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Tees Valley
Location of Tees Valley
Coordinates: 54°36′18″N 1°15′25″W / 54.605°N 1.257°W / 54.605; -1.257Coordinates: 54°36′18″N 1°15′25″W / 54.605°N 1.257°W / 54.605; -1.257
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
CountryEngland
RegionNorth East England
CountiesCounty Durham (North Tees)
North Yorkshire (South Tees)
Established2011 (as a Local enterprise partnership)
Administrative HQThornaby
(Cavendish House)
Boroughs
Government
 • TypeCombined authority
Local enterprise partnership
 • BodyTees Valley Combined Authority
Tees Valley Unlimited
 • MayorBen Houchen (Conservative)
Area
 • Total306.93 sq mi (794.95 km2)
Population
 (2021)[1]
 • Total677,100
 • Density2,200/sq mi (850/km2)
Time zoneUTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Websitewww.teesvalley-ca.gov.uk

Tees Valley is a combined authority area in the north of England around the River Tees. The combined authority was established in 2016, after public consultation in 2015. The area is not a geographical valley.[2]

Administrating the area is the Tees Valley Combined Authority, consisting of a mayor and six selected chairs, local enterprise partnership chair and each unitary authority.

The area covers five council areas: Darlington, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland and Stockton-on-Tees. Middlesbrough is the smallest of the five at only 20.8 square miles and a population of 138,400. Stockton-on-Tees borough is the largest with a population of 194,000.

Before the region, from 1968 until 1974, parts had been under the County Borough of Teesside authority. This was replaced by Cleveland county, it consisted of four districts which become unitary authorities after the county was abolished in 1996. The Darlington district in the Durham county council area became a unitary authority in 1997.

Background

See also: County Borough of Teesside, Cleveland (county), and Teesside

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The River Tees's geographical valley is traditionally known as Teesdale. For centuries, north Tees was under the Prince-bishopric of Durham the both Darlington and Stockton had ancient wards. Middleton-st-George, Hartlepool and Billingham were in Stockton ward, the latter two were also in a district called Hartness.[3] South Tees was under a wapentake called Langbaurgh, also known as Cleveland in Yorkshire's North Riding.[4]

Urban (such as Eston, Billingham and Saltburn and Marske by the Sea) and parts of rural districts as well as municipal (such as Stockton-on-Tees, Thornaby-on-Tees and Redcar) and county boroughs (Middlesbrough) were merged into the County Borough of Teesside in 1968. In 1974, the county borough was disbanded.

During the 1974 reforms created the county of Cleveland including Hartlepool, Guisborough and other areas. Four boroughs were also created.[5]

Local government reorganisation in 1996 saw the county of Cleveland broken up with the boroughs becoming unitary authorities. The boroughs were placed into the counties of North Yorkshire and County Durham for ceremonial purposes. In 1997, the Borough of Darlington also transferred to a unitary authority structure.[6]

Governance

UK Parliament

Tees Valley is divided into seven and a part UK parliamentary borough constituencies:

Each constituency is made up of wards. Four constituencies are held by the Conservative Party after the 2019 general election, up by three since the 2017 general election. This was expanded to five after the 2021 Hartlepool by-election. Labour hold the other two. Sedgefield's partial seat is also represented by a Conservative MP, as of the 2019 election. The two Middlesbrough seats have the largest majorities for either party. The Middlesbrough Constituency has a sizeable Labour majority whereas the Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland Constituency has a strong Conservative majority.

Authorities

Main article: Tees Valley Combined Authority

Tees Valley Mayoral Election 2021.svg
1
2
3
4
5
1
Darlington
  • 106,803
  • 197.5 mi2
2
Hartlepool
  • 93,663
  • 93.56 mi2
  • 3
    Stockton-on-Tees
  • 197,348
  • 205.0 mi2
  • 4
    Middlesbrough
  • 140,980
  • 53.89 mi2
  • 5
    Redcar and Cleveland
  • 137,150
  • 244.8 mi2
  • Tees Valley Combined Authority has its headquarters at Cavendish House, Thornaby. The area has 5 borough councils, each council has a representative in the combined authority. The TVCA, amends the mayor's annual budget (by two-thirds majority). It does not have the power to block the mayor's directives.

    Mayors

    The Mayor of Tees Valley is a directly elected politician who, along with the Combined Authority, is responsible for the strategic government of Tees Valley.[7] There are other mayors for the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Stockton-on-Tees.[8] Hartlepool also had a Mayor from 2002 to 2013.

    The current Tees Valley Mayor is Ben Houchen. The Mayor is responsible for Tees Valley's strategic planning and is required to produce or amend a plan for each electoral cycle.[9]

    Lord Lieutenants

    Two Lord Lieutenants (Durham and North Yorkshire) are appointed by the borough's ceremonial counties.

    Economy

    See also: Teesside

    The following is a chart of the Gross Value Added to the UK economy by the Tees Valley Combined Authority region, aggregated by industry.[10]

    Nominal Gross Value Added (£ millions)
    Year Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing; Mining & Quarrying; Electricity & Gas; Water, Sewage & Waste Management Manufacturing Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade; Transportation & Storage; Accommodation & Food Services IT Finance Real Estate Professional, Scientific & Technical; Administration & Support Services Public Administration & Defence; Compulsory Social Security; Education; Health & Social Work Arts & Recreation; Other Total
    1998 411 1,670 403 1,223 265 249 1,147 522 1,394 229 7,513
    2000 421 1,676 521 1,300 330 231 1,195 551 1,567 259 8,050
    2002 461 1,553 577 1,577 467 239 1,226 553 1,709 334 8,696
    2004 601 1,690 646 1,800 522 373 1,272 747 2,060 377 10,087
    2006 775 1,655 774 1,836 534 511 1,363 772 2,260 384 10,864
    2008 718 1,852 816 1,936 515 458 1,466 820 2,487 409 11,478
    2010 723 1,859 705 2,067 445 453 1,369 886 2,706 406 11,620
    2012 720 1,665 781 1,853 482 511 1,581 1,005 2,775 411 11,784
    2014 766 1,657 774 2,141 688 481 1,570 1,107 2,918 375 12,478
    2016 649 1,684 762 2,489 665 431 1,654 1,109 2,948 411 12,803

    Enterprise zone

    The Tees Valley Enterprise Zone is an enterprise zone which encourages industrial development. It was initiated by the local enterprise partnership Tees Valley Unlimited and its creation was announced by the government in 2011. At its launch, the zone contained 12 sites. Four of these sites offer enhanced capital allowances, aimed at large manufacturers. These sites are Wilton International and South Bank Wharf, both in Redcar and Cleveland, Port Estates in Hartlepool and New Energy and Technology Park in Billingham, Stockton-on-Tees. The remaining sites offer reduced business rates.[11] In March 2015 the government announced that a thirteenth site is to be added, South Bank Wharf Prairie, aimed at oil and gas decommissioning business.[12]

    Businesses

    BOC plant on Teesside
    BOC plant on Teesside

    Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) operated here until the late 1990s on three chemical sites at Wilton, Billingham and Seal Sands. ICI was broken up, and its many chemical manufacturing units are now operated by a large number of companies that have acquired its assets. The Centre for Process Innovation (CPI), a national innovation catapult[clarification needed], is based at the Wilton Centre, the former corporate headquarters of ICI, which has become a multi-company research and development centre: along with CPI there are now some 60 other companies, including the cluster body NEPIC, using these R&D and business development facilities. This centre is now one of Europe's largest R&D facilities focusing on developments in the chemistry-based process industries. The area is a chemicals processing area, but recently it has diversified to become the UK's leading site for renewable biofuel research. This industrial activity is taking place in a collaborative environment facilitated by the economic cluster body, the North East of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC).

    Hartlepool has a nuclear power station, and there is a conventional CHP power station and a biomass power station operated by Sembcorp on the Wilton chemical site.Hereema Fabrication Group make North Sea platforms at the A1048/A179 roundabout in Hartlepool.

    Wilton Engineering's 50 acre fabrication and maintenance site is in Port Clarence. Barker and Stonehouse make furniture north of Middlesbrough next to the A66/A178 junction. The Teesside Steelworks near Redcar has the biggest blast furnace in Europe and is operated by Sahaviriya Steel Industries (SSI). Tata Steel Europe operate a pipe works at Hartlepool, a heavy beam mill near Middlesbrough and a special sections mill at Skinningrove Steelworks. Able UK operate the biggest dry dock in the UK near Seaton Carew, Hartlepool where ships can be dismantled and oil rigs can be dismantled or refurbished.

    The many chemistry-based businesses on Teesside[13] include Huntsman Tioxide plant at Greatham makes titanium dioxide. Huntsman's European headquarters are in Wynyard. Johnson Matthey Catalysts and Fujifilm Dyosynth Biologics have manufacturing units in Billingham while the Lucite International Acrylics factory and the Mitsubishi battery chemical plant are on the other side of the town. Exwold Technology operate their two extrusion and packaging facilities in Hartlepool. Banner Chemicals are adjacent to the A66 in Middlesbrough. Aldous Huxley's visit to the former ICI plant in Billingham inspired Brave New World and this unit now makes fertiliser for Growhow, using 1% of the UK's natural gas. SABIC petrochemicals and polymers, Lotte Chemicals PET and PTA plants, Biffa recycled polymers, Huntsman polyurethanes and the Ensus Biofuels all operate at Wilton. ConocoPhillips refinery, BP Cats, Harvest Energy Biodiesel unit, Greenery Fuels, Fine Organics, Vertelus speciality chemicals and Ineos Nitriles are all based at Seal Sands, with Vopak and Simon Storage tank storage businesses nearby. Air Products are building[when?] two waste to energy units at Seal Sands, and Sita are upgrading[when?] their unit at Haverton Hill. Marlow Foods produce Quorn, and KP Snacks make McCoy's Crisps in Billingham. Santander UK's mortgages division is located in Thornaby. Tetley Tea have had their only tea bag factory in the UK at Eaglescliffe, in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees, since 1969. It is the largest tea bag factory in the world and makes 18 billion tea bags a year. Its distribution centre is at nearby Newton Aycliffe in County Durham.

    Teesport

    Teesport

    Teesport is on the River Tees and is currently the third largest port in the United Kingdom, and amongst the ten biggest in Western Europe, in terms of tonnage shipped. Its size is due to the local steel and chemical industries.

    This port handles over 56 million tonnes of goods per annum which are mainly associated with the local petrochemical, chemical and steel processing industries.

    The port is an important piece of logistical infrastructure for the NEPIC cluster of process companies. PD Ports, who own Teesport, is headquartered in Middlesbrough adjacent to Middlesbrough railway station.

    Landmarks

    Transport

    Road

    Main

    Road Route Notes
    A1(M) West of Darlington A motorway standard stretch of the A1
    A19 South for the rest of Yorkshire and North to Tyne and Wear. Between Stockton & Middlesbrough, then Stockton & Hartlepool, as aproxoximate borough borders.
    A66 Most of Tees Valley is served, terminating between Middlesbrough and Redcar, linking to Hartlepool via the A19, running to the west coast of England. The road is motorway standard around Darlington.
    A67 Darlington to Stockton It is the main road for the airport, running adjacent to the railway, and was previously designated as the A66 from Darlington to Eaglescliffe and A19, Eaglescliffe southwards through Yarm.
    A68 Darlington to Edinburgh Runs west of Darlington.

    Triple-digit roads

    Road From To Notes
    A135 (Yarm Road) Stockton-on-Tees Egglescliffe
    A139 Stockton-on-Tees Billingham
    A167 Topcliffe Kenton Bar
    A171 A66 as Cargo Fleet Lane Scarborough Until the road goes out of the region, it is also known as: Sunnyfields, Orchard Way, Ormesby Bank, Middlesbrough Road, Whitby Road, Fancy Bank, Birk Brow Road & Fancy Bank
    A172 A66 as Marton Road, Middlesbrough A19 as Stocking Hill also known as Stokesley Road, Pannierman Lane & Dixons Bank
    A173 A172 (Middlesbrough) Skelton-in-Cleveland Also known as Church Lane & Skelton Ellers.
    A174 Thornaby Whitby As the road goes out of the region, it is known for a short stretch, as Apple Orchard Bank
    A177 Stockton Durham
    A178 Middlesbrough Hartlepool
    A179 A19 Hartlepool

    Bus

    Most of the area is served by Stagecoach's Tees Flex network, a pre-bookable service running in and around the valley, mainly serving Stockton on Tees, Darlington and Redcar and Cleveland. Services are operated by a dedicated fleet of Mercedes-Benz Sprinter minibuses.

    Rail

    Stations The stations, by borough, are as follows:

    Lines

    Commuter rail services linked with lInes from Tees Valley to Durham and Tyne and Wear
    Commuter rail services linked with lInes from Tees Valley to Durham and Tyne and Wear
    previously proposed Tees Valley Metro route showing most current stations in the region along with proposed stations not built at the present time
    previously proposed Tees Valley Metro route showing most current stations in the region along with proposed stations not built at the present time

    Services

    Darlington railway station

    York-based LNER serves the full length of the ECML and operates most of the stations on the route. Grand Central has linked Teesside with London since December 2007 with a non-stop from York onwards. It does not have electric trains, and uses the Northallerton–Eaglescliffe Line and Durham Coast Line.

    Local-service routes in the Tees Valley are provided by Northern, based in Manchester. TransPennine Express, also based in Manchester, has long-distance services from Middlesbrough to Manchester, via West Yorkshire.

    Air

    Teesside International Airport serves the area and has a regular service from Amsterdam, Schiphol airport.[15]

    Sport

    Football

    Association

    See also: Football in Yorkshire

    Division Club Ground Location
    EFL Championship Middlesbrough Riverside Stadium Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
    EFL League Two Hartlepool United Victoria Park Hartlepool, County Durham
    National League North Darlington Blackwell Meadows Darlington, County Durham
    Northern Premier League Premier Division Marske United Mount Pleasant Marske, North Yorkshire
    Northern League Division Two Billingham Town Bedford Terrace Billingham, County Durham
    Northern League Division One Guisborough Town King George V Ground Guisborough, North Yorkshire
    Northern League Division One Redcar Athletic Green Lane Redcar, North Yorkshire
    Northern League Division One Thornaby Teesdale Park Thornaby, North Yorkshire
    Northern Premier League Division One East Stockton Town Bishopton Road West Stockton, County Durham
    Northern League Division Two Billingham Synthonia Norton Sports Complex Norton, County Durham (formally Billingham, County Durham)

    Under the Northern League they is the North Riding Football League, founded in 2017 by a merger of Teesside Football League and the Eskvale & Cleveland League

    Wearside League also host North Tees Teams mainly in Division One:

    Wearside League Division two:

    Rugby Union

    As of the 2020–2021 season, there are nine Rugby Union Football Clubs in the region, Darlington Mowden Park is in the highest division compared to the rest of the clubs:

    Division Club Stadium Location
    National League 1 Darlington Mowden Park R.F.C. Northern Echo Arena Darlington, County Durham
    North Premier Billingham RUFC Greenwood Road Billingham, County Durham
    North 1 East West Hartlepool R.F.C. Brinkburn Hartlepool, County Durham
    Durham/ Northumberland 1 Acklam R.U.F.C. Talbot Park Acklam, Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
    Hartlepool Rovers The New Friarage Hartlepool, County Durham
    Middlesbrough RUFC Acklam Park Acklam, Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire
    Stockton RFC Grangefield Ground Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham
    D/N 2 Darlington RFC Blackwell Meadows Darlington, County Durham
    Guisborough Belmangate Guisborough, North Yorkshire
    Hartlepool Mayfield Park Hartlepool, County Durham
    Redcar RUFC Mackinlay Park Redcar, North Yorkshire
    Seaton Carew Hornby Park Seaton Carew, County Durham
    D/ N 3 West Hartlepool T.D.S.O.B. John Howard Park Hartlepool, County Durham
    Yarm Wass Way Eaglescliffe, County Durham

    Cricket

    ECB PL’s North Yorkshire and South Durham Cricket League:

    County Durham
    • Darlington:
      • Darlington Cricket Club
      • Darlington Railway Athletic Cricket Club
      • Middleton St George
      • Haughton, Haughton-le-Skerne
    • Hartlepool:
      • Hartlepool
      • Seaton Carew
      • Hartlepool Power Station
    • Stockton (North Tees)
      • Cowpen
      • Norton
      • Billingham Synthonia
      • Stockton
    North Yorkshire
    • Stockton (South Tees):
      • Durham Palatinates
      • Thornaby
      • Maltby
      • Yarm
    • Middlesbrough:
      • Middlesbrough, Acklam Park
      • Smiths Dock
      • Normanby Hall
      • Marton
      • Guisborough
    • Redcar & Cleveland
      • Redcar
      • Marske
      • Saltburn

    Basketball

    Uses in local culture

    References

    1. ^ "How the population changed where you live: Census 2021". Retrieved 2 July 2022.
    2. ^ "Tees Valley". Centre for Cities. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
    3. ^ "Parish of Hart". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
    4. ^ "The wapentake of Langbaurgh (west): Introduction". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
    5. ^ "The Cleveland (Structural Change) Order 1995". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
    6. ^ "The Durham County Council (Borough of Darlington) (Staff Transfer) Order 1997". Retrieved 7 September 2021.
    7. ^ "Cities and Local Government Devolution Act: Section 2", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 28 January 2016, 2016 c. 1 (s. 2), retrieved 23 November 2019
    8. ^ "Stockton-on-Tees has a new Mayor..." Stockton Borough Council. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
    9. ^ "The Tees Valley Combined Authority Order 2016". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
    10. ^ Trevor, Fenton (31 March 2017). "Regional GVA(I) by local authority in the UK". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 August 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    11. ^ "Teesside celebrates as enterprise zone approved". The Journal. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
    12. ^ Price, Kelley (18 March 2015). "Potential for 'many hundreds' of jobs at new Teesside enterprise zone". The Gazette. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
    13. ^ NEPIC Directory. NEPIC. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
    14. ^ "State takeover for failed rail franchise". BBC News. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
    15. ^ "Whitby and North York Moors National Park Maps & Travel | Visit Whitby". 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.