Panaeolus cinctulus
Panaeolus.subbalteatus.3.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Bolbitiaceae
Genus: Panaeolus
Species:
P. cinctulus
Binomial name
Panaeolus cinctulus
(Bolton) Saccardo (1887)
Panaeolus-subbalteatus-range-map.png
Approximate Panaeolus cinctulus range
Synonyms[1][2]

Agaricus cinctulus Bolton (1791)
Coprinus cinctulus (Bolton) Gray (1821)
Agaricus fimicola var. cinctulus (Bolton) Cooke (1883)
Panaeolus fimicola var. cinctulus (Bolton) Rea (1922)
Agaricus subbalteatus Berk. & Broome (1861)
Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (1887)
Panaeolus alveolatus Peck (1902)
Panaeolus acidus Sumstine (1905)
Campanularius semiglobatus Murrill (1911)
Panaeolus semiglobatus (Murrill) Sacc. & Trottcr (1925)
Panaeolus rufus Overh. (1916)
Panaeolus variabilis Overh. (1916)
Panaeolus venenosus Murrill (1916)
Psilocybe vernalis Velen. (1921)
Campanularius pumilus Murrill (1942)
Panaeolus pumilus (Murrill) Murrill (1942)
Panaeolus dunensis Bon & Courtec (1983)

Panaeolus cinctulus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
gills on hymenium
cap is campanulate or convex
hymenium is adnate or adnexed
stipe is bare
spore print is black
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Panaeolus cinctulus, syn. Panaeolus subbalteatus, commonly known as the banded mottlegill, weed Panaeolus or subbs is a very common, widely distributed psilocybin mushroom. According to American naturalist and mycologist David Arora, Panaeolus cinctulus is the most common psilocybin mushroom in California.

During the early 1900s, these species were referred to as the "weed Panaeolus" because they were commonly found in beds of the commercially grown, grocery-store mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom farmers had to weed it out from the edible mushrooms because of its hallucinogenic properties.[3]

Name

The descriptor subbalteatus comes from the Latin words sub ('somewhat') and balteat ('girdled'), a reference to the dark outer band of the cap.[4]

Description

Morphologically, Panaeolus cinctulus can be easily confused with other species of psilocybin mushrooms. They have a resemblance to Panaeolus fimicola, and prefer the same habitats, but the latter species has sulphidia on the gill faces.

Habitat and formation

Panaeolus cinctulus is a cosmopolitan species that grows solitary to gregarious to cespitose (densely clumped) on compost piles, well-fertilized lawns and gardens, and, rarely, directly on horse dung.[6] It grows from Spring to Fall seasons. It grows abundantly after rain. It can be found in many regions, including: Africa[7] (South Africa),[7] Austria,[7][8] Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Quebec), Nova Scotia,[7] Denmark,[8] Finland,[9] France,[7] Germany,[7][8] Great Britain,[7] Guadeloupe,[8] Estonia,[7] Iceland,[7] India,[7] Ireland,[7] Italy,[7] South Korea,[7] Japan,[7] Mexico,[9] New Guinea,[7] New Zealand,[7] Norway,[8] Philippines,[7] Russia,[7] Slovenia,[8] South America (Argentina, Chile, Brazil)[7] and the United States (it is common in Oregon, Alaska, Washington, and both Northern and Southern California, but is also known to occur in all 50 states).

It has also been sighted in Melbourne, Australia, Central Queensland, Australia Belgium and The Czech Republic.

Legality

Main article: Legal status of psilocybin mushrooms

The legal status of psilocybin mushrooms varies worldwide. Psilocybin and psilocin are listed as Class A (United Kingdom) or Schedule I (US) drugs under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[10] The possession and use of psilocybin mushrooms, including P. cinctulus, is therefore prohibited by extension. However, in many national, state, and provincial drug laws, there is a great deal of ambiguity about the legal status of psilocybin mushrooms and the spores of these mushrooms. Panaeolus cinctulus is mildly psychoactive.[4] It has a long shelf life compared to other magic mushrooms, as it contains little psilocin, is non-poisonous, and the psycho-activity comes mainly from psilocybin and its analogues.[citation needed]

Neurological effects

Psilocybin is similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is involved in or associated with mood regulation, appetite, sleep, learning and the cardiovascular system among others. Thus psilocybin may disrupt the actions of serotonin, accounting for its effects such as restlessness, increased heart rate, and inability to concentrate.[11][12]

Baeocystin is a psilocybin mushroom alkaloid and analog of psilocybin. It is found as a minor compound in most psilocybin mushrooms together with psilocybin, norbaeocystin, and psilocin. Baeocystin is a N-demethylated derivative of psilocybin, and a phosphorylated derivative of 4-HO-NMT (4-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine). Baeocystin produces similar, if not almost exactly the same effects of psilocin.[citation needed]

Gallery

  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus
    Panaeolus cinctulus
  • Panaeolus cinctulus spore prints
    Panaeolus cinctulus spore prints
  • Panaeolus cinctulus spores
    Panaeolus cinctulus spores

See also

References

  1. ^ "Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Sacc. 1887". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
  2. ^ Gerhardt, E. (1996). "Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae)". Bibliotheca Botanica. 147: 1–149.
  3. ^ Singer and Smith (1958).
  4. ^ a b c d Trudell, Steve; Ammirati, Joe (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press Field Guides. Portland, OR: Timber Press. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-0-88192-935-5.
  5. ^ "Panaeolus Cinctulus". Shroomery. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  6. ^ Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0. p. 82.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Gastón Guzmán, John W. Allen, Jochen Gartz (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion" (pdf). Annali del Museo civico di Rovereto (14): 189–280.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (on Fondazione Museo Civico di Rovereto)
  8. ^ a b c d e f [1] Panaeolus Specimens in Various Countries (data.gbif.org)
  9. ^ a b Panaeolus cinctulus Mushroom Observer (mushroomobserver.org)
  10. ^ "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. August 2003.
  11. ^ "What is serotonin? What does serotonin do?". Medical News Today.
  12. ^ "Neuroscience for Kids - Hallucinogenic Mushrooms". Washington.edu. c. 1998.

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