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The farebox recovery ratio (also called fare recovery ratio, fare recovery rate or other terms) of a passenger transportation system is the fraction of operating expenses which are met by the fares paid by passengers. It is computed by dividing the system's total fare revenue by its total operating expenses.[1]

Fare structures

There are generally two types of fare structures: a simple, flat rate fare structure (pay a fixed fare regardless of time of day and/or travel distance) or a complex, variable rate fare structure (pay a variable fare depending on time of day and/or travel distance). A variable fare structure is typically associated with a higher recovery ratio, though it may simply be the case that such systems are implemented only on more profitable networks or modes such as commuter rail. Variable-rate fares require a higher initial investment in fare ticketing technologies such as the use of contactless smart cards, turnstiles or fare gates, automated ticket machines, as well as IT infrastructure.[2]

Farebox ratios around the world

The farebox recovery ratio is the ratio of fare revenue to total transport expenses for a given system.[1] These two figures can be found in the financial statements of the operators. Oftentimes the operator runs multiple modes of transport (e.g. subway and bus), and there is no data for individual modes (segment analysis). In this case the operator is considered as one system, or a group of modes are collectively considered one system.

Fare revenue is not the same as "transport" or "operational" revenue, as there are often secondary sources of revenue such as lockers and paid restrooms and advertisement revenue. Fare revenue is a subset of transport revenue, which is in turn part of total revenue along with "non-transport" or "non-operational" revenue.

Total "transport" or "operational" expenses are a part of total expenses along with "non-transport" or "non-operational" expenses. Total transport expenses may include expansion projects if they are paid for by the operator.

Africa

Asia

Please note that, for some Asian systems like those in Japan, the "operating ratio" commonly published is different from farebox recovery ratio, as a.) the figure represent cost per unit revenue instead of revenue per unit cost, and b.) it cite all operation revenue instead of only the fare revenue.

Continent Country or Region System Ratio Fare system Fare rate Year
Asia Hong Kong MTR (Hong Kong) 172%[3] Mostly Distance based HK$3.5+ (cash)

HK$3.5+ (Octopus card)

2018
Asia Hong Kong Hong Kong Tramway 63.81% Flat rate 2016[4]
Asia Hong Kong Transport International Buses 105% Route-specific 2018[5]
Asia Hong Kong Citybus 87.13% Route-specific FY2018-2019[6]
Asia Hong Kong New World First Bus 84.76% Route-specific FY2018-2019[7]
Asia Japan Hankyu Railway (Osaka) 123% Distance based ¥150+ 1991[8]
Asia Japan Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau 137% Distance based ¥200+ 1991[8]
Asia Japan Tokyo Metro 119%[9] Distance based ¥160+ 2016
Asia Japan Tokyo Toei rail services 74%[10][failed verification] Distance based 2015
Asia Japan JR Central Rail 245.95% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan JR East Rail 142.44% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan JR West Rail 132.38% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan JR Kyushu Rail 111.34% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan JR Shikoku Rail 69.84% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan JR Hokkaido Rail 59.18% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan JR Freight Freight rail 96.25% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Sapporo Municipal Subway 220.79% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Sapporo Streetcar 104.31% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Hakodate Streetcar 82.87% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Sendai Subway 159.68% Mixed zonal and distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Tokyo Metro 161.55% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Tokyo Toei Subway 171.46% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Tokyo Toei Streetcar 83.39% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Tokyo Toei elevated rail 109.84% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Tokyo Toei other rails 136.81% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Yokohama Municipal Subway 232.28% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Meitetsu Railway 155.99% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Meitetsu Tramway 90.70% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Nagoya Municipal Subway 167.24% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kintetsu Railway Rail 152.77% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kintetsu Railway Cable 36.70% Various FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Nankai Electric Railway Rail 161.26% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Nankai Electric Railway Cable 31.12% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Keihan Electric Railway Rail 166.51% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Keihan Electric Railway Subway 29.05% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Keihan Electric Railway Streetcar 73.08% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Keihan Electric Railway Cable 71.73% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Hankyu 169.74% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Hanshin Electric Railway 146.75% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Osaka Metro Subway 208.51% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Osaka Metro APM/AGT 105.35% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kyoto Municipal Subway 201.04% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kobe Municipal Subway 169.52% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Nishi-Nippon Railroad Rail 149.92% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Fukuoka City Subway 205.38% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kitakyushu Monorail 144.15% Tabular FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Nagasaki Electric Tramway 105.11% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kumamoto Tram 102.60% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Kagoshima Tram 98.36% Flat rate FY2018[11]
Asia Japan Okinawa Urban Monorail 187.55% Distance based FY2018[11]
Asia Pakistan Lahore Metrobus 37.2% [12] Flat rate PKR 20 2014
Asia Taiwan Taipei Rapid Transit System 100%[13] Distance based NT$20+ (cash)

NT$16+ (EasyCard or other cards)

2015
Asia Taiwan Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit 83%[14] Distance based NT$20+ (cash)

NT$17+ (iPASS or other cards)

2015
Asia Singapore SMRT Corporation (Singapore) 101% Distance based SGD 1.40+ (cash)

SGD 0.83+ (EZ-Link Card)

2018[15]
Asia China Beijing Subway 60%[citation needed] Distance based CNY 3.00+ 2012[16][failed verification]

Europe

Continent Country or Region System Ratio Fare system Fare rate Year
Europe Netherlands Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf (Amsterdam) 88% Distance based 2018[17]
Europe Netherlands Rotterdamse Elektrische Tram (Rotterdam) 99% Distance based 2018[18]
Europe Germany Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (Berlin) 70% Zone based EUR 2.60+ 2010[19]
Europe Belgium Brussels Intercommunal Transport Company 35% 2007[20]
Europe Denmark Copenhagen Metro 52% Zone based 1991[21]
Europe UK London Underground 134%[22] Zone based 2018–19[22]
Europe UK London Overground and Docklands Light Railway 94%[22] Zone based 2018–19[22]
Europe Spain Metropolitan lines of Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia) 93% Zone based 2014[23]
Europe Spain Madrid Metro 41% 2007[20]
Europe Italy Milan Transportation System 49% 2016[21]
Europe Germany Munich Transport and Tariff Association 70% Zone based 2010[24]
Europe Czech Republic DPP (Prague) 53% Flat rate CZK 24+ 2013[25]
Europe Poland ZTM (Warsaw) 37% 2019[26]
Europe France Île-de-France Mobilités (Paris region) 29% Flat rate for passes
Distance based for tickets
€1.95 2018[27]
Europe Sweden Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (Stockholm) 52% Flat rate SEK 37 (SL Access card, ticket booth or phone app)
SEK 50 (conductor)[28]
Note: Tickets are not sold on buses.
2017[29]
Europe Italy Rome Metro 36% 2007[20]
Europe Austria Vienna U-Bahn 49% Flat rate EUR 2.00 2008[30]
Europe Finland Helsinki 49%[31] Zone based €2.80-6.40 (app, travel card, ticket machine & sales points)
€4.00-9.00 (from driver)
2019
Europe Switzerland Zürich S-Bahn 60% Zone based CHF 4.30+ 2014[21]
Europe Turkey Metro Istanbul A.S. 90% Flat rate 3.50 TL 2019[32]

North America

Country Region Head Quarters System Operator Fare Revenue Operating Expenses Ratio Fare System Fare Rate Year
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT Brooklyn, NY MTA New York City Transit $2,018,495,902.00 $8,258,335,723.00 24.44% Flat rate[33] US$2.75[33] 2020[34]
United States Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Los Angeles, CA Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) $199,728,314.00 $1,841,473,552.00 10.85% Flat rate[35] US$1.75, with discounts for seniors, disabled, students[35] 2020[34]
United States Boston, MA-NH-RI Boston, MA Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority $545,414,783.00 $1,556,792,859.00 35.03% Flat rate[36] US$2.9 (cash) / US$2.4 (CharlieCard)[36] 2020[34]
United States Washington, DC-VA-MD Washington, DC Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority $492,953,775.00 $2,028,885,121.00 24.30% Distance and time of day based[37] US$2(Bus)

US$2+ (Off-peak Rail)

US$2.25+ (Peak Rail)[37]

2020[34]
United States Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD Philadelphia, PA Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) $353,276,517.00 $1,301,894,928.00 27.14% Flat rate[35] US$2.5 / US$1 (Transfer)[35] 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT Newark, NJ New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJTransit) $743,742,067.00 $2,325,547,904.00 31.98% Zone based on most Buses and all commuter trains
Flat Rate on some buses and all light rails[35]
US$2.25 (Hudson–Bergen Light Rail)
US$1.6 (Newark Light Rail and River line)
Fare varies on Trains and Buses[35]
2020[34]
United States Chicago, IL-IN Chicago, IL Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) $236,301,686.00 $1,436,453,698.00 16.45% Flat rate[38] US$2.5 (cash and Ventra)[38] 2020[34]
United States San Francisco-Oakland, CA San Francisco, CA City and County of San Francisco ( San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency) $153,699,058.00 $903,485,983.00 17.01% Flat rate[39] US$2.5 (mobile payment or Clipper card) to US$3 (cash or single-ride ticket)[39] 2020[34]
United States San Francisco-Oakland, CA Oakland, CA San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District $341,586,797.00 $681,983,690.00 50.09% Distance based[40] US$2+[40] 2020[34]
United States Atlanta, GA Atlanta, GA Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority $100,300,226.00 $492,839,897.00 20.35% Flat rate[35] US$2.5[35] 2020[34]
United States Portland, OR-WA Portland, OR Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet) $94,456,931.00 $518,451,362.00 18.22% Flat rate[35] US$2.5[35] 2020[34]
United States Baltimore, MD Baltimore, MD Maryland Transit Administration $102,029,183.00 $805,145,982.00 12.67% Variable[41] US$1.6-US$11, depending on distance & modality[41] 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT New York, NY MTA Bus Company $95,403,036.00 $712,036,903.00 13.40% 2020[34]
United States San Diego, CA San Diego, CA San Diego Metropolitan Transit System $78,709,562.00 $291,553,478.00 27.00% Flat rate[35] US$2.5[35] 2020[34]
United States Houston, TX Houston, TX Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (Metro) $37,305,222.00 $587,595,095.00 6.35% 2020[34]
United States Seattle, WA Seattle, WA King County Department of Metro Transit (King County Metro) $72,180,466.00 $802,227,614.00 9.00% Zone and peak based[42] US$2.5+[42] 2020[34]
United States Las Vegas-Henderson, NV Las Vegas, NV Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada $51,823,479.00 $227,523,119.00 22.78% 2020[34]
United States Miami, FL Miami, FL County of Miami-Dade (Transportation & Public Work) $47,456,089.00 $553,336,216.00 8.58% Flat rate[35] US$2.25[35] 2020[34]
United States Denver-Aurora, CO Denver, CO Denver Regional Transportation District $76,264,572.00 $623,982,843.00 12.22% Zone Based[43] US$3 to US$10.5[43] 2020[34]
United States Pittsburgh, PA Pittsburgh, PA Port Authority of Allegheny County $79,071,495.00 $434,687,600.00 18.19% 2020[34]
United States Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Dallas, TX Dallas Area Rapid Transit $43,547,629.00 $569,628,198.00 7.64% Flat rate[44] US$2.5[44] 2020[34]
United States Urban Honolulu, HI Honolulu, HI City and County of Honolulu (Department of Transportation Services) $46,815,334.00 $278,447,442.00 16.81% 2020[34]
United States San Francisco-Oakland, CA Oakland, CA Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) $66,561,904.00 $501,047,399.00 13.28% 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT Jamaica, NY MTA Long Island Rail Road $272,532,791.00 $1,464,445,571.00 18.61% Zone based[33] US$5+[33] 2020[34]
United States Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Minneapolis, MN Metro Transit $40,804,932.00 $413,038,880.00 9.88% Flat rate with rush hour and express surcharges[35] US$2 to US$3.25[35] 2020[34]
United States Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Orange, CA Orange County Transportation Authority $42,450,631.00 $268,394,220.00 15.82% 2020[34]
United States San Antonio, TX San Antonio, TX VIA Metropolitan Transit $15,033,510.00 $222,032,078.00 6.77% Flat rate[35] US$1.2[35] 2020[34]
United States Phoenix-Mesa, AZ Phoenix, AZ City of Phoenix Public Transit Department (Valley Metro ) $21,292,051.00 $208,489,994.00 10.21% 2020[34]
United States St. Louis, MO-IL Saint Louis, MO Bi-State Development Agency of the Missouri-Illinois Metropolitan District (St. Louis Metro) $30,986,092.00 $282,175,101.00 10.98% 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT New York, NY Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation $73,263,022.00 $448,244,536.00 16.34% Flat rate[35] US$2.75[35] 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT New York, NY Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company $243,671,760.00 $1,207,182,081.00 20.19% Distance based[33] US$2.25+[33] 2020[34]
United States San Jose, CA San Jose, CA Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority $28,886,823.00 $403,260,461.00 7.16% 2020[34]
United States Buffalo, NY Buffalo, NY Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority $34,814,699.00 $141,163,925.00 24.66% 2020[34]
United States Salt Lake City-West Valley City, UT Salt Lake City, UT Utah Transit Authority $32,521,480.00 $319,885,004.00 10.17% 2020[34]
United States Austin, TX Austin, TX Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authorit $15,298,332.00 $229,551,099.00 6.66% Flat rate[35] US$1.25-US$3.5, depending on modality[35] 2020[34]
United States Charlotte, NC-SC Charlotte, NC City of Charlotte North Carolina (Charlotte Area Transit System) $21,018,416.00 $162,317,729.00 12.95% 2020[34]
United States Seattle, WA Olympia, WA Washington State Ferries $62,242,674.00 $270,557,025.00 23.01% 2020[34]
United States Detroit, MI Detroit, MI City of Detroit (Detroit Department of Transportation) $13,954,074.00 $101,100,585.00 13.80% Flat rate[35] US$1.5[35] 2020[34]
United States Miami, FL Fort Lauderdale, Fl Broward County Board of County Commissioners (Broward County Transit Division) $13,814,362.00 $158,832,625.00 8.70% 2020[34]
United States Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Long Beach, CA Long Beach Transit $10,201,475.00 $92,339,794.00 11.05% 2020[34]
United States Milwaukee, WI Milwaukee, WI Milwaukee County(Milwaukee County Transit System) $16,739,398.00 $141,752,155.00 11.81% 2020[34]
United States Orlando, FL Orlando, FL Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority $13,596,128.00 $139,097,081.00 9.77% Flat rate[35] US$2[35] 2020[34]
United States Sacramento, CA Sacramento, CA Sacramento Regional Transit District $21,517,225.00 $173,873,225.00 12.38% 2020[34]
United States Cleveland, OH Cleveland, OH The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority $26,194,783.00 $259,797,759.00 10.08% Flat rate[35] US$2.5[35] 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT White Plains, NY Westchester Count (The Bee-Line System) $18,698,988.00 $161,250,867.00 11.60% 2020[34]
United States Chicago, IL-IN Chicago, IL Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation (METRA) $102,350,491.00 $710,195,494.00 14.41% Zone based[35] US$4-$11[35] 2020[34]
United States Washington, DC-VA-MD Rockville, MD Montgomery County, Maryland $13,387,860.00 $127,225,668.00 10.52% 2020[34]
United States New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT New York, NY New York City Department of Transportation $1,342,638.00 $144,618,026.00 0.93% 2020[34]
United States Seattle, WA Seattle, WA Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority $30,788,666.00 $349,797,231.00 8.80% 2020[34]
United States Albany-Schenectady, NY Albany, NY Capital District Transportation Authority $20,804,704.00 $93,755,632.00 22.19% 2020[34]
United States Nationwide Washington, DC Amtrak 95% Distance & demand based 2017[45]
Canada Nationwide VIA Rail 51% Distance & demand based 2016[46]
Canada Brampton Brampton Transit 50% Flat rate C$4.00 (cash)

C$3.00 (Presto Card)

2019[47]
Canada Calgary Calgary Transit 50% Flat rate C$3.00 2012[48]
Canada Mississauga MiWay 46% Flat rate C$3.25 2011[49]
Canada Montreal Société de transport de Montréal 46% Flat rate C$3.25 2016[50]
Canada Ottawa OC Transpo 45% Flat rate C$3.60 (Cash)

C$3.55 (Presto Card)

2019[51]
Canada Edmonton Edmonton Transit System 39% Flat rate C$3.00
Canada Quebec City Réseau de transport de la Capitale 39% Flat rate C$3.00 2011[49]
Canada Toronto Toronto Transit Commission 68.0% Flat rate C$3.00 (tokens/electronic fare card) $3.25 (cash)[52] 2018[53]
Canada Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area GO Transit 50.37%[54] Distance based C$5.30+ 2020-21[55]
Canada Metro Vancouver TransLink 58.9% Zone based; transition to distance based upcoming C$3.00+ (Cash, Contactless)

C$2.40 (Compass Card)

2019[56]
Canada Winnipeg Winnipeg Transit 60% Flat rate C$2.50 2011[49]
Canada York York Region Transit 40% Flat rate C$3.88 (Presto card or YRT pay app)
C$$4.25 (cash payment)
2015[57]
US Harrisburg Capital Area Transit (Harrisburg) 17% Flat rate US$1.75 2015[58]
US Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail 56% Flat rate US$5 2016[40]
US Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD Port Authority Transit Corporation 49% Distance based US$1.4+ 2015[58]
US NYC Ferry (New York City) 29% Flat Rate US$2.75 2017[59]
US SunRail (Orlando) 7% Distance based US$2–5 2018[60]
US Pierce County Public Transportation Benefit Area Corporation 30% Flat rate US$2 2015[58]
US Sound Transit (Puget Sound region) 42% Zone & distance based US$2.75+ (Bus)[61]

US$2.25+ (Light Rail)[61]

US$1.75+ (Commuter Rail)[61]

2017[62]
US Oakland Airport Connector 96% Flat rate US$6 2015–2016[63]
US Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board (Caltrain) 70% Zone based US$3.75+ 2019[64]
US Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority 10% Express surcharges US$1.25 to US$12 2016[65]
US Southern California Regional Rail Authority (Metrolink) 34% Distance based US$1.5 to US$27.5 2019[66]
US Staten Island Railway 11% Flat rate US$2.75 2019[33]

Oceania

Continent Country or Region System Ratio Fare system Fare rate Year
Oceania New Zealand Auckland 44% Zone Based 2012–13[67]
Oceania Australia ACTION (Canberra) 7.7% Flat rate A$5 2021[68]
Oceania Australia CityRail (Sydney) 27% Distance based A$0.15 / km 2014[69]
Oceania Australia Melbourne 30% Zone and time based From A$3.76 / hour / zone 2014[70]
Oceania New Zealand Christchurch 35% Zone Based 2012–13[67]
Oceania New Zealand Dunedin 60% Zone Based 2015–16[67]
Oceania New Zealand Hamilton 34% Flat rate 2012–13[67]
Oceania New Zealand Wellington 57% Zone Based 2012–13[67]

South America

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