This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A bust of MIT president Francis Amasa Walker separated from its pedestal at the MIT Museum

Deplatforming, also known as no-platforming, has been defined as an "attempt to boycott a group or individual through removing the platforms (such as speaking venues or websites) used to share information or ideas",[1] or "the action or practice of preventing someone holding views regarded as unacceptable or offensive from contributing to a forum or debate, especially by blocking them on a particular website."[2]

History

Deplatforming of invited speakers

In the United States, the banning of speakers on university campuses dates back to the 1940s. This was carried out by the policies of the universities themselves. The University of California had a policy known as the Speaker Ban, codified in university regulations under President Robert Gordon Sproul, that mostly, but not exclusively, targeted communists. One rule stated that "the University assumed the right to prevent exploitation of its prestige by unqualified persons or by those who would use it as a platform for propaganda." This rule was used in 1951 to block Max Shachtman, a socialist, from speaking at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1947, former U.S. Vice President Henry A. Wallace was banned from speaking at UCLA because of his views on U.S. Cold War policy,[3] and in 1961, Malcolm X was prohibited from speaking at Berkeley as a religious leader.

Controversial speakers invited to appear on college campuses have faced deplatforming attempts to disinvite them or to otherwise prevent them from speaking.[4] The British National Union of Students established its No Platform policy as early as 1973.[5] In the mid-1980s, visits by South African ambassador Glenn Babb to Canadian college campuses faced opposition from students opposed to apartheid.[6]

In the United States, recent examples include the March 2017 disruption by protestors of a public speech at Middlebury College by political scientist Charles Murray.[4] In February 2018, students at the University of Central Oklahoma rescinded a speaking invitation to creationist Ken Ham, after pressure from an LGBT student group.[7][8] In March 2018, a "small group of protesters" at Lewis & Clark Law School attempted to stop a speech by visiting lecturer Christina Hoff Sommers.[4] In the 2019 film No Safe Spaces, Adam Carolla and Dennis Prager documented their own disinvitation along with others.[9]

As of February 2020, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a speech advocacy group, documented 469 disinvitation or disruption attempts at American campuses since 2000,[10] including both "unsuccessful disinvitation attempts" and "successful disinvitations"; the group defines the latter category as including three subcategories: formal disinvitation by the sponsor of the speaking engagement; the speaker's withdrawal "in the face of disinvitation demands"; and "heckler's vetoes" (situations when "students or faculty persistently disrupt or entirely prevent the speakers' ability to speak").[11]

Deplatforming in social media

Beginning in 2015, Reddit banned several communities on the site ("subreddits") for violating the site's anti-harassment policy.[12] A 2017 study published in the journal Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, examining "the causal effects of the ban on both participating users and affected communities," found that "the ban served a number of useful purposes for Reddit" and that "Users participating in the banned subreddits either left the site or (for those who remained) dramatically reduced their hate speech usage. Communities that inherited the displaced activity of these users did not suffer from an increase in hate speech."[12] In June 2020 and January 2021, Reddit also issued bans to two prominent online pro-Trump communities over violations of the website's content and harassment policies.

On May 2, 2019, Facebook and the Facebook-owned platform Instagram announced a ban of "dangerous individuals and organizations" including Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Alex Jones and his organization InfoWars, Paul Joseph Watson, Laura Loomer, and Paul Nehlen.[13][14] In the wake of the 2021 storming of the US Capitol, Twitter banned then-president Donald Trump, as well as 70,000 other accounts linked to the event and the far-right movement QAnon.

Some studies have found that the deplatforming of extremists reduced their audience, although other research has found that some content creators became more toxic following deplatforming and migration to alt-tech platform.[15]

Twitter

On November 18, 2022, Elon Musk, as newly appointed CEO of Twitter, reopened previously banned Twitter accounts of high-profile users, including Kathy Griffin, Jordan Peterson, and The Babylon Bee as part of the new Twitter policy.[16][17] As Musk exclaimed, "New Twitter policy is freedom of speech, but not freedom of reach".

Alex Jones

On August 6, 2018, Facebook, Apple, YouTube and Spotify removed all content by Jones and InfoWars for policy violations. YouTube removed channels associated with InfoWars, including The Alex Jones Channel.[18] On Facebook, four pages associated with InfoWars and Alex Jones were removed over repeated policy violations. Apple removed all podcasts associated with Jones from iTunes.[19] On August 13, 2018, Vimeo removed all of Jones's videos because of "prohibitions on discriminatory and hateful content".[20] Facebook cited instances of dehumanizing immigrants, Muslims and transgender people, as well as glorification of violence, as examples of hate speech.[21][22] After InfoWars was banned from Facebook, Jones used another of his websites, NewsWars, to circumvent the ban.[23][24]

Jones's accounts were also removed from Pinterest,[25] Mailchimp[26] and LinkedIn.[27] As of early August 2018, Jones retained active accounts on Instagram,[28] Google+[29] and Twitter.[30][31]

In September, Jones was permanently banned from Twitter and Periscope after berating CNN reporter Oliver Darcy.[32][33] On September 7, 2018, the InfoWars app was removed from the Apple App Store for "objectionable content".[34] He was banned from using PayPal for business transactions, having violated the company's policies by expressing "hate or discriminatory intolerance against certain communities and religions."[35] After Elon Musk's purchase of Twitter several previously banned accounts were reinstated including Donald Trump, Andrew Tate and Ye resulting in questioning if Alex Jones will be unbanned as well. However Musk denied that Alex Jones will be unbanned criticizing Jones as a person that "would use the deaths of children for gain, politics or fame".[36]

InfoWars remained available on Roku devices in January 2019, a year after the channel's removal from multiple streaming services. Roku indicated that they do not "curate or censor based on viewpoint," and that it had policies against content that is "unlawful, incited illegal activities, or violates third-party rights," but that InfoWars was not in violation of these policies. Following a social media backlash, Roku removed InfoWars and stated "After the InfoWars channel became available, we heard from concerned parties and have determined that the channel should be removed from our platform."[37][38]

In March 2019, YouTube terminated the Resistance News channel due to its reuploading of live streams from InfoWars.[39] On May 1, 2019, Jones was barred from using both Facebook and Instagram.[40][41][42] Jones briefly moved to Dlive, but was suspended in April 2019 for violating community guidelines.[43]

In March 2020, the InfoWars app was removed from the Google Play store due to claims of Jones disseminating COVID-19 misinformation. A Google spokesperson stated that "combating misinformation on the Play Store is a top priority for the team" and apps that violate Play policy by "distributing misleading or harmful information" are removed from the store.[44]

Donald Trump

Main article: Donald Trump on social media

On January 6, 2021, in a joint session of the United States Congress, the counting of the votes of the Electoral College was interrupted by a breach of the United States Capitol chambers. The rioters were supporters of President Donald Trump who hoped to delay and overturn the President's loss in the 2020 election. The event resulted in five deaths and at least 400 people being charged with crimes.[45] The certification of the electoral votes was only completed in the early morning hours of January 7, 2021. In the wake of several Tweets by President Trump on January 7, 2021 Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Reddit, and Twitter all deplatformed Trump to some extent.[46][47][48][49] Twitter deactivated his personal account, which the company said could possibly be used to promote further violence. Trump subsequently tweeted similar messages from the President's official US Government account @POTUS, which resulted in him being permanently banned on January 8.[50] Twitter then announced that Trump's ban from their platform would be permanent.

Trump planned to rejoin on social media through the use of a new platform by May or June 2021, according to Jason Miller on a Fox News broadcast.[51][52]

The same week Musk announced Twitter's new freedom of speech policy, he tweeted a poll to ask whether to bring back Trump into the platform.[53] The poll ended with 51.8% in favor of unbanning Trump's account.[53] Twitter has since reinstated Trump's Twitter account @realDonaldTrump (as of 19 Nov 2022 — but by then Trump's platform was Truth Social).[53][54]

Andrew Tate

In 2017, Andrew Tate was banned from Twitter for tweeting that women should "bare some responsibility" in response to the #MeToo movement.[55] Similarly, in August 2022, Tate was banned on four more major social media platforms: Instagram, Facebook, TikTok, and YouTube.[55] These platforms indicated that Tate's misogynistic comments violated their hate speech policies.[56]

Tate has since been unbanned from Twitter as part of the new freedom of speech policy on Twitter.[56]

Demonetization

Social media platforms such as YouTube and Instagram allow their content producers or influencers to earn money based on the content (videos, images, etc.), most typically based around some sort of payment per a set number of new "likes" or clicks etc. When the content is deemed inappropriate for compensation, but still left on the platform, this is called "demonetization" because the content producer is left with no compensation for their content that they created, while at the same time the content is still left up and available for viewing or listening by the general public.[57] In September 2016, Vox reported that demonetization—as it pertained to YouTube specifically—involved the following key points:

Other examples

Financial deplatforming

Countering terrorist organizations ranges from the use of civil laws to financial deplatforming— Jessica Davis.[58]

Harassment and threats to employment

Deplatforming tactics have also included attempts to silence controversial speakers through various forms of personal harassment, such as doxing,[59] the making of false emergency reports for purposes of swatting,[60] and complaints or petitions to third parties. In some cases, protesters have attempted to have speakers blacklisted from projects or fired from their jobs.[61]

In 2019, for example, students at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia circulated an online petition demanding that Camille Paglia "should be removed from UArts faculty and replaced by a queer person of color."[62] According to The Atlantic's Conor Friedersdorf, "It is rare for student activists to argue that a tenured faculty member at their own institution should be denied a platform."[62] Paglia, a tenured professor for over 30 years who identifies as transgender, had long been unapologetically outspoken on controversial "matters of sex, gender identity, and sexual assault".[62]

In print media

In December 2017, after learning that a French artist it had previously reviewed was a neo-Nazi, the San Francisco punk magazine Maximum Rocknroll apologized and announced that it has "a strict no-platform policy towards any bands and artists with a Nazi ideology".[63]

Legislative responses

United Kingdom

In May 2021, the UK government under Boris Johnson announced a Higher Education (Freedom of Speech) Bill that would allow speakers at universities to seek compensation for no-platforming, impose fines on universities and student unions that promote the practice, and establish a new ombudsman charged with monitoring cases of no-platforming and academic dismissals.[64] In addition, the government published an Online Safety Bill that would prohibit social media networks from discriminating against particular political views or removing "democratically important" content, such as comments opposing or supporting political parties and policies.[65]

United States

Some critics of deplatforming have proposed that governments should treat social media as a public utility to ensure that constitutional rights of the users are protected, citing their belief that an Internet presence using social media websites is imperative in order to adequately take part in the 21st century as an individual.[66] Republican politicians have sought to weaken the protections established by Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act—which provides immunity from liability for providers and users of an "interactive computer service" who publish information provided by third-party users—under allegations that the moderation policies of major social networks are not politically neutral.[67][68][69][70]

Reactions

Support for deplatforming

See also: Paradox of tolerance and Defensive democracy

According to its defenders, deplatforming has been used as a tactic to prevent the spread of hate speech and disinformation.[12] Social media has evolved into a significant source of news reporting for its users, and support for content moderation and banning of inflammatory posters has been defended as an editorial responsibility required by news outlets.[71]

Supporters of deplatforming have justified the action on the grounds that it produces the desired effect of reducing what they characterize as hate speech.[12][72][73] Angelo Carusone, president of the progressive organization Media Matters for America and who had run deplatforming campaigns against conservative talk hosts Rush Limbaugh in 2012 and Glenn Beck in 2010, pointed to Twitter's 2016 ban of Milo Yiannopoulos, stating that "the result was that he lost a lot.... He lost his ability to be influential or at least to project a veneer of influence."[72]

In the United States, the argument that deplatforming violates rights protected by the First Amendment is sometimes raised as a criticism. Proponents say that deplatforming is a legal way of dealing with controversial users online or in other digital spaces, so long as the government is not involved with causing the deplatforming. According to Audie Cornish, host of the NPR show Consider This, "the government can't silence your ability to say almost anything you want on a public street corner. But a private company can silence your ability to say whatever you want on a platform they created."[74]

Critical responses

In the words of technology journalist Declan McCullagh, "Silicon Valley's efforts to pull the plug on dissenting opinions" began around 2018 with Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube denying service to selected users of their platforms; he said they devised "excuses to suspend ideologically disfavored accounts".[75] In 2019, McCullagh predicted that paying customers would become targets for deplatforming as well, citing protests and open letters by employees of Amazon, Microsoft, Salesforce, and Google who opposed policies of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and who reportedly sought to influence their employers to deplatform the agency and its contractors.[75]

Law professor Glenn Reynolds dubbed 2018 the "Year of Deplatforming" in an August 2018 article in The Wall Street Journal. Reynolds criticized the decision of "internet giants" to "slam the gates on a number of people and ideas they don't like", naming Alex Jones and Gavin McInnes.[76] Reynolds cited further restrictions on "even mainstream conservative figures" such as Dennis Prager, as well as Facebook's blocking of a campaign advertisement by a Republican candidate "ostensibly because her video mentioned the Cambodian genocide, which her family survived."[76]

In a 2019 The Atlantic article, Conor Friedersdorf described what he called "standard practice" among student activists. He wrote: "Activists begin with social-media callouts; they urge authority figures to impose outcomes that they favor, without regard for overall student opinion; they try to marshal antidiscrimination law to limit freedom of expression."[62] Friedersdorf pointed to evidence of a chilling effect on free speech and academic freedom. Of the faculty members he had contacted for interviews, he said a large majority "on both sides of the controversy insisted that their comments be kept off the record or anonymous. They feared openly participating in a debate about a major event at their institution—even after their university president put out an uncompromising statement in support of free speech."[62]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Good, The Bad, & The Semantically Imprecise: The words that defined the week of August 10, 2018, Merriam-Webster (August 8, 2018).
  2. ^ Deplatforming, Lexico.com (Dictionary.com/Oxford University Press).
  3. ^ Freeman, Jo (2000). "A Short History of the University of California Speaker Ban". JoFreeman.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Young, Cathy (April 8, 2018). "Half of college students aren't sure protecting free speech is important. That's bad news". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 8, 2019.
  5. ^ German, Lindsey (April 1986). "No Platform: Free Speech for all?". Socialist Worker Review (86).
  6. ^ Bueckert, Michael (April 2018). "No platform for Apartheid". africasacountry.com. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  7. ^ Hinton, Carla (February 8, 2018). "UCO Student Group Rescinds Invitation to Christian Speaker Ken Ham". The Oklahoman. Archived from the original on May 28, 2018.
  8. ^ Causey, Adam Kealoha (February 8, 2018). "Creationist's speech canceled at university in Oklahoma". Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 9, 2018.
  9. ^ Fund, John (November 3, 2019). "In No Safe Spaces, an Odd Couple Teams Up to Fight Free-Speech Bans". National Review. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019.
  10. ^ "Disinvitation Database". Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  11. ^ "User's Guide to FIRE's Disinvitation Database". Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. June 9, 2016. Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d Chandrasekharan, Eshwar; Pavalanathan, Umashanti; et al. (November 2017). "You Can't Stay Here: The Efficacy of Reddit's 2015 Ban Examined Through Hate Speech" (PDF). Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction. 1 (CSCW): Article 31. doi:10.1145/3134666. S2CID 22713682. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 11, 2017.
  13. ^ Wells, Georgia (May 2, 2019). "Facebook Bans Louis Farrakhan, Alex Jones and Others as 'Dangerous'". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019.
  14. ^ Lorenz, Taylor (May 2, 2019). "Instagram and Facebook Ban Far-Right Extremists". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019.
  15. ^ Dehghan, Ehsan; Nagappa, Ashwin (2022). "Politicization and Radicalization of Discourses in the Alt-Tech Ecosystem: A Case Study on Gab Social". Social Media + Society. 8 (3): 205630512211130. doi:10.1177/20563051221113075.
  16. ^ "Elon Musk begins unbanning some high-profile Twitter accounts, starting with Jordan Peterson and Kathy Griffin". Engadget. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  17. ^ "Elon Musk begins reinstating banned Twitter accounts". euronews. November 18, 2022. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  18. ^ "Facebook, Apple, YouTube and Spotify ban Infowars' Alex Jones". The Guardian. August 14, 2018. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  19. ^ Riley, Charles (August 6, 2018). "YouTube, Apple and Facebook remove content from InfoWars and Alex Jones". CNN Money. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  20. ^ Zhao, Christina (August 14, 2018). "Vimeo Removes Alex Jones's InfoWars Content: 'Discriminatory and Hateful'". Newsweek. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  21. ^ Coaston, Jane (August 6, 2018). "YouTube, Facebook, and Apple's ban on Alex Jones, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on August 24, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  22. ^ Collins, Ben (July 25, 2018). "YouTube issues warning to Infowars founder Alex Jones, takes down four videos". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2018. Two of the videos featured anti-Muslim content, including one in which Jones claimed that Muslims had invaded Europe. Another was flagged for anti-transgender content in which Jones appeared to threaten transgender people. The fourth showed an adult man and a young boy engaged in a physical altercation under the title "How To Prevent Liberalism."
  23. ^ "How Alex Jones is getting around his Facebook ban". The Daily Dot. January 11, 2019. Archived from the original on September 4, 2019. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  24. ^ Timberg, Craig (November 5, 2018). "Alex Jones banned from Facebook? His videos are still there – and so are his followers". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  25. ^ Morse, Jack (August 6, 2018). "InfoWars' Pinterest page goes offline after Mashable inquiry". Mashable. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  26. ^ Lomas, Natasha (August 7, 2018). "MailChimp bans Alex Jones for hateful conduct". Techcrunch. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  27. ^ Zhou, Marrian (August 7, 2018). "Alex Jones' Infowars removed from LinkedIn and MailChimp". CNET. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  28. ^ Frej, Willa (August 7, 2018). "Alex Jones' Infowars Still Not Banned On App Stores, Instagram And Twitter". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  29. ^ Menegus, Bryan (August 7, 2018). "Alex Jones Is Shirtlessly Screaming Into the Void on Popular Social Network Google+". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  30. ^ Chan, Kelvin (August 8, 2018). "Twitter CEO defends decision not to ban Alex Jones, Infowars". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  31. ^ Darcy, Oliver (August 10, 2018). "Twitter admits InfoWars violated its rules, but says it will remain on the platform". CNN. Archived from the original on August 12, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
  32. ^ "Twitter bans Alex Jones and Infowars for abusive behaviour". BBC News. September 6, 2018. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  33. ^ Conger, Kate; Nicas, Jack (September 6, 2018). "Twitter Bars Alex Jones and Infowars, Citing Harassing Messages". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  34. ^ Whitcomb, Dan (September 8, 2018). "Apple Inc bans Alex Jones app for 'objectionable content'". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 23, 2019. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  35. ^ "PayPal ends business dealings with Alex Jones's Infowars". Reuters. September 21, 2018. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  36. ^ "Twitter boss Elon Musk keeps conspiracy theorist Alex Jones off platform". BBC News. November 21, 2022. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  37. ^ "Roku U-turn over streaming Alex Jones's InfoWars". BBC News. January 16, 2019. Archived from the original on January 16, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  38. ^ Porter, Jon (January 16, 2019). "Roku pulls InfoWars channel citing complaints from "concerned parties"". The Verge. Archived from the original on January 17, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  39. ^ Alexander, Julia (March 19, 2019). "YouTube terminates channel dedicated to circumventing Alex Jones ban". The Verge. Archived from the original on March 19, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  40. ^ Isaac, Mike; Roose, Kevin (May 2, 2019). "Facebook Bans Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan and Others From Its Services". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  41. ^ Ortutay, Barbara (May 3, 2019). "Facebook bans Louis Farrakhan, Alex Jones for hate speech". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 21, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  42. ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth (May 2, 2019). "Facebook bans extremist leaders including Louis Farrakhan, Alex Jones, Milo Yiannopoulos for being 'dangerous'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  43. ^ Cohen, Libby (January 1, 2020). "What is DLive? It's White Nationalists Favorite Streaming Platform". The Daily Dot. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  44. ^ Newman, Lily (March 27, 2020). "Google Bans Infowars Android App Over Coronavirus Claims". Wired. Archived from the original on March 27, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  45. ^ "The Capitol Siege: The Arrested And Their Stories". NPR.org. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  46. ^ John Healy (January 8, 2021) Opinion: It took a mob riot for Twitter to finally ban Trump
  47. ^ Danny Crichton (January 9, 2021) The deplatforming of President Trump
  48. ^ Newton, Casey (January 7, 2021). "It's time to deplatform Trump". The Verge.
  49. ^ Jaclyn Diaz (January 13, 2021) YouTube Joins Twitter, Facebook In Taking Down Trump's Account After Capitol Siege
  50. ^ "The expulsion of Donald Trump marks a watershed for Facebook and Twitter". The Economist. January 10, 2021. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  51. ^ Martin Pengelly (March 21, 2021) Trump will use 'his own platform’ to return to social media after Twitter ban
  52. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (June 2, 2021). "Trump blog page shuts down for good". CNBC.
  53. ^ a b c "Musk lifts Donald Trump's Twitter ban". BBC News. November 20, 2022. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  54. ^ Hauck, Jessica Guynn and Grace. "Will Donald Trump tweet again? Elon Musk reinstates Donald Trump on Twitter". USA TODAY. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  55. ^ a b "Andrew Tate banned from YouTube, TikTok, Facebook and Instagram". NBC News. August 22, 2022. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  56. ^ a b Boom, Daniel Van. "Andrew Tate Is Back on Twitter. Here's Why He's Still Banned Almost Everywhere Else". CNET. Retrieved December 11, 2022.
  57. ^ a b c d e Kafka, Peter (September 4, 2016). "YouTube 'demonetization,' explained for normals". www.vox.com. Vox. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
  58. ^ Jessica Davis (16 Mar 2023) Extreme-Right Movements Have Learned from Our Counter-Terror Efforts
  59. ^ Wilson, Jason (December 18, 2018). "How the world has fought back against the violent far-right and started winning". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019.
  60. ^ Shirek, Jon (June 8, 2012). "9-1-1 hoax snares conservative blogger". 11Alive.com. Atlanta: WXIA-TV. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013.
  61. ^ Mishra, Manas; Balan, Akshay. "Google to pull plug on AI ethics council". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 5, 2019.
  62. ^ a b c d e Friedersdorf, Conor (May 2019). "Camille Paglia Can't Say That". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019.
  63. ^ "Letters". Maximum Rocknroll (editorial statement). No. 415. December 2017. p. 8.
  64. ^ "Universities could face fines over free speech breaches". BBC News. May 12, 2021. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  65. ^ Hern, Alex (May 12, 2021). "Online safety bill 'a recipe for censorship', say campaigners". The Guardian. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  66. ^ Thierer, Adam (March 2012). "The Perils of Classifying Social Media Platforms as Public Utilities" (PDF). Mercatus Center (working paper). George Mason University. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 2, 2018. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  67. ^ Robertson, Adi (June 21, 2019). "Why the internet's most important law exists and how people are still getting it wrong". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  68. ^ Lecher, Colin (June 20, 2019). "Both parties are mad about a proposal for federal anti-bias certification". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  69. ^ Brandom, Russell (June 17, 2020). "Senate Republicans want to make it easier to sue tech companies for bias". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  70. ^ Kelly, Makena (September 8, 2020). "Republicans pressure platforms with new 230 bill". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 28, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  71. ^ Yaraghi, Niam (January 10, 2021). "How should social media platforms combat misinformation and hate speech?". Brookings. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019.
  72. ^ a b Koebler, Jason (August 10, 2018). "Deplatforming Works". Motherboard. Vice Media. Archived from the original on March 19, 2019.
  73. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (September 4, 2018). "Don't give Facebook and YouTube credit for shrinking Alex Jones' audience". The Guardian. London.
  74. ^ "Deplatforming: Not A First Amendment Issue, But Still A Tough Call For Big Tech : Consider This from NPR". NPR.org. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  75. ^ a b McCullagh, Declan (February 2019). "Deplatforming Is a Dangerous Game". Reason. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019.
  76. ^ a b Reynolds, Glenn Harlan (August 18, 2018). "When Digital Platforms Become Censors". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019.

Further reading