirty-five percent of the IE's ninth graders do not graduate from high school, and only 37 percent of its college age residents enroll in a post-secondary education program of some sort. Only 24 percent of the IE's adult residents have attained a college degree or better. Twenty-five percent do not possess a high school diploma.[64] According to past CSUSB President Al Karnig, "We have a very low college attendance rate that is scantly above half of what the average is in other states. We have only have about 20 percent college graduates in the Inland Empire while the average in other states is 38 percent."[104][105] 21 inland area high schools rank in the top 100 in California for producing dropouts.[106]

Of Inland Empire residents 25 years and over in 2004, 44.4 percent of Asians had bachelor's or higher degrees, and nearly 70 percent had at least attended college. 21.3 percent of Blacks had a bachelor's degree or higher, and 65.2 percent had either a community degree or had attended college. 22.8 percent of Whites had a bachelor's degree or higher, and 60.8 percent had attended college. Of Hispanics, 6.9 percent had a bachelor's or higher degree, and 30.2 percent attended college.[107]

Among students transferring from Inland community colleges to private schools in 2004–05, the most frequent choice was the University of Phoenix.[108]



While the Inland Empire led the state in job-growth with 275,000 new jobs between 1990 and 2000, most are in comparatively low-tech fields. San Bernardino and Riverside counties are primarily host to service and manufacturing- or warehousing-oriented industries. Food and administrative services employ the most people in the Inland Empire, while for the state of California, the top industries are in administrative services and professional, scientific and hi-tech-oriented fields. 79.8% of the IE's job growth from 1990 to 2003 was in service-sector jobs.[109] Low-wage industries are abundant in the IE, and the area's high-tech and professional industries pay less than in other regions of California. As many as one-third of working adults commute out of the 27,000-square-mile (70,000 km2) region to find work, the highest proportion of any area in the country. Adding to gridlock, fewer than 5% of the IE's 1,249,224 working-age residents use public transportation to get to work each day. 14.5% carpool, while 79.7% typically drive alone to work in their cars.[64]

In 2007, the region had an unemployment rate of 6.1%, while overall jobless claims in California were at 5.4% and 4.4% nationally.[110] In 2008, unemployment in the area increased to 9.5%, at a time when the state average was 8.2% and the national average approximately 6.5%.[111] Unemployment reached an all-time high of 15% in 2010, second in the nation only to Detroit among metropolitan areas with populations over 1 million.[112]

County 2016 estimate 2010 census Change Area Density
Riverside County, California 2,387,741 2,189,641 +9.05% 7,206.47 sq mi (18,664.7 km2) 331/sq mi (128/km2)
San Bernardino County, California 2,140,096 2,035,210 +5.15% 20,056.92 sq mi (51,947.2 km2) 107/sq mi (41/km2)
Total 4,527,837 4,224,851 +7.17% 27,263.39 sq mi (70,611.9 km2) 166/sq mi (64/km2)


Lamb of God playing at Ozzfest at the San Manuel Amphitheater in Devore, San Bernardino, 2007

The Inland Empire sits adjacent to the San Bernardino Mountains. Lake Arrowhead and Big Bear are just some of the lakes located in the mountains. Lake Arrowhead becomes very popular in the summertime, while Big Bear becomes popular in the winter for skiing and snowboarding activities. Various locations in the Inland Empire provide venues for cultural performances and entertainment.[113] The Victoria Gardens Cultural Center, which is owned and operated by the City of Rancho Cucamonga, opened in the Fall of 2006 providing theatre, concerts and family entertainment to the region. The San Manuel Amphitheater in San Bernardino's Devore neighborhood is the nation's largest outdoor amphitheater.[citation needed] San Bernardino's "Route 66 Rendezvous (the largest classical carshow in the US)", an annual street fair and classic car show, draws a half-million people from around the world.[114] The Palm Springs Aerial Tramway in Palm Springs is a popular attraction, rising to more than 8500 feet.


At 330 feet (100 m) high, the Morongo Casino, Resort & Spa tower is the tallest building in the Inland Empire. Concerts and events are booked inside.

Established bands from the IE include Alien Ant Farm, Hepcat, The Bellrays, and the Voodoo Glow Skulls, from Riverside, and Cracker from Redlands, and The Mountain Goats from Chino. House music artist DJ Lynnwood got his start at the age of ten spinning records at KUOR-FM in Redlands. girafa is another local electronic artist from Corona. Local hip-hop artists such as Miah Lanski, Suga Free, Saint Dog, 40 Glocc, Young Noble from the Outlawz, J.J. Fad, Raje, Noa James, Xydewayz8, The Faze, Lil Xan and A Lighter Shade of Brown have brought about attention to the growing Hip hop community in and around the region. The Jerkin' street dance culture originated from the Inland Empire-based hip-hop groups New Boyz and Audio Push. A number of artists associated with the Palm Desert Scene forged the genre of desert rock as well as playing a large role in the genre of stoner rock. A Danish record label, Musikministeriet, recently opened up an office in Redlands in hopes of further cultivating the IE music scene.[115]

Frank Zappa performed in Upland on Foothill Boulevard during the early 1960s where he played shows on a makeshift stage for college crowds. Zappa also purchased Pal Recording Studio on Archibald Avenue in Rancho Cucamonga where the Surfaris had recorded the surf music classic "Wipe Out". He dubbed it Studio Z and began making recordings that eventually led to the founding of Zappa's group The Mothers of Invention. Until his death in December 2012, singer Ray Collins of the Mothers of Invention lived in the area. Zappa mentions the Inland Empire in the song "Billy the Mountain".

From the late 80s until the late 90s, many up-and-coming musical acts, such as Rage Against the Machine, Blink-182 and No Doubt cut their teeth playing venues in Riverside.[116] These historic venues (Spanky's Cafe and the De Anza Theatre) have since been closed and converted to other purposes. The Barn at UCR was closed as a music venue for 10 years but beginning in October 2008 KUCR Radio 88.3 FM, ASPB The Associated Student Program Board with funding from UCR Housing began having a free concert series once a week during the school quarter. Emerging music venues in the IE include the Showcase Theatre in Corona (recently closed), Red Planet Records in Riverside (now Rathole Records), the Vault in Redlands, the Buffalo Inn and The Wire (now closed) in Upland, the Twins Club in Rancho Cucamonga, the Press Restaurant in Claremont, the Glass House in Pomona, Back To The Grind Coffee Shop in Riverside, Liam's Irish Pub in Colton, and CommonGround Soundstage in Riverside.[117]

Performing arts

California Theatre in downtown San Bernardino

Orchestras in the IE include the Redlands Symphony, which performs at the University of Redlands, the Riverside County Philharmonic, which performs at the Riverside Municipal Auditorium, the San Bernardino Symphony, which performs at the California Theatre, and the Victor Valley Symphony, which performs at Victor Valley College. Theatrical Arts International is housed at the California Theatre as well. With the largest subscriber base in the Inland Empire, Theatrical Arts International presents the largest caliber tours available including such blockbusters as Cats, Hairspray, Mamma Mia, and Miss Saigon. There are many other large theater programs in the community. The Riverside Fox Theater, also known as the Fox Performing Arts Center, was built in 1929, and is a Spanish Colonial Revival style building in the heart of downtown Riverside, California. The theater is the centerpiece of Riverside's Arts & Culture initiative and underwent a major renovation and restoration to become a regional performing arts facility. Renovation was completed in the Fall 2009, with a grand-reopening in January 2010. At Chaffey High School in Ontario, they have a very large theater program that puts on shows in the fall and in the spring on one of the largest high school stages in the Inland Empire. The Inland Empire Harmony Carousel Chorus provides music in Barbershop Quartet productions.[118]


Inland Empire 66ers playing at San Manuel Stadium in downtown San Bernardino

The Inland Empire is the largest metropolitan area in the United States without a major professional sports team. However, it is part of the Greater Los Angeles area which includes teams in Los Angeles and Orange counties. The area is home to numerous minor league baseball, basketball, and ice hockey teams. The Inland Empire team with the most championships is the Inland Empire 66ers of San Bernardino, who won their most recent championship in 2013.[119][120]

The Auto Club Speedway, located in Fontana, opened in 1997. It contains an oval, a road course, and a dragstrip for auto racing. The Speedway is located approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) from the former Ontario Motor Speedway site, the latter of which is currently the site of the Toyota Arena. The Riverside International Raceway, another defunct motorsport venue, was located about 7 miles (11 km) east of Riverside.

Club League Sport Venue Founded Titles
Inland Empire 66ers Low-A West Baseball San Manuel Stadium 1941 6
Lake Elsinore Storm Low-A West Baseball Lake Elsinore Diamond 1994 2
Rancho Cucamonga Quakes Low-A West Baseball LoanMart Field 1993 1
High Desert Yardbirds Pecos League Baseball Stater Bros. Stadium in Adelanto 2017 0
Ontario Clippers NBA G League Basketball Toyota Arena 2017 0
Ontario Reign American Hockey League Ice hockey Toyota Arena 2015 0
Ontario Fury MASL Indoor soccer Toyota Arena 2013 0
SoCal SC NPSL Soccer San Bernardino Soccer Complex 2016 0
Redlands FC USL2 Soccer Dodge Stadium 2022 0

In college sports, the Inland Empire features five four-year institutions that represent all three NCAA divisions, as well as the NAIA.

Program School Location Division Main conference
California Baptist Lancers California Baptist University Riverside NCAA Division I Western Athletic Conference
UC Riverside Highlanders University of California, Riverside Riverside NCAA Division I Big West Conference
Cal State San Bernardino Coyotes California State University, San Bernardino San Bernardino NCAA Division II California Collegiate Athletic Association
Redlands Bulldogs University of Redlands Redlands NCAA Division III Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
La Sierra Golden Eagles La Sierra University Riverside NAIA California Pacific Conference




This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

The Inland Empire is served by four major local newspapers:

There is also an Inland Empire edition of the Los Angeles Times. For the segments of the Inland Empire surrounding San Bernardino and Riverside cities, regional newspapers include:


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017)

The Inland Empire is ranked 26th (June 2008) in the national radio market as a stand-alone market. When combined with the Greater Los Angeles Area, it is part of the second largest radio market.[121]

Format stations Public and college Talk radio
KOLA-FM 99.9 Classics KVCR-FM 91.9 NPR KCAA-AM 1050 NBC Radio
KFRG-FM 95.1 Country KUCR-FM 88.3 UC Riverside KTIE-AM 590 Conservative talk
KHTI-FM 103.9 Adult Top 40
KCAL-FM 96.7 Rock KUOR-FM 89.1 NPR KMET-AM 1490 Conservative
KGGI-FM 99.1 Hip-Hop/R&B
KLRD-FM 90.1 Christian contemporary

Due to the various mountain ranges including San Bernardino, San Gabriel, and Idyllwild, it may be difficult to receive a single station throughout the entire Inland Empire area without interference.


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

PBS member station KVCR-TV[122] broadcasts directly to the Inland Empire.[123] The station covers all of Riverside County and San Bernardino County with some Los Angeles area overlap. The station is located on the campus of San Bernardino Valley College. In addition to PBS and original, local content, First Nations Experience (FNX),[124] KVCR's sister station, also broadcasts programming about the indigenous peoples and Native Americans to the Inland Empire.

The current TLC TV series Dr. Pimple Popper, a spin-off of the YouTube channel of dermatologist Sandra Lee, is shot mainly at Skin Physicians & Surgeons, a clinic in Upland run by Lee and her husband Jeffrey Rebish, also a dermatologist.[125][126]



While there are no large film production companies or studios based in the Inland Empire, on-location shoots accounted for a total economic impact of $65.2 million in the two-county region in 2006.[127] From 1994 to 2005, filming accounted for over a billion dollars ($1,228,977,456) in total revenues spent in the area. Some famous films shot in the Inland Empire include Executive Decision, U Turn, Erin Brockovich, and The Fast and the Furious.[128] Select scenes from the films Tough Guys, Constantine,[129] The Island, and Tenet[130] were also shot in the Inland Empire's ghost town of Eagle Mountain.

While the 2006 David Lynch film Inland Empire is named after the region, no scenes were actually shot in the Inland Empire.[4]

Ann Lerner, Albuquerque's film liaison, told the L.A. Times about the AMC cable TV series Breaking Bad producers wanted to film the series in California's Inland Empire but switched to New Mexico because of New Mexico's tax incentives.[131]

Shot Caller (2017) has scenes set in the Inland Empire, called "I.E." in the film.

Incorporated cities

Riverside County
Median income,
Banning 1913 31,125 $41,038
Beaumont 1912 51,475 $78,111
Blythe 1916 19,255 $43,141
Calimesa 1990 9,329 $53,366
Canyon Lake 1990 11,000 $97,237
Cathedral City 1981 53,580 $46,370
Coachella 1946 47,186 $33,870
Corona 1896 168,248 $86,790
Desert Hot Springs 1963 29,660 $34,814
Eastvale 2010 66,413 $114,230
Hemet 1910 85,175 $39,653
Indian Wells 1967 5,403 $104,522
Indio 1930 90,751 $74,774
Jurupa Valley 2011 107,083 $76,090
La Quinta 1982 40,660 $79,889
Lake Elsinore 1888 63,453 $77,090
Menifee 2008 97,093 $77,033
Moreno Valley 1984 208,838 $65,449
Murrieta 1991 115,561 $100,080
Norco 1964 27,564 $95,441
Palm Desert 1973 52,986 $57,578
Palm Springs 1938 47,427 $50,361
Perris 1911 80,201 $66,545
Rancho Mirage 1973 19,114 $71,227
Riverside 1883 328,155 $71,967
San Jacinto 1888 51,028 $50,483
Temecula 1989 111,970 $95,918
Wildomar 2008 37,183 $73,282
San Bernardino County
Median income,
Adelanto 1970 35,663 $40,018
Apple Valley 1988 74,394 $51,314
Barstow 1947 24,268 $39,585
Big Bear Lake 1981 5,206 $51,014
Chino 1910 89,109 $87,090
Chino Hills 1991 82,409 $103,473
Colton 1887 54,118 $50,063
Fontana 1952 213,000 $80,800
Grand Terrace 1978 12,426 $66,912
Hesperia 1988 96,393 $50,271
Highland 1987 55,323 $59,395
Loma Linda 1970 24,535 $53,371
Montclair 1956 39,490 $58,012
Needles 1913 5,248 $31,843
Ontario 1891 182,871 $75,266
Rancho Cucamonga 1977 175,522 $92,773
Redlands 1888 70,952 $72,410
Rialto 1911 104,553 $70,188
San Bernardino 1854 217,946 $49,721
Twentynine Palms 1987 29,258 $41,668
Upland 1906 78,814 $82,426
Victorville 1962 126,432 $60,391
Yucaipa 1989 55,712 $63,657
Yucca Valley 1991 22,236 $45,277

See also



  1. ^ "USA: Combined Metropolitan Areas". August 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  2. ^ "2020 Census, US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  3. ^ "Total Gross Domestic Product for Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA (MSA)".
  4. ^ a b c d e f Rosenblatt, Susannah (November 27, 2006). "'Inland' for sure, 'Empire' maybe: Where's the boundary?". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2010". 2006 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. April 7, 2010. Archived from the original (CSV) on September 14, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
  6. ^ Wagner, Rob Leicester (2005). Sleeping Giant: An illustrated history of Southern California's Inland Empire. Stephen's Press, LLC. ISBN 1-932173-07-2.
  7. ^ Giovannini, Joseph (July 7, 1985). "An inland empire built on oranges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  8. ^ Davis, Mike (April 7, 2003). "The Inland Empire". The Nation. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2007.. The baseline and meridian intersect at 34°7′17.7996″N 116°55′48″W / 34.121611000°N 116.93000°W / 34.121611000; -116.93000
  9. ^ a b "History timeline of the Inland Empire, California". San Bernardino County Sun. October 30, 2007. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
  10. ^ a b Ruther, Walter; Calavan, E. Clair; Carman, Glen E. (1989). "The Origins of Citrus Research in California" (PDF). The Citrus Industry. V (Chapter 5). Oakland: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
  11. ^ a b Petrix, Mark (October 30, 2007). "From two orange trees Sprang an Empire". Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
  12. ^ Sorba, Michael (October 30, 2007). "Rails reach the Inland Empire". Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  13. ^ Mydans, Seth (August 26, 1993). "With a Boom in the Desert Over, Transplants Are Feeling Stranded". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  14. ^ Rundel, Rhonda (October 7, 2008). "California Officials Try to Avoid Second Housing Hit". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. pp. A8. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
  15. ^ Howard, Bob (October 2, 2001). "Building on Ontario's Success". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  16. ^ a b Flanigan, James (January 15, 2009). "Businesses Find a Silver Lining in Inland California's Downturn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  17. ^ "City Poised to Lead as Panel Predicts Recovery". GlobeSt. Retrieved November 13, 2023.
  18. ^ "Where is the IE? - About - The Inland Empire Business Atlas". Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
  19. ^ a b Mian, Lal S. (December 2000). Inland Empire Environmental Quality Paradigm (PDF). San Bernardino: Department of Health Science and Human Ecology, California State University, San Bernardino. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2006. Retrieved December 16, 2007.
  20. ^ a b Lopas, Matthew (July 12, 2004). "Some Flee 'the 909' to a New Area Code". Los Angeles Times. pp. B–1.
  21. ^ Sahagun, Louis (August 11, 1988). "L.A. Gangs, Drugs Invade Inland Empire". Los Angeles Times.
  22. ^ Semuels, Alana (December 18, 2010). "California's recovery might not mean a robust job market". Los Angeles Times.
  23. ^ Semuels, Alana (August 9, 2010). "Where recession's effects are magnified". Los Angeles Times.
  24. ^ Hirsch, Jerry (January 9, 2006). "Dairies Moving Out of Inland Empire". Los Angeles Times.
  25. ^ Willon, Phil (January 20, 2008). "Inland Empire ballot guide". Los Angeles Times.
  26. ^ Cox, John (February 18, 2023). "Kern developers look to avoid Inland Empire's logistics problems". The Bakersfield Californian. Retrieved May 20, 2024.
  27. ^ Plevin, Rebecca (May 8, 2024). "California's wealthiest farm family plans mega-warehouse complex that would reshape Kern economy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2024.
  28. ^ Welcome to the California Tourism Industry Website Archived November 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  29. ^ "About CTTC - California Tourism Industry Website". Visit California. Archived from the original on March 13, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2024.
  30. ^ "Inland Empire" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 14, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
  31. ^ "CA.Gov State of California: About – Region Maps". State of California. Archived from the original on January 30, 2011.
  32. ^ Starr, Kevin. Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. Oxford University Press 2009.
  33. ^ See, e.g., Harris, David Money and Harris, Jennifer Money. Afoot and Afield Inland Empire. Wilderness Press 2009.
  34. ^ See also Cosgrove, Denis E. "From Palladian Landscape to the Cittá Diffusa: The Veneto and Los Angeles" Archived January 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, from European Landscapes and Lifestyles: The Mediterranean and Beyond. Edições universitárias Lusófonas. 2007
  35. ^ Kirkham, Chris (April 17, 2015). "Inland Empire sees surge in warehouse jobs, but many are low-pay, temporary". Los Angeles Times.
  36. ^ Vincent, Roger (November 15, 2007). "Inland Empire warehouse deals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  37. ^ Pitchford, Phil; Miller, Jim (November 28, 2007). "$1.7 billion allotted to five-county region for highway, rail projects". Press Enterprise. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  38. ^ Singh, Maanvi (December 11, 2021). "'Pollution everywhere': how one-click shopping is creating Amazon warehouse towns". The Guardian. Retrieved December 12, 2021.
  39. ^ Vincent, Roger (February 3, 2009). "Boom in Inland Empire industrial space is beginning to go bust". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  40. ^ a b Kelly, David (April 10, 2008). "Inland Empire's growth to continue". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  41. ^ Top 50 US Metro Areas by Gross Metropolitan Production (Economic Output) Archived May 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Shnugi (2011-09-25). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  42. ^ Horseman, Jeff (August 18, 2012). "REGION: Inland welfare, food stamp usage soars". Press-Enterprise. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
  43. ^ Conference Transcripts (2005). "Smart Growth on the Edge: Suburban Planning and Development for the Next 20 Years". Opolis. 1 (2). Berkeley and Oakland: bepress and eScholarship Repository, California Digital Library: 62–68. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  44. ^ Gould, Scott (October 18, 2002). "Swallowed by Sprawl". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  45. ^ "MEASURING SPRAWL AND ITS IMPACT, The Character & Consequences of Metropolitan Expansion". Smart Growth America. 2002. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on October 31, 2002. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  46. ^ Kelly, David (October 30, 2008). "Inland Empire economic outlook is grim". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  47. ^ Berkman, Leslie (March 11, 2010). "Fewer foreclosures despite mortgage trouble". Press-Enterprise. Archived from the original on March 13, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
  48. ^ W. Gang, Duane (June 27, 2009). "Inland region battles for image amid media attention". Press Enterprise. ISSN 0746-4258. Retrieved July 14, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  49. ^ Dillon, Liam (November 7, 2019). "Coastal cities give in to growth. Southern California favors less housing in Inland Empire". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  50. ^ Esquivel, Paloma (December 1, 2019). "Efforts to rein in the Inland Empire's warehouse industry fall flat". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  51. ^ Husing, John (October 2007). "Inland Empire City Profile 2007" (PDF). Inland Empire Quarterly Economic Report. 19 (4). Redlands: Economics & Politics, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  52. ^ Oversight Field Hearing, Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives (September 10, 2004). "Examining Impacts of the Endangered Species Act on Southern California's Inland Empire" (PDF). One Hundredth Eighth Congress, Second Session. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved December 17, 2007.((cite conference)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ Newell, Jason (November 11, 2006). "Inland Empire faces challenges, opportunities in years ahead". San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  54. ^ "Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA". Retrieved February 24, 2024.
  55. ^ 2022 Air quality management plan [dead link]
  56. ^ "California moves to accelerate to 100% new zero-emission vehicle sales by 2035 | California Air Resources Board". Retrieved February 24, 2024.
  57. ^ "Advanced Clean Fleets | California Air Resources Board". Retrieved February 24, 2024.
  58. ^ Pesick, Jason (December 4, 2007). "Rialto seeks Superfund designation for perchlorate". Press Enterprise. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2007.
  59. ^ Van Dusen, Alison (November 26, 2007). "America's Unhealthy Commutes". Forbes. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  60. ^ Larry, Gordon (March 9, 1999). "Inland Empire Leads in Fatal Road Rage". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  61. ^ "Aggressive Driving: Where you live Matters". Surface Transportation Policy Project. April 1, 1999. Archived from the original on October 4, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  62. ^ Kelly, David (April 30, 2008). "Thefts of copper, brass and other metals hit Inland Empire freeways". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  63. ^ Hennessy-Fiske, Molly (September 25, 2008). "Gas siphoning a growing problem in Inland Empire". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  64. ^ a b c d Tornatzky, Louis; Barreto, Matt A. (2004). Economic Development and the Knowledge Economy in California's Inland Empire: Progress or Stagnation? (PDF). Los Angeles: Thomás Rivera Policy Institute, University of Southern California, School of Policy, Planning, and Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
  65. ^ About sbX Archived August 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  66. ^ "RapidLink". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  67. ^ "West Valley Connector Project | Omnitrans - San Bernardino County Public Transit". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  68. ^ "SBCTA: West Valley Connector (BRT) Project". SBCTA. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  69. ^ "RCTC Studying Options to Expand Rail Service to Coachella Valley-San Gorgonio Pass". Riverside County Transportation Commission. June 13, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2024.
  70. ^ "RCTC Commuter Rail Feasibility Study" (PDF). Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  71. ^ "Metrolink Lake Elsinore-Corona Commuter Rail Spur". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  72. ^ "Bus Rapid Transit Route Planning Project: Executive Summary" (PDF). Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  73. ^ "San Bernardino County Long-Range Transit Plan" (PDF). Retrieved February 24, 2024.
  74. ^ "Los Angeles to San Diego Project Section | California High-Speed Rail Authority | State of California". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  75. ^ "CAHSR Statewide EIR Summary Volume I" (PDF). Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  76. ^ "Los Angeles to San Diego Section map" (PDF). Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  77. ^ Begley, Doug (March 22, 2012). "Trail making progress, and impression on users". The Press Enterprise. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  78. ^ Leung, Wendy (December 7, 2011). "Officials dedicate new bridge carrying the Pacific Electric Trail over Foothill Boulevard". Daily Bulletin. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  79. ^ "Inland Empire" (PDF). USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 6, 2023.
  80. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  81. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  82. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  83. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  84. ^ "American FactFinder". Archived from the original on June 2, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  85. ^ Immigrants by ethnicity
  86. ^ "Overweight & Obesity - San Bernardino County Community Indicators". Archived from the original on May 8, 2023. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
  87. ^ Bockman, Shell; Neiman, Max; Sirotnik, Barbara (2001). 2001 Inland Empire Annual Survey (PDF). San Bernardino: Inland Empire Research Consortium. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  88. ^ Ramakrishnan, Karthick (July 2007). Survey of Civil and Political Engagement in the Inland Empire (PDF). Riverside: Department of Political Science, University of California, Riverside. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  89. ^ Welcome to the Diocese of San Bernardino. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  90. ^ Loma Linda University. (2009-06-01). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  91. ^ Contact Us Archived August 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  92. ^ "San Bernardino, California, Detailed Profile". Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  93. ^ "Riverside, California, Detailed Profile". Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  94. ^ "Ontario, California, Detailed Profile". Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  95. ^ Rogers, Robert (November 27, 2007). "Experts advise SB leaders on parolees". San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  96. ^ Larocco, Paul (January 8, 2010). "Inland's largest cities log lower or near-identical killing totals in 2009". Press Enterprise. A. H. Belo. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012.
  97. ^ Matthews, Will (September 26, 2004). "Roots of youth violence". San Bernardino County Sun. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  98. ^ Holthouse, David (Fall 2005). "California Conflict". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  99. ^ Silva, David (May 3, 2007). "War on Hate, Brian Levin and the changing face of extremist groups in the IE". Inland Empire Weekly. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
  100. ^ "Table 10 (California) – Crime in the United States 2006". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  101. ^ Shafer, Jack (August 4, 2005). "The Meth Capital of the World, Where is it?". Slate. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  102. ^ Quan, Douglas; Jose Arballo Jr. (May 16, 2008). "METH'S LEGACY: Most drug labs may be gone from the Inland area, but the contamination remains". Press Enterprise. A. H. Belo. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  103. ^ "Study: San Bernardino Is California's Most Dangerous City". May 18, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  104. ^ Kennedy-Ross, Selicia (October 17, 2007). "What's in the future for I. E. universities?". San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  105. ^ An, Caroline (November 10, 2006). "Inland Empire college-going rate among California's lowest". San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  106. ^ Parsavand, Shirin (February 21, 2008). "21 Inland schools rank in top 100 for dropouts". Press Enterprise. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
  107. ^ Husing, John (July 2006). "Inland Empire's Growing Diversity" (PDF). Inland Empire Quarterly Economic Report. 18 (3). Redlands: Economics & Politics, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  108. ^ Regus, Elaine (December 31, 2007). "Inland Higher Education Notes". Press Enterprise. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  109. ^ Husing, John (January 2004). "New Data provide detailed look at Inland Empire's Looming Strengths & Difficulties" (PDF). Inland Empire Quarterly Economic Report. 16 (1). Redlands: Economics & Politics, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  110. ^ Brown, Josh (November 16, 2007). "Inland job growth remains steady in October, according to state". Press Enterprise. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  111. ^ Pierson, David (November 22, 2008). "Surge in unemployment puts California's Inland Empire in tailspin". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
  112. ^ Katzanek, Jack (March 11, 2010). "Unemployment rate hits record high". Press-Enterprise. Archived from the original on March 14, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
  113. ^ "Things To Do Inland Empire". February 10, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
  114. ^ Weeks, John (November 10, 2006). "Inland Empire – a pop culture bastion". San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  115. ^ Flansburg, Darcie (September 21, 2006). "Musikministeriet, new music label in town". Redlands Daily Facts. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  116. ^ Franko, Vanessa (September 21, 2007). "Riverside record shop turns the tables". Press Enterprise. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  117. ^ Novick, La Rue (May 17, 2005). "Oh what a night". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  118. ^ "Inland Empire Harmony Carousel Chorus". Archived from the original on November 16, 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  119. ^ THE 66ERS ARE CALIFORNIA LEAGUE CHAMPIONS by Sam Farber / Inland Empire 66ers.
  120. ^ "History | Inland Empire 66ers Stadium Info". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  121. ^ "Radio and Records: Ratings". Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  122. ^ "About KVCR". Empire Network. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  123. ^ "KVCR-DT - TV Station Profile - FCC Public Inspection Files". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  124. ^ "About Us – FNX". Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  125. ^ Copelton, Melissa (July 12, 2018). "For YouTube Star Dr. Sandra Lee, Pimple Popping Runs in the Family!". In Touch Weekly. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
  126. ^ Bever, Lindsey (July 20, 2018). "The grossest show on TV stars a dermatologist known as Dr. Pimple Popper. Here's why people like it". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
  127. ^ Pierceall, Kimberly (November 6, 2007). "Writer's Guild strike felt to lesser extent in Inland area". Press Enterprise. Retrieved November 26, 2007.[permanent dead link]
  128. ^ Davis, Sherri (January 2007). "Economic Impact Report" (PDF). Film Inland Empire News. 2 (1). Riverside: Inland Empire Film Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  129. ^ "Constanstine". Archived from the original on October 13, 2008.
  130. ^ "Film locations for Christopher Nolan's Tenet (2020), in Estonia, India, Italy, Denmark, Norway, California and the UK". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Retrieved February 24, 2024.
  131. ^ John M. Glionna (January 31, 2014). "Column One: 'Breaking Bad' is still cooking in Albuquerque". Los Angeles Times.
  132. ^ a b Husing, John (October 2020). "Inland Empire City Profile 2020" (PDF). Inland Empire Quarterly Economic Report. 163. Redlands: Economics & Politics, Inc: 92–100. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.060. PMID 28267522. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  1. ^ "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals: 2020–2023". United States Census Bureau. May 2023. Retrieved February 14, 2024.