|Basilica of Sts. Vitalis, Valeris, Gervase and Protase|
|Basilica Ss. Vitalis, Valeriae, Gervasii et Protasii(in Latin)|
Basilica di Santi Vitale e Compagni Martiri in Fovea(in Italian)
|Location||Via Nazionale 194/B, Rome|
|Status||Minor basilica, titular church|
|Dedication||Vitalis of Milan, Valeria of Milan, Gervasius and Protasius|
|Length||60 metres (200 ft)|
|Width||18 metres (59 ft)|
|Cardinal protector||Adam Maida|
The Basilica of Sts. Vitalis, Valeris, Gervase and Protase (Italian: Basilica di Santi Vitale e Compagni Martiri in Fovea, Latin: Ss. Vitalis, Valeriae, Gervasii et Protasii) is an ancient Catholic church in Rome, and is both a minor basilica and a titular cardinalatial title. It is commonly called the Basilica di San Vitale.
The basilica was built in 400 with funds provided by Vestina, a wealthy widow, and was consecrated by Pope Innocent I in 401/402. It was dedicated to Ss. Gervasius and Protasius, and called the "titulus Vestinae". The dedication to St. Vitalis and his family (Saint Valeria, his wife, and Sts. Gervasius and Protasius, their sons) is dated to 412. This church is recorded as Titulus Vestinae in the acts of the 499 synod of Pope Symmachus, and three priests from the church subscribed their names.
San Vitale was restored several times, most importantly when it was extensively rebuilt by Pope Sixtus IV before the Jubilee of 1475. Other interventions took place in 1512 under Cardinal del Monte; in 1598, in 1859 by the generosity of Pope Pius IX; in 1938 and 1960. Because of changes in the city over the centuries, the floor level of the church is now several metres below the level of the street on which it is located, the present-day via Nazionale.
Free bread was distributed to the poor by the church every Friday, according to the will of a gentleman from the Marches, Francesco Silla.
The portico is the most ancient part of the church, possibly dating back to the 5th century. It was altered at the end of the 16th century. The inscription on the portico, with the arms of Pope Sixtus IV, dates from this time. Pope Pius IX built the staircase to the 5th century portico in 1859.
The church has a single nave, with walls frescoed with scenes of martyrdom, among which a Martyrdom of St Ignatius of Antioch, in which a ruined Colosseum is depicted. The apse, a surviving part of the original 5th century church, is decorated with a fresco by Andrea Commodi, The Ascent to Calvary.
Among the cardinals who previously took their title from the church were: John Fisher, executed for treason in 1535 by Henry VIII of England; and Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, who became Pope Julius III (1550–1555). The titulus was suppressed by Pope Clement VIII in 1596. It was united with the nearby Jesuit church of S. Andrea.
The titulus was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1880, with the appointment of Cardinal Andon Bedros IX Hassoun. The current Cardinal Priest is Cardinal Adam Maida.