An Arab merchant from Mecca (right) and his Circassian slave. Entitled, "Vornehmer Kaufmann mit seinem Cirkassischen Sklaven" [Distinguished merchant and his Circassian slave] by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, c. 1888

White slavery (also white slave trade or white slave trafficking) refers to the enslavement of any of the world's European ethnic groups throughout human history, whether perpetrated by non-Europeans or by other Europeans. Slavery in ancient Rome was frequently dependent on a person's socio-economic status and national affiliation, and thus included European slaves. It was also common for European people to be enslaved and traded in the Muslim world; European women, in particular, were highly sought-after to be concubines in the harems of many Muslim rulers. Examples of such slavery conducted in Islamic empires include the Arab slave trade, the Barbary slave trade, and the Black Sea slave trade, among others. It was common for Europeans to be traded alongside Africans, Turks, Iranians, and sometimes other Arabs.

Many different types of white people were enslaved. On the European continent under feudalism, there were various forms of status applying to people (such as serf, bordar, villein, vagabond, and slave) who were indentured or forced to labour without pay.

During the Arab slave trade, Europeans were among those traded by the Arabs.[1] The term Saqaliba (Arabic: صقالبة) was often used in medieval Arabic sources to refer specifically to Slavs being traded by the Arabs, but it could also refer more broadly to Central, Southern, and Eastern Europeans who were also traded by the Arabs, as well as all European slaves in some Muslim-controlled regions like Spain, including those abducted from raids on Spanish Christian kingdoms.[2][3] During the era of the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171), the majority of slaves were Europeans taken from European coasts and during conflicts.[1] Similarly, the Ottoman slave trade that included European captives was often fueled by raids into European territories or were taken as children in the form of a blood tax from the families of citizens of conquered territories to serve the empire for a variety of functions.[4] In the mid-19th century, the term 'white slavery' was used to describe the Christian slaves that were sold into the Barbary slave trade in North Africa.


The phrase "white slavery" was used by Charles Sumner in 1847 to describe the slavery of Christians throughout the Barbary States and primarily in Algiers, the capital of Ottoman Algeria.[5] It also encompassed many forms of slavery, including the European concubines (Cariye) often found in Turkish harems.[6]

The term was also used by Clifford G. Roe from the beginning of the twentieth century to campaign against the forced prostitution and sexual slavery of girls who worked in Chicago brothels. Similarly, countries of Europe signed in Paris in 1904 an International Agreement for the suppression of the White Slave Traffic aimed at combating the sale of women who were forced into prostitution in the countries of continental Europe.

White slave trade

Slavic slaves

Main articles: Volga trade route, Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, and Balkan slave trade

The Rus trading slaves with the Khazars: Trade in the East Slavic Camp by Sergei Ivanov (1913)

The Volga trade route was established by the Varangians (Vikings) who settled in Northwestern Russia in the early 9th century. About 10 km (6 mi) south of the Volkhov River entry into Lake Ladoga, they established a settlement called Ladoga (Old Norse: Aldeigjuborg).[7] It connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River. The Rus used this route to trade with Muslim countries on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, sometimes penetrating as far as Baghdad. The route functioned concurrently with the Dnieper trade route, better known as the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, and lost its importance in the 11th century.

Saqaliba originally was used to denote Slavic people, however later it came to denote all European slaves in some Muslim regions like Spain including those abducted from raids on Christian kingdoms of Spain. The Franks started buying slaves from the Slavs and Avar Khaganate while Muslims also came across slaves in the form of mercenaries serving the Byzantine Empire and settlers in addition to among the Khazars. Most Slavic slaves were imported to the Muslim world through the border between Christian and Islamic kingdoms where castration centres were also located instead of the direct route. From there they were sent into Islamic Spain and other Muslim-ruled regions especially North Africa. The saqaliba gained popularity in Umayyad Spain especially as warriors. After the collapse of the Umayyads, they also came to rule over many of the taifas. With the conversion of Eastern Europe, the trade declined and there isn't much textual information on saqaliba after 11th century.[8]

Central Europe was the most favoured destination for importation of slaves alongside Central Asia and Bilad as-Sudan, though slaves from Northwestern Europe were also valued. This slave trade was controlled mostly by European slave traders. France and Venice were the routes used to send Slavic slaves to Muslim lands and Prague served as a major centre for castration of Slavic captives.[9][10] The Emirate of Bari also served as an important port for this trade.[11] Due to the Byzantine Empire and Venice blocking Arab merchants from European ports, they later started importing in slave from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea.[12]

The Saqaliba were also imported as eunuchs and concubines to Muslim states.[13] The slavery of eunuchs in the Muslim world however was expensive and they thus were given as gifts by rulers. The Saqaliba eunuchs were prominent at the court of Aghlabids and later Fatimids who imported them from Spain. The Fatimids also used other Saqaliba slaves for military purposes.[14]

Crimean Khanate

Main articles: History of slavery in Asia and Crimean slave trade

See also: Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands

In the time of the Crimean Khanate, Crimeans engaged in frequent raids into the Danubian principalities, Poland–Lithuania, and Muscovy. For each captive, the khan received a fixed share (savğa) of 10 percent or 20 percent. The campaigns by Crimean forces categorize into sefers, declared military operations led by the khans themselves, and çapuls, raids undertaken by groups of noblemen, sometimes illegally because they contravened treaties concluded by the khans with neighbouring rulers. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. Caffa was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets.[15] Crimean Tatar raiders enslaved between 1 and 2 million slaves from Russia and Poland–Lithuania over the period 1500–1700.[16][17] Caffa (city on Crimean peninsula) was one of the best known and significant trading ports and slave markets.[18][19] In 1769, a last major Tatar raid resulted in the capture of 20,000 Russian and Ruthenian slaves.

Barbary slave trade

Main articles: Barbary slave trade and Barbary corsairs

The Barbary Coast
The purchase of Christian captives by Catholic monks in the Barbary states

Slave markets flourished on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, in what is modern-day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and western Libya, between the 15th and middle of the 19th century.

These markets prospered while the states were nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, though, in reality, they were mostly autonomous. The North African slave markets traded in European slaves which were acquired by Barbary pirates in slave raids on ships and by raids on coastal towns from Italy to Spain, Portugal, France, England, the Netherlands, and as far afield as the Turkish Abductions in Iceland. Men, women, and children were captured to such a devastating extent that vast numbers of sea coast towns were abandoned.

1815 illustration of a group of Christian slaves in Algiers by British artist Walter Croker

According to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 15th and 19th centuries.[20][21] However, to extrapolate his numbers, Davis assumes the number of European slaves captured by Barbary pirates was constant for a 250-year period, stating:

There are no records of how many men, women and children were enslaved, but it is possible to calculate roughly the number of fresh captives that would have been needed to keep populations steady and replace those slaves who died, escaped, were ransomed, or converted to Islam. On this basis it is thought that around 8,500 new slaves were needed annually to replenish numbers – about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. By extension, for the 250 years between 1530 and 1780, the figure could easily have been as high as 1,250,000."[22]

Davis's numbers have been challenged by other historians, such as David Earle, who cautions that the true picture of European slaves is clouded by the fact the corsairs also seized non-Christian whites from eastern Europe and black people from west Africa.[22] A second book by Davis, Holy War and Human Bondage: Tales of Christian–Muslim Slavery in the Early-Modern Mediterranean, widened its focus to related slavery.[23]

It is also worth noting that there were wide fluctuations from year to year,[citation needed] particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and also given the fact that, prior to the 1840s, there are no consistent records.[citation needed] Middle East expert John Wright cautions that modern estimates are based on back-calculations from human observation.[24]

Such observations, across the late 1500s and early 1600s observers, account for around 35,000 European Christian slaves held throughout this period on the Barbary Coast, across Tripoli and Tunis, but mostly in Algiers. The majority were sailors (particularly those who were English), taken with their ships, but others were fishermen and coastal villagers. However, most of these captives were people from lands close to Africa, particularly Spain and Italy.[25]

From bases on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, the Barbary pirates raided ships traveling through the Mediterranean and along the northern and western coasts of Africa, plundering their cargo and enslaving the people they captured. From at least 1500, the pirates also conducted raids along seaside towns of Italy, Spain, France, England, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland, capturing men, women and children. On some occasions, settlements such as Baltimore, Ireland, were abandoned following the raid, only being resettled many years later. Between 1609 and 1616, England alone had 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates.[26]

While Barbary corsairs looted the cargo of ships they captured, their primary goal was to capture people for sale as slaves or for ransom. Those who had family or friends who might ransom them were held captive, but not obliged to work; the most famous of these was the author Miguel de Cervantes, who was held for almost five years. Others were sold into various types of servitude. Attractive women or boys could be used as sex slaves. Captives who converted to Islam were generally freed, since enslavement of Muslims was prohibited; but this meant that they could never return to their native countries.[27][28] Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail Ben Sharif controlled a fleet of corsairs based at Salé-le-Vieux and Salé-le-Neuf (now Rabat), which supplied him with Christian slaves and weapons through their raids in the Mediterranean and all the way to the Black Sea. Moulay Ismail was nicknamed the 'bloody king' by the Europeans due to his extreme cruelty and exaction of summary justice upon his Christian slaves. He is also known in his native country as the "Warrior King".

16th- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbul's additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700.[29] The markets declined after the loss of the Barbary Wars and ended in the 1830s, when the region was conquered by France.

Christian slavery in Muslim Iberia

Main articles: Slavery in Spain, Slavery in Al-Andalus, Slavery in Portugal, and Saqaliba

Abraham Duquesne delivering Christian captives in Algiers after the Bombardment of Algiers (1683)

During the Al-Andalus (also known as Islamic Iberia), the Moors controlled much of the peninsula.

Muslim Spain imported Christian slaves from the 8th century until the Reconquista in the late 15th century. The slaves were exported from the Christian region of Spain, as well as from Eastern Europe, sparking significant reaction from many in Christian Spain and many Christians still living in Muslim Spain. Soon after, Muslims were successful, taking 30,000 Christian captives from Spain. In the eighth century, slavery lasted longer[clarification needed] due to "frequent cross-border skirmishes, interspersed between periods of major campaigns". By the tenth century, in the eastern Mediterranean Byzantine, Christians were captured by Muslims. Many of the raids designed by Muslims were created for a fast capture of prisoners. Therefore, Muslims restricted the control[clarification needed] in order to keep captives from fleeing. The Iberian peninsula served as a base for further exports of slaves into other Muslim regions in Northern Africa.[30]

Ottoman slave trade

Main articles: Ottoman slave trade and Crimean slave trade

Slavery was a legal and a significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and society.[31] The main sources of white slaves were Ottoman wars into Europe and organized enslavement expeditions in Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, the Balkans, Circassia and Georgia in the Caucasus. It has been reported that the selling price of slaves fell after large military operations.[32] Enslavement of Europeans was banned in the early 19th century, while enslavement of other groups was permitted.[33]

Even after several measures to ban slavery in the late 19th century, the practice continued largely unabated into the early 20th century. As late as 1908, female slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire.[34] Sexual slavery was a central part of the Ottoman slave system throughout the history of the institution.[35][36]

Spanish slaves in Araucanía

See also: Slavery of Mapuches and Polygamy in Mapuche culture

In the Arauco War (1550–1662), a long-running conflict between Spanish and Mapuches in Chile, both sides engaged in slavery of the enemy population, among other atrocities.[37] Much like the Spanish had captured Mapuche people, the Mapuches had also captured Spaniards, often women, and traded their ownership among them.[37] Indeed, with the Destruction of the Seven Cities (1599–1604) Mapuches are reported to have taken 500 Spanish women captive, holding them as slaves.[37] It was not uncommon for captive Spanish women to have changed owner several times.[37] As late as in the 1850s alleged shipwreck survivor Elisa Bravo was said to be living as wife to a Mapuche cacique,[38] in what is described as the most brutal forced coexistence[39] resulting in children of "mixed blood".[40] A report dating from 1863 said that her captors, fearing vengeance from Spaniards, sold her to the warlord Calfucurá in Puelmapu for a hundred mares, but that she had died after three years.[41]

European slavery

See also: Slavery in Ireland, Slavery in Britain, Slavery in Spain, and Slavery in Russia

Relief from Smyrna (present-day Izmir, Turkey) depicting a Roman soldier leading captives in chains

Slavery in ancient Rome

Main article: Slavery in ancient Rome

Further information: Slavery in the Byzantine Empire

In the Roman Republic and later Roman Empire, slaves accounted for most of the means of industrial output in Roman commerce.[citation needed] Slaves were drawn from all over Europe and the Mediterranean, including Gaul, Hispania, North Africa, Syria, Germania, Britannia, the Balkans, and Greece. Generally, slaves in Italy were indigenous Italians,[42] with a minority of foreigners (including both slaves and freedmen) born outside of Italy estimated at 5% of the total in the capital, where their number was largest, at its peak.[citation needed]

Damnati in metallum ("those condemned to the mine") were convicts who lost their freedom as citizens (libertas), forfeited their property (bona) to the state, and became servi poenae, slaves as a legal penalty. Their status under the law was different from that of other slaves; they could not buy their freedom, be sold, or be set free. They were expected to live and die in the mines.[43] Imperial slaves and freedmen (the familia Caesaris) worked in mine administration and management.[44] In the Late Republic, about half the gladiators who fought in Roman arenas were slaves, though the most skilled were often free volunteers.[45]

The slaves imported into Italy were native Europeans, and very few of them were from outside Europe. This has been confirmed by biochemical analysis of 166 skeletons from three imperial-era cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome (where the bulk of the slaves lived), which shows that only one individual came from outside of Europe (North Africa), and another two possibly did, but results are inconclusive. In the rest of the Italian peninsula, the fraction of non-European slaves was much lower than that.[46][47]

Slavery under Islamic rule

Main articles: History of slavery in the Muslim world, History of concubinage in the Muslim world, Arab slave trade, Slavery in the Ottoman Empire, and Saqaliba

The "pençik" or "penç-yek" tax, meaning "one fifth", was a taxation based on a verse of the Quran; whereby one fifth of the spoils of war belonged to God, to Muhammad and his family, to orphans, to those in need and to travelers. This eventually included slaves, and war captives were given to soldiers and officers to help motivate their participation in wars.[32]

Christians and Jews, known as People of the Book in Islam, were considered dhimmis in territories under Muslim rule, a status of second-class citizens that were afforded limited freedoms, legal protections, personal safety, and were allowed to "practice their religion, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy" in return for paying the jizya and kharaj taxes. If a dhimmi broke his agreement and left Muslim territory for enemy land, he was liable to be enslaved – unless the dhimmi had left Muslim territory because he suffered injustice there.[48]

Dhimmis were protected persons who could not be enslaved unless they violated the terms of protection. Such violations normally included rebellion or treason; according to some authorities this could also include failure to pay due taxes.[49][50] Failure to pay tax could also result in imprisonment.[51][52]

The Devshirme was a blood tax largely imposed in the Balkans and Anatolia[53] in which the Ottoman Empire sent military to collect Christian boys between the ages of 8 and 18, who were taken from their families and raised to serve the empire.[54] The tax was imposed by Murad I in the mid 1300s and lasted until the reign of Ahmet III in the early 1700s. From the mid to late 14th, through early 18th centuries, the devşirmejanissary system enslaved an estimated 500,000 to one million non-Muslim adolescent males.[55] These boys would attain a great education and high social standing after their training and forced conversion to Islam.[56] Basilike Papoulia wrote that "the devsirme was the 'forcible removal', in the form of a tribute, of children of the Christian subjects from their ethnic, religious and cultural environment and their transportation into the Turkish-Islamic environment with the aim of employing them in the service of the Palace, the army, and the state, whereby they were on the one hand to serve the Sultan as slaves and freedmen and on the other to form the ruling class of the State."[57] When the Ottoman Empire allied with Muslim territories against Christian, slavery would be a major persistence in ensuring economic gain to both sides. This was showcased during the Battle of Barawa where Portuguese slaves were held captive by the Ajuran Empire and sold into slavery to the Ottomans after attacking the city of Barawa, Somalia.[58]

Indentured servitude

Main articles: Indentured servitude and Irish indentured servants

Further information: Irish slaves myth

In the 17th to 18th centuries, many white people in Britain, Ireland and European colonies in North America were indentured servants. Sterling Professor of History at Yale University David Brion Davis wrote that:[59]

From Barbados to Virginia, colonists long preferred English or Irish indentured servants as their main source of field labor; during most of the seventeenth century they showed few scruples about reducing their less fortunate countrymen to a status little different from chattel slaves – a degradation that was being carried out in a more extreme and far more extensive way with respect to the peasantry in contemporary Russia. The prevalence and suffering of white slaves, serfs and indentured servants in the early modern period suggests that there was nothing inevitable about limiting plantation slavery to people of African origin.

Between 50 and 67 percent of white immigrants to the American colonies, from the 1630s and American Revolution, had traveled under indenture.[60] Many women brought to the colonies were poor, some were abandoned or young girls born out of wedlock, others prostitutes or criminals. One ship's captain reportedly described them as a "villainous and demoralized lot". Many were transported against their will and for profit to Virginia and Maryland. The French transported women from the Salpêtrière prison for the homeless, insane and criminal to New Orleans.[61]

Women held at Salpêtrière were bound in chains, flogged and lived in generally poor and unsanitary conditions. Female inmates, some of whom were sick with venereal disease, were forced to attend confessions three times each day where they would be whipped if their demeanor and behaviors were not acceptably penitent.[62] In addition to Salpêtrière, the French transported women from other almshouses and hospitals including Bicêtre, Hôpital général de Paris and Pitié.[61]

White slave traffic

Main article: International Agreement for the suppression of the White Slave Traffic

See also: History of sexual slavery in the United States § White slavery

The International Agreement for the suppression of the White Slave Traffic is a series of anti–human trafficking treaties, the first of which was first negotiated in Paris in 1904. It was one of the first multilateral treaties to address issues of slavery and human trafficking. The Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Similar Institutions and Practices Convention of 1926 and the International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Women of Full Age of 1933 are similar documents.

Western Campaign against White slavery around 1900

In Anglophone countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the phrase "white slavery" was used to refer to sexual enslavement of white women. It was particularly associated with accounts of women enslaved in Middle Eastern harems, such as the so-called Circassian beauties,[63] which was a slave trade that was still ongoing in the early 20th-century.[64] The phrase gradually came to be used as a euphemism for prostitution.[65] The phrase was especially common in the context of the exploitation of minors, with the implication that children and young women in such circumstances were not free to decide their own fates.

An international campaign against the white slave trade started in several countries in the West in the late 19th-century. Many of the procurers and prostitutes who had accompanied the British and French troops to Constantinople during the Crimean war in the 1850s opened brothels in Port Said in Egypt during the construction of the Suez Canal, and these brothels was a destination for many victims of the white slave trade, since they were under protection of the foreign consulates because of the Capitulatory privileges until 1937 and therefore protected from the police.[66]

In 1877 the first international congress for the abolition of prostitution took place in Geneva in Switzerland, followed by the foundation of the International Association of Friends of Young Girls (German:Internationale Verein Freundinnen junger Mädchen or FJM; French: Amies de la jeune fille); after this, national associations to combat the white slave trade was gradually founded in a number of nations, such as the Freundinnenverein in Germany, the National Vigilance Association in Britain and Vaksamhet in Sweden.[67] Moral panic over the "traffic in women" rose to a peak in England in the 1880s, after the exposure of the Eliza Armstrong case and the internationally infamous White slave trade affair in the 1880s.[68] In 1884, the Anglo-Egyptian Slave Trade Convention pressed upon Egypt by the British explicitly banned the sex slave trade of "white women" to slavery in Egypt; this law was particularly targeted against the import of white women (mainly from Caucasus and usually Circassians via the Circassian slave trade), which were the preferred choice for harem concubines among the Egyptian upper class.[69]

In 1899 the first international congress against white slave trade took place in London, where the International Bureau for the Suppression of the Traffic in Women and Children was founded to coordinate an international campaign, and as a result of the campaign of the movement suggestions was put forward on how to combat the white slave trade in Paris in 1902, which eventually resulted in the International Agreement for the suppression of the White Slave Traffic in May 1904.[70]

White Slave Traffic Act of 1910

Main article: Mann Act

In 1910 the US Congress passed the White Slave Traffic Act (better known as the Mann Act), which made it a felony to transport women across state borders for the purpose of "prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose". The Act was applied to a wide variety of offences, many of which were consensual in nature.[71][72]

White slavery and race/gender in the US

While women were indeed victims of trafficking in the US, the public outcry about white slavery was mostly in response to racial anxieties about interracial contact.[73] Local prosecutors in New York were the first to convict a defendant for "white slavery" case using the Mann Act.[72] In People v. Moore, an all-white jury convicted Bella Moore, a mixed race woman from New York, for the "compulsory prostitution" of two white women, Alice Milton and Belle Woods.[74][75] Another notable court case involved Jack Johnson. Using the Mann Act, federal prosecutors convicted Johnson of transporting his white girlfriend across state lines.[76] During the first half of the 20th century, authorities disproportionately prosecuted women who were poor and/or racial/ethnic minorities using the Mann Act.[77][78][79]

Criminal Law Amendment (White Slave Traffic) Bill

An attempt was made to introduce a similar law into the UK between 1910 and 1913 as the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1912. Arthur Lee would state in the House of Commons: "the United Kingdom, and particularly England, is increasingly becoming a clearing-house and depot and dispatch centre of the white slave traffic, and the headquarters of the foreign agents engaged in the most expensive and lucrative phase of the business."[80] South America was stated as the main destination for the trafficked girls. The Spectator commented that "the Bill has been blocked by a member [alluding to Frederick Handel Booth] or members who, for various reasons consider that it is not a measure which ought to be placed upon the statute book" as it would affect the liberty of the individual.[81]

See also


  1. ^ a b Akinbode, Ayomide (20 December 2021). "The Forgotten Arab Slave Trade of East Africa". The History Ville. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  2. ^ Mishin, Dmitrij (1998). The Saqaliba slaves in the Aghlabid state (PDF). Budapest: Central European University. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  3. ^ Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery saqaliba&f=false The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery: A-K ; Vol. II, L-Z, by Junius P. Rodriguez
  4. ^ Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21280-4.
  5. ^ Sumner, Charles (1847). White Slavery in The Barbary States. A Lecture Before The Boston Mercantile Library Association, Feb. 17, 1847. Boston: William D. Ticknor and Company. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-0922-8981-8. I propose to consider the subject of White Slavery in Algiers, or perhaps is might be more appropriately called, White Slavery in the Barbary States. As Algiers was its chief seat, it seems to have acquired a current name for the place. This I shall not disturb; though I shall speak of white slavery, or the slavery of Christians, throughout the Barbary States.
  6. ^ Sumner, Charles (1847). White Slavery in The Barbary States. A Lecture Before The Boston Mercantile Library Association, Feb. 17, 1847. Boston: William D. Ticknor and Company. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-0922-8981-8. Among the concubines of a prince of Morocco were two slaves of the age of fifteen, one of English, and the other of French extraction. – Lampiere's Tour, p. 147. There is an account of "One Mrs. Shaw, an Irishwoman," in words hardly polite enough to be quoted. She was swept into the harem of Muley Shmael, who "forced her to turn moor";"but soon after, having taken a dislike to her, he gave her to a soldier". – Braithwaite's Morocco, p. 191.
  7. ^ Brøndsted (1965), pp. 64–65
  8. ^ Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery saqaliba&f=false The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery: A-K ; Vol. II, L-Z, by Junius P. Rodriguez
  9. ^ Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism by Gene W. Heck. Munich: Walter de Gruyter. 2009. p. 316. ISBN 978-3-406-58450-3.
  10. ^ Atlas of the Year 1000. Munich: Harvard University Press. 2009. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-406-58450-3.
  11. ^ Packard, Sidney Raymond (1973). 12th century Europe: an interpretive essay. p. 62.
  12. ^ Pargas, Damian Alan; Roşu, Felicia (7 December 2017). Critical Readings on Global Slavery (4 vols.). BRILL. pp. 653, 654. ISBN 978-90-04-34661-1.
  13. ^ Pulcini, Theodore; Laderman, Gary (1998). Exegesis as Polemical Discourse: Ibn Ḥazm on Jewish and Christian Scriptures. Scholars Press. ISBN 978-0-7885-0395-5.
  14. ^ Lev, Yaacov (1991). State and Society in Fatimid Egypt. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09344-7.
  15. ^ Historical survey > Slave societies
  16. ^ Galina I. Yermolenko (15 July 2010). Roxolana in European Literature, History and Culture. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-7546-6761-2. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  17. ^ Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards:The Jews and the Trade in Slaves and Captivesin the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. 58 (2): 189–210. doi:10.18647/2730/JJS-2007.
  18. ^ "slavery | Definition, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  19. ^ "Feodosiya | Ukraine". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  20. ^ Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800.[1]
  21. ^ "When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed" Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine, Research News, Ohio State University
  22. ^ a b Carroll, Rory; correspondent, Africa (2004-03-11). "New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  23. ^ Robert Davis, Holy War and Human Bondage: Tales of Christian–Muslim Slavery in the Early-Modern Mediterranean, Praeger Series on the Early Modern World (2010). ISBN 978-0-275-98950-7
  24. ^ Wright, John (2007). "Trans-Saharan Slave Trade". Routledge.
  25. ^ Davis, Robert (17 Feb 2011). "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". BBC.
  26. ^ Rees Davies, "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast", BBC, 1 July 2003
  27. ^ Diego de Haedo, Topografía e historia general de Argel, 3 vols., Madrid, 1927–29.
  28. ^ Daniel Eisenberg, "¿Por qué volvió Cervantes de Argel?", in Ingeniosa invención: Essays on Golden Age Spanish Literature for Geoffrey L. Stagg in Honor of his Eighty-Fifth Birthday, Newark, Delaware, Juan de la Cuesta, 1999, ISBN 978-0-936388-83-0, pp. 241–253,, retrieved 11/20/2014.
  29. ^ The Cambridge World History of Slavery: Volume 3, AD 1420–AD 1804
  30. ^ Trade and traders in Muslim Spain, Fourth Series, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  31. ^ "Supply of Slaves". Archived from the original on 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  32. ^ a b Spyropoulos Yannis, Slaves and freedmen in 17th- and early 18th-century Ottoman Crete, Turcica, 46, 2015, p. 181, 182.
  33. ^ Ottomans against Italians and Portuguese about (white slavery).
  34. ^ Eric Dursteler (2006). Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, Identity, and Coexistence in the Early Modern Mediterranean. JHU Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8018-8324-8.
  35. ^ Wolf Von Schierbrand (28 March 1886). "Slaves sold to the Turk; How the vile traffic is still carried on in the East. Sights our correspondent saw for twenty dollars—in the house of a grand old Turk of a dealer" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
  36. ^ Madeline C. Zilfi Women and slavery in the late Ottoman Empire Cambridge University Press, 2010
  37. ^ a b c d Guzmán, Carmen Luz (2013). "Las cautivas de las Siete Ciudades: El cautiverio de mujeres hispanocriollas durante la Guerra de Arauco, en la perspectiva de cuatro cronistas (s. XVII)" [The captives of the Seven Cities: The captivity of hispanic-creole women during the Arauco's War, from the insight of four chroniclers (17th century)] (PDF). Intus-Legere Historia (in Spanish). 7 (1): 77–97. doi:10.15691/07176864.2014.094 (inactive 31 January 2024). ISSN 0718-5456.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  38. ^ R. Nelson Boyd (1881). "Chili: sketches of Chili and the Chilians during the war 1879–1880". London: Wm H Allen & Co. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  39. ^ Sergio Villalobos R. (1 January 1995). Vida fronteriza en la Araucanía: el mito de la Guerra de Arauco. Andres Bello. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-956-13-1363-7.
  40. ^ María Luisa Candau Chacón; Mónica Bolufer Peruga; Alonso Manuel Macías Domínguez; Manuel José de Lara Ródenas; Sara López Villarán; Antonio José Couso Liañez; Marta Ruiz Sastre; Ofelia Rey Castelao; María José Álvarez Faedo; Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán; Rosario Márquez Macías; María Losada Friend; Clara Zamora Meca; Verónica Undurraga Schüler; Yéssica González Gómez; María José de la Pascua Sánchez (11 May 2016). Las mujeres y las emociones en Europa y América. Siglos XVII-XIX. Ed. Universidad de Cantabria. pp. 420–. ISBN 978-84-8102-770-9.
  41. ^ Sir Woodbine Parish (1863). Viaje a la Patagonia (PDF). p. 120. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  42. ^ Santosuosso, Antonio (2001). Storming the Heavens. Westview Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-8133-3523-0.
  43. ^ Alfred Michael Hirt, Imperial Mines and Quarries in the Roman World: Organizational Aspects 27–BC AD 235 (Oxford University Press, 2010), sect. 3.3.
  44. ^ Hirt, Imperial Mines and Quarries, sect. 4.2.1.
  45. ^ Alison Futrell, A Sourcebook on the Roman Games (Blackwell, 2006), p. 124.
  46. ^ Prowse, Tracy L.; Schwarcz, Henry P.; Garnsey, Peter; Knyf, Martin; MacChiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca (2007). "Isotopic evidence for age-related immigration to imperial Rome". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (4): 510–519. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20541. PMID 17205550.
  47. ^ Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet (2016). "Killgrove and Montgomery. "All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st–3rd c AD)"". PLOS ONE. 11 (2): e0147585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147585. PMC 4749291. PMID 26863610.
  48. ^ Humphrey Fisher (2001), Slavery in the History of Muslim Black Africa. NYU Press. p. 47. Quote: "If a dhimmi, or protected person, broke his agreement and left Muslim territory to go to an enemy land, he became, unless he had been driven to this resort by injustices suffered amongst the Muslims, liable to enslavement if he were ever again captured."
  49. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. pp. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5. [...] those who remained faithful to their old religions and lived as protected persons under Muslim rule could not, if free, be legally enslaved unless they had violated the terms of being a protected subject, the contract governing their status, as for example by rebelling against Muslim rule or helping the enemies of the Muslim state or, according to some authorities, by withholding payment of the agricultural or yearly tax, the taxes due from protected people to the Muslim state.
  50. ^ I. P. Petrushevsky (1995), Islam in Iran, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-88706-070-0, pp. 155, Quote – "The law does not contemplate slavery for debt in the case of Muslims, but it allows the enslavement of Dhimmis for non-payment of jizya and kharaj."
  51. ^ Mark R. Cohen (2005), Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09272-0, pp. 120–3; 130–8, Quotes: "Family members were held responsible for individual's poll tax (mahbus min al-jizya)"; "Imprisonment for failure to pay [poll tax] debt was very common"; "This imprisonment often meant house arrest ... which was known as tarsim"
  52. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-691-00807-3.
  53. ^ Perry Anderson (1979). Lineages of the Absolutist State. Verso. pp. 366–. ISBN 978-0-86091-710-6.
  54. ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-393-92207-3.
  55. ^ A. E. Vacalopoulos. The Greek Nation, 1453–1669, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 1976, p. 41; Vasiliki Papoulia, The Impact of Devshirme on Greek Society, in War and Society in East Central Europe, Editor—in—Chief, Bela K. Kiraly, 1982, Vol. II, pp. 561—562.
  56. ^ David Nicolle (1995-05-15), The Janissaries, Bloomsbury USA, p. 12, ISBN 978-1-85532-413-8[permanent dead link]
  57. ^ Some Notes on the Devsirme, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1966, V.L.Menage, (Cambridge University Press, 1966), 64.
  58. ^ "Francis Xavier: His Life, his times – vol. 2: India, 1541–1545". 1977.
  59. ^ In the Image of God Religion, Moral Values, and Our Heritage of Slavery p. 144
  60. ^ Galenson 1984: 1
  61. ^ a b Baker, David V. (2016). Women and Capital Punishment in the United States: An Analytical History.
  62. ^ Merians, Linda Evi (1996). The Secret Malady: Venereal Disease in Eighteenth-century Britain and France. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-0888-8.
  63. ^ Linda Frost, Never one nation: freaks, savages, and whiteness in U.S. popular culture, 1850–1877, University of Minnesota Press, 2005, pp. 68–88.
  64. ^ Zilfi, M. (2010). Women and Slavery in the Late Ottoman Empire: The Design of Difference. Storbritannien: Cambridge University Press. p. 217
  65. ^ In the US this usage became prominent around 1909: "a group of books and pamphlets appeared announcing a startling claim: a pervasive and depraved conspiracy was at large in the land, brutally trapping and seducing American girls into lives of enforced prostitution, or 'white slavery.' These white slave narratives, or white-slave tracts, began to circulate around 1909." Mark Thomas Connelly, The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, University of North Carolina Press, 1980, p. 114
  66. ^ 'She Will Eat Your Shirt': Foreign Migrant Women as Brothel Keepers in Port Said and along the Suez Canal, 1880–1914.". Journal of the History of Sexuality. 30 .2 (2021): 161–194. Web..
  67. ^ Från vit slavhandel till trafficking: En studie om föreställningar kring människohandel och dess offer. Hallner, Ann. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska institutionen. 2009 (Svenska) Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 129, nr 3, s. 429–443
  68. ^ Rodríguez García, Magaly. Gillis, Kristien. (2018) Morality Politics and Prostitution Policy in Brussels: A Diachronic Comparison. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 15. DOI: 10.1007/s13178-017-0298-5
  69. ^ Kenneth M. Cuno: Modernizing Marriage: Family, Ideology, and Law in Nineteenth- and Early ...
  70. ^ The League of Nations: A Survey (January 1920 – December 1926). (1926). Schweiz: Information section, League of nations Secretariat. p. 22
  71. ^ Candidate, Jo Doezema Ph.D. "Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women." Gender issues 18.1 (1999): 23–50.
  72. ^ a b Donovan, Brian. White slave crusades: race, gender, and anti-vice activism, 1887–1917. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
  73. ^ Feldman, Egal (1967). "Prostitution, the Alien Woman and the Progressive Imagination, 1910–1915". American Quarterly. 19 (2): 192–206. doi:10.2307/2710785. ISSN 0003-0678. JSTOR 2710785.
  74. ^ Donovan, Brian; Barnes-Brus, Tori (2011). "Narratives of Sexual Consent and Coercion: Forced Prostitution Trials in Progressive-Era New York City". Law & Social Inquiry. 36 (3): 597–619. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2011.01244.x. ISSN 0897-6546. JSTOR 23011884. S2CID 143108977.
  75. ^ "People vs. Moore". Retrieved 2023-04-23.
  76. ^ Gilmore, Al-Tony (1973-01-01). "Jack Johnson and White Women: The National Impact". The Journal of Negro History. 58 (1): 18–38. doi:10.2307/2717154. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2717154. S2CID 149937203.
  77. ^ Luker, Kristin (1998). "Sex, Social Hygiene, and the State: The Double-Edged Sword of Social Reform". Theory and Society. 27 (5): 601–634. doi:10.1023/A:1006875928287. ISSN 0304-2421. JSTOR 657941. S2CID 141232872.
  78. ^ Strom, Claire (2012). "Controlling Veneral Disease in Orlando during World War II". The Florida Historical Quarterly. 91 (1): 86–117. ISSN 0015-4113. JSTOR 23264824.
  79. ^ PARASCANDOLA, JOHN (2009). "PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: Quarantining Women: Venereal Disease Rapid Treatment Centers in World War II America". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 83 (3): 431–459. ISSN 0007-5140. JSTOR 44448796.
  80. ^ Hansard CRIMINAL LAW AMENDMENT (WHITE SLAVE TRAFFIC) BILL. HC Deb 10 June 1912 vol 39 cc571-627
  81. ^ "CRIMINAL LAW AMENDMENT (WHITE SLAVE TRAFFIC). » 11 May 1912 » The Spectator Archive". The Spectator Archive. Retrieved 2019-07-03.

Further reading