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The farebox recovery ratio (also called fare recovery ratio, fare recovery rate or other terms) of a passenger transportation system is the fraction of operating expenses which are met by the fares paid by passengers. It is computed by dividing the system's total fare revenue by its total operating expenses.[1]

Fare structures

There are generally two types of fare structures: a simple, flat rate fare structure (pay a fixed fare regardless of time of day and/or travel distance) or a complex, variable rate fare structure (pay a variable fare depending on time of day and/or travel distance). A variable fare structure is typically associated with a higher recovery ratio, though it may simply be the case that such systems are implemented only on more profitable networks or modes such as commuter rail. Variable-rate fares require a higher initial investment in fare ticketing technologies such as the use of contactless smart cards, turnstiles or fare gates, automated ticket machines, as well as IT infrastructure.[2]

Farebox ratios around the world

The farebox recovery ratio is the ratio of fare revenue to total transport expenses for a given system.[1] These two figures can be found in the financial statements of the operators. Oftentimes the operator runs multiple modes of transport (e.g. subway and bus), and there is no data for individual modes (segment analysis). In this case the operator is considered as one system, or a group of modes are collectively considered one system.

Fare revenue is not the same as "transport" or "operational" revenue, as there are often secondary sources of revenue such as lockers and paid restrooms and advertisement revenue. Fare revenue is a subset of transport revenue, which is in turn part of total revenue along with "non-transport" or "non-operational" revenue.

Total "transport" or "operational" expenses are a part of total expenses along with "non-transport" or "non-operational" expenses. Total transport expenses may include expansion projects if they are paid for by the operator.

Africa

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Asia

Please note that, the "operating ratio" (Japanese: 営業係数 Korean: 영업계수) commonly published by some Asian systems like those in Japan is different from farebox recovery ratio even after inverting the number to turn cost per unit revenue into revenue per unit cost, as that figure cite all operation revenue instead of only the fare revenue.[3]

Country or Region System Ratio Fare system Year
Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway (MTR) 172%[4] Mostly Distance based 2018
Hong Kong Tramway 63.81% Flat rate 2016[5]
Transport International Buses 105% Route-specific 2018[6]
Citybus 87.13% Route-specific FY2018-2019[7]
New World First Bus 84.76% Route-specific FY2018-2019[8]
Japan Hankyu Railway (Osaka) 123% Distance based 1991[9]
Japan Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau 137% Distance based 1991[9]
Japan Tokyo Metro 119%[10] Distance based 2016
Japan JR Central Rail 245.95% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan JR East Rail 142.44% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan JR West Rail 132.38% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan JR Kyushu Rail 111.34% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan JR Shikoku Rail 69.84% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan JR Hokkaido Rail 59.18% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan JR Freight Freight rail 96.25% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Sapporo Municipal Subway 220.79% Distance based FY2018[11]
Sapporo Streetcar 104.31% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Japan Hakodate Streetcar 82.87% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Sendai Subway 159.68% Mixed zonal and distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Tokyo Metro 161.55% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Tokyo Toei rail services 74%[12][failed verification] Distance based 2015
Tokyo Toei Subway 171.46% Distance based FY2018[11]
Tokyo Toei Streetcar 83.39% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Tokyo Toei elevated rail 109.84% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Tokyo Toei other rails 136.81% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Yokohama Municipal Subway 232.28% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Meitetsu Railway 155.99% Distance based FY2018[11]
Meitetsu Tramway 90.70% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Nagoya Municipal Subway 167.24% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Kintetsu Railway Rail 152.77% Distance based FY2018[11]
Kintetsu Railway Cable 36.70% Various FY2018[11]
Japan Nankai Electric Railway Rail 161.26% Distance based FY2018[11]
Nankai Electric Railway Cable 31.12% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Japan Keihan Electric Railway Rail 166.51% Distance based FY2018[11]
Keihan Electric Railway Subway 29.05% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Keihan Electric Railway Streetcar 73.08% Distance based FY2018[11]
Keihan Electric Railway Cable 71.73% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Japan Hankyu 169.74% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Hanshin Electric Railway 146.75% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Osaka Metro Subway 208.51% Distance based FY2018[11]
Osaka Metro APM/AGT 105.35% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Kyoto Municipal Subway 201.04% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Kobe Municipal Subway 169.52% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Nishi-Nippon Railroad Rail 149.92% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Fukuoka City Subway 205.38% Distance based FY2018[11]
Japan Kitakyushu Monorail 144.15% Tabular FY2018[11]
Japan Nagasaki Electric Tramway 105.11% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Japan Kumamoto Tram 102.60% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Japan Kagoshima Tram 98.36% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Japan Okinawa Urban Monorail 187.55% Distance based FY2018[11]
Pakistan Lahore Metrobus 37.2% [13] Flat rate 2014
Taiwan Taipei Rapid Transit System 100%[14] Distance based 2015
Taiwan Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit 83%[15] Distance based 2015
Singapore SMRT Corporation (Singapore) 101% Distance based 2018[16]
China Beijing Subway 60%[citation needed] Distance based 2012[17][failed verification]

Europe

Country Region / City System Ratio Fare system Year
Austria Vienna Vienna U-Bahn 49% Flat rate 2008[18]
Germany Berlin Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe 70% Zone based 2010[19]
Belgium Brussels Brussels Intercommunal Transport Company 35% 2007[20]
Czechia Prague Prague Integrated Transport 53% Flat rate 2013[21]
Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Metro 52% Zone based 1991[22]
France Paris Île-de-France Mobilités 29% Flat rate for passes
Distance based for tickets
2018[23]
Germany Munich Munich Transport and Tariff Association 70% Zone based 2010[24]
Italy Milan Milan Transportation System 49% 2016[22]
Italy Rome Rome Metro 36% 2007[20]
Netherlands Amsterdam Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf Amsterdam 88% Distance based 2018[25]
Netherlands Rotterdam Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram 99% Distance based 2018[26]
Poland Warsaw ZTM 37% 2019[27]
Spain Catalonia Metropolitan lines of Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia) 93% Zone based 2014[28]
Spain Madrid Madrid Metro 41% 2007[20]
Sweden Stockholm Storstockholms Lokaltrafik 52% Flat rate 2017[29]
Switzerland Zurich Zürich S-Bahn 60% Zone based 2014[22]
Finland Helsinki Helsinki Regional Transport Authority 49%[30] Zone based 2019
Turkey Istanbul Metro Istanbul A.S. 90% Flat rate 2019[31]
United Kingdom London London Underground 134%[32] Zone based 2018–19[32]
London Overground and Docklands Light Railway 94%[32] Zone based 2018–19[32]

North America

Canada

Canada Farebox recovery rate
Region Operator Fare Revenue Operating Expenses Ratio Fare System Year
Nationwide VIA Rail 51% Distance & demand based 2016[33]
Brampton Brampton Transit 50% Flat rate 2019[34]
Calgary Calgary Transit 50% Flat rate 2012[35]
Edmonton Edmonton Transit System 39% Flat rate
Mississauga MiWay 46% Flat rate 2011[36]
Montreal Société de transport de Montréal 46% Flat rate 2016[37]
Ottawa OC Transpo 45% Flat rate 2019[38]
Quebec City Réseau de transport de la Capitale 39% Flat rate 2011[36]
Toronto and Hamilton Toronto Transit Commission 26.2% Flat rate 2021[39]
GO Transit 50.37%[40] Distance based 2020-21[41]
Vancouver TransLink 58.9% Zone based; transition to distance based upcoming 2019[42]
Winnipeg Winnipeg Transit 60% Flat rate 2011[36]
York York Region Transit 40% Flat rate 2015[43]

United States

Region System Operator Fare Revenue Operating Expenses Ratio Fare System Year
Nationwide Amtrak 95% Distance & demand based 2017[44]
Boston, MA-NH-RI MBTA $545,414,783.00 $1,556,792,859.00 35.03% Flat rate[45] 2020[46]
New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT NYC Ferry 29% Flat Rate 2017[47]
MTA Bus $95,403,036.00 $712,036,903.00 13.40% 2020[46]
MTA Long Island Rail Road $272,532,791.00 $1,464,445,571.00 18.61% Zone based[48] 2020[46]
MTA Metro-North $243,671,760.00 $1,207,182,081.00 20.19% Distance based[48] 2020[46]
MTA New York City Transit $2,018,495,902.00 $8,258,335,723.00 24.44% Flat rate[48] 2020[46]
MTA Staten Island Railway 11% Flat rate 2019[48]
PATH $73,263,022.00 $448,244,536.00 16.34% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
NYCDOT $1,342,638.00 $144,618,026.00 0.93% Free (Staten Island Ferry) 2020[46]
NJTransit $743,742,067.00 $2,325,547,904.00 31.98% Zone based on most Buses and all commuter trains
Flat Rate on some buses and all light rails[49]
2020[46]
Bee-Line Bus System $18,698,988.00 $161,250,867.00 11.60% 2020[46]
Chicago, IL-IN CTA $236,301,686.00 $1,436,453,698.00 16.45% Flat rate[50] 2020[46]
METRA $102,350,491.00 $710,195,494.00 14.41% Zone based[49] 2020[46]
Atlanta, GA Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority $100,300,226.00 $492,839,897.00 20.35% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Portland, OR-WA TriMET $94,456,931.00 $518,451,362.00 18.22% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Baltimore, MD MTA $102,029,183.00 $805,145,982.00 12.67% Variable[51] 2020[46]
San Diego, CA SDMTS $78,709,562.00 $291,553,478.00 27.00% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Houston, TX Houston Metro $37,305,222.00 $587,595,095.00 6.35% 2020[46]
Miami, FL County of Miami-Dade (Transportation & Public Work) $47,456,089.00 $553,336,216.00 8.58% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Denver-Aurora, CO RTD $76,264,572.00 $623,982,843.00 12.22% Zone Based[52] 2020[46]
Pittsburgh, PA PRT $79,071,495.00 $434,687,600.00 18.19% 2020[46]
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX DART $43,547,629.00 $569,628,198.00 7.64% Flat rate[53] 2020[46]
Honolulu, HI City and County of Honolulu (Department of Transportation Services) $46,815,334.00 $278,447,442.00 16.81% 2020[46]
San Francisco-Oakland, CA SFMTA $153,699,058.00 $903,485,983.00 17.01% Flat rate[54] 2020[46]
BART $341,586,797.00 $681,983,690.00 50.09% Distance based[55] 2020[46]
AC Transit $66,561,904.00 $501,047,399.00 13.28% 2020[46]
Oakland Airport Connector 96% Flat rate 2015–2016[56]
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Metro Transit $40,804,932.00 $413,038,880.00 9.88% Flat rate with rush hour and express surcharges[49] 2020[46]
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Orange County Transportation Authority $42,450,631.00 $268,394,220.00 15.82% 2020[46]
LA Metro $199,728,314.00 $1,841,473,552.00 10.85% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Long Beach Transit $10,201,475.00 $92,339,794.00 11.05% 2020[46]
Phoenix-Mesa, AZ Valley Metro $21,292,051.00 $208,489,994.00 10.21% 2020[46]
San Antonio, TX VIA Metropolitan Transit $15,033,510.00 $222,032,078.00 6.77% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
St. Louis, MO-IL St. Louis Metro $30,986,092.00 $282,175,101.00 10.98% 2020[46]
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA VTA $28,886,823.00 $403,260,461.00 7.16% 2020[46]
Buffalo, NY NFTA $34,814,699.00 $141,163,925.00 24.66% 2020[46]
Salt Lake City-West Valley City, UT UTA $32,521,480.00 $319,885,004.00 10.17% 2020[46]
Austin-Round Rock- San Marcos, TX CapMetro $15,298,332.00 $229,551,099.00 6.66% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Charlotte, NC-SC CATS $21,018,416.00 $162,317,729.00 12.95% 2020[46]
Detroit–Warren–Dearborn, MI DDOT $13,954,074.00 $101,100,585.00 13.80% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL BCT $13,814,362.00 $158,832,625.00 8.70% 2020[46]
Milwaukee–Waukesha, WI MCTS $16,739,398.00 $141,752,155.00 11.81% 2020[46]
Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, FL Lynx $13,596,128.00 $139,097,081.00 9.77% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Sacramento, CA SacRT $21,517,225.00 $173,873,225.00 12.38% 2020[46]
Cleveland–Elyria, OH RTA $26,194,783.00 $259,797,759.00 10.08% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
Washington, DC-VA-MD Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority $492,953,775.00 $2,028,885,121.00 24.30% Distance and time of day based[57] 2020[46]
Montgomery County, Maryland $13,387,860.00 $127,225,668.00 10.52% 2020[46]
Seattle, WA King County Metro $72,180,466.00 $802,227,614.00 9.00% Zone and peak based[58] 2020[46]
Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority $30,788,666.00 $349,797,231.00 8.80% 2020[46]
Washington State Ferries $62,242,674.00 $270,557,025.00 23.01% 2020[46]
Sound Transit 42% Zone & distance based 2017[59]
Pierce Transit 30% Flat rate 2015[60]
Albany-Schenectady, NY CDTA $20,804,704.00 $93,755,632.00 22.19% 2020[46]
Harrisburg, PA Capital Area Transit 17% Flat rate 2015[60]
Las Vegas-Henderson, NV Las Vegas Monorail 56% Flat rate 2016[55]
RTC $51,823,479.00 $227,523,119.00 22.78% 2020[46]
Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD SEPTA $353,276,517.00 $1,301,894,928.00 27.14% Flat rate[49] 2020[46]
PATCO 49% Distance based 2015[60]
Orlando, FL SunRail 7% Distance based 2018[61]
Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board (Caltrain) 70% Zone based 2019[62]
Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority 10% Express surcharges 2016[63]
Southern California Regional Rail Authority (Metrolink) 34% Distance based 2019[64]

Oceania

Country Region System Ratio Fare system Year
Australia Canberra ACTION 7.7% Flat rate 2021[65]
Australia Melbourne Melbourne 30% Zone and time based 2014[66]
Australia Sydney CityRail 27% Distance based 2014[67]
Australia Sydney Metropolitan Bus System 32% 2011[66]
New Zealand Auckland 44% Zone Based 2012–13[68]
New Zealand Christchurch 35% Zone Based 2012–13[68]
New Zealand Dunedin 60% Zone Based 2015–16[68]
New Zealand Hamilton 34% Flat rate 2012–13[68]
New Zealand Wellington 57% Zone Based 2012–13[68]

South America

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (December 2022)

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