Cultivated Flammulina filiformis
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Physalacriaceae
Genus: Flammulina
F. filiformis
Binomial name
Flammulina filiformis
(Z.W. Ge, X.B. Liu & Zhu L. Yang) P.M. Wang, Y.C. Dai, E. Horak & Zhu L. Yang (2018)
  • Flammulina velutipes var. filiformis Z.W. Ge, X.B. Liu & Zhu L. Yang (2015)
  • Flammulina velutipes var. himalayana Z.W. Ge, Kuan Zhao & Zhu L. Yang (2015)
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Gills on hymenium
Cap is convex or flat
Stipe is bare
Spore print is white
Ecology is saprotrophic
Edibility is choice

Flammulina filiformis is a species of edible agaric (gilled mushroom) in the family Physalacriaceae. It is widely cultivated in East Asia, and well known for its role in Japanese and Chinese cuisine. Until recently, the species was considered to be conspecific with the European Flammulina velutipes, but DNA sequencing has shown that the two are distinct.[1]


Basidiocarps are agaricoid and grow in clusters. Individual fruit bodies are up to 50 millimetres (2 inches) tall, the cap convex at first, becoming flat when expanded, up to 45 mm (1+34 in) across. The cap surface is smooth, viscid when damp, ochraceous yellow to yellow-brown. The lamellae (gills) are cream to yellowish white. The stipe (stem) is smooth, pale yellow at the apex, yellow-brown to dark brown towards the base, and lacking a ring. The spore print is white, the spores (under a microscope) smooth, inamyloid, ellipsoid to cylindrical, c. 5 to 7 by 3 to 3.5μm.[1]

There is a significant difference in appearance between wild and cultivated basidiocarps. Cultivated enokitake are not exposed to light, resulting in white or pallid fruit bodies with long stipes and small caps.


Flammulina filiformis was originally described from China in 2015 as a variety of F. velutipes, based on internal transcribed spacer sequences.[2] Further molecular research using a combination of different sequences has shown that F. filiformis and F. velutipes are distinct and should be recognized as separate species.[1]


The names enokitake (榎茸エノキタケ, Japanese pronunciation: [enoki̥ꜜtake]),[3] enokidake (榎茸、エノキダケ) and enoki (エノキ) are derived from the Japanese language. In Mandarin Chinese, the mushroom is called 金針菇 (jīnzhēngū, "gold needle mushroom") or (jīngū, "gold mushroom"). In India it is called futu, in Korean, it is called paengi beoseot (팽이버섯) which means "mushroom planted near catalpa", and nấm kim châm in Vietnamese.

Mushrooms, enoki, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy153 kJ (37 kcal)
7.8 g
Sugars0.2 g
Dietary fiber2.7 g
0.3 g
2.7 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.23 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.2 mg
Niacin (B3)
7.3 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
1.4 mg
Vitamin B6
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
48 μg
Vitamin C
0 mg
0 mg
1.2 mg
16 mg
105 mg
359 mg
2.2 μg
3 mg
0.65 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water88 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[4] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[5]

Distribution and habitat

The fungus is found on dead wood of Betula platyphylla, Broussonetia papyrifera, Dipentodon sinicus, Neolitsea sp., Salix spp, and other broad-leaved trees.[1] It grows naturally in China, Korea, and Japan.

Nutritional profile

Enoki mushrooms are 88% water, 8% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and contain negligible fat (table). In a 100-gram reference serving, enoki mushrooms provide 153 kilojoules (37 kilocalories) of food energy and are an excellent source (20% or more of the Daily Value) of the B vitamins, thiamine, niacin, and pantothenic acid, while supplying moderate amounts of riboflavin, folate, and phosphorus (table).


F. filiformis has been cultivated in China since 800 AD.[6] Commercial production in China was estimated at 1.57 million tonnes per annum in 2010, with Japan producing an additional 140,000 tonnes per annum.[7] The fungus can be cultivated on a range of simple, lignocellulosic substrates including sawdust, wheat straw, and paddy straw.[8] Enokitake are typically grown in the dark, producing pallid fruitbodies having long and narrow stipes with undeveloped caps. Exposure to light results in more normal, short-stiped, colored fruitbodies.[8]

Cultivated F. filiformis is sold both fresh and canned. The fungus has a crisp texture and can be refrigerated for approximately one week. It is a common ingredient for soups, especially in East Asian cuisine,[9] but can be used for salads and other dishes.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Wang, Pan Meng; Liu, Xiao Bin; Dai, Yu Cheng; et al. (September 2018). "Phylogeny and species delimitation of Flammulina: taxonomic status of winter mushroom in East Asia and a new European species identified using an integrated approach". Mycological Progress. 17 (9): 1013–1030. doi:10.1007/s11557-018-1409-2. S2CID 49299638.
  2. ^ Z.W. Ge; Kuan Zhao; Zhu L. Yang (2015). "Species diversity of Flammulina in China: new varieties and a new record". Mycosystema. 34 (4): 600. doi:10.13346/j.mycosystema.150080.
  3. ^ Dictionary.com (2012). "enokitake". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  4. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 2024-03-27. Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  5. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 2024-05-09. Retrieved 2024-06-21.
  6. ^ Tang C, Hoo PC, Tan LT, et al. (2016). "Golden needle mushroom: a culinary medicine with evidenced-based biological activities and health promoting properties". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7: 474. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00474. PMC 5141589. PMID 28003804.
  7. ^ Royse DJ (2014). "A Global Perspective on the High Five: Agaricus, Pleurotus, Lentinula, Auricularia & Flammulina" (PDF). Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP8).
  8. ^ a b Dowom SA, Rezaeian S, Pourianfar HR (2019). "Agronomic and environmental factors affecting cultivation of the winter mushroom or Enokitake: achievements and prospects". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 103 (6): 2469–2481. doi:10.1007/s00253-019-09652-y. PMID 30685812. S2CID 59273677.
  9. ^ Chaey, Christina (March 2, 2018). "You Should Be Cooking with Enoki Mushrooms, the Easiest Fungi to Love". Bon Appétit.