Various vintage Coca-Cola bottles.
Various vintage Coca-Cola bottles.
Various beer bottles
Various beer bottles

A glass bottle is a bottle made from glass. Glass bottles can vary in size considerably, but are most commonly found in sizes ranging between about 200 millilitres and 1.5 litres. Common uses for glass bottles include food condiments, soda, liquor, cosmetics, pickling and preservatives; they are occasionally also notably used for the informal distribution of notes. These types of bottles are utilitarian and serve a purpose in commercial industries.

History

A post-medieval wine bottle dating from 1690-1700, found in England circa 2018
A post-medieval wine bottle dating from 1690-1700, found in England circa 2018

Glass bottles and glass jars are found in many households around the world. The first glass bottles were produced in southeast Asia around 100 B.C. and in the Roman Empire around 1 AD.[1] America's glass bottle and glass jar industry was born in the early 1600s, when settlers in Jamestown built the first glass-melting furnace. The invention of the automatic glass bottle blowing machine in 1903 industrialized the process of making bottles.[2]

Manufacture

The earliest bottles or vessels were made by ancient man. Ingredients were melted to make glass and then clay forms were dipped into the molten liquid. When the glass cooled off, the clay was chipped out of the inside leaving just the hollow glass vessel.[3] This glass was very thin as the fire was not as hot as modern day furnaces. The blowpipe was invented around 1 B.C. This allowed molten glass to be gathered on the end of the blow pipe and blown into the other end to create a hollow vessel. Eventually, the use of a mold was introduced, followed by the invention of a semi-automatic machine, called the Press and Blow, by Yorkshire Iron founder, Howard Matravers Ashley, in 1886.[4][5] In 1904 Michael Owens invented the automatic bottle machine, after working on the production of Electric lightbulbs, in Ohio, for Eddison.[6]

Once made, bottles may suffer from internal stresses as a result of unequal, or too rapid cooling. An annealing oven, or 'lehr', is used to cool glass containers slowly to prevent stress and make the bottle stronger.[7] When a glass bottle filled with liquid is dropped or subjected to shock, the water hammer effect may cause hydrodynamic stress, breaking the bottle.[8][9]

Characteristics

Markings

Modern bottles, when moulded, will be given marks on the heel (bottom) of the bottle. These marks serve a variety of purposes, such as identifying the machine used in the production of the bottle (for quality control purposes), showing the manufacturer of the bottle, how much to fill the bottle to, the date the bottle was manufactured, as well as other information. Embossing on a bottle consists of raised lettering, numbers, and/or designs which were intended to inform the purchaser in some way of the contents or to establish ownership of the bottle.[10][11][12][13]

Closures

Glass bottles have a variety of closures to seal up the bottle and prevent the contents escape. Early bottles were sealed with wax, and later stoppered with a cork. More common today are screw caps and stoppers.[14]

Disposal

Glass recycling recovers a high rate of raw materials.[15]

Examples

Common shapes in modern commerce include:[16]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "All About Glass | Corning Museum of Glass". www.cmog.org. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  2. ^ "A History of Glass Bottle and Glass Jar Manufacturing Glass Bottles and Glass Jars". www.ebottles.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  3. ^ Wheeler, Mike. "ASGS - History of Glassblowing". asgs-glass.org. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  4. ^ Dungworth, David (2012-05-01). "THREE AND A HALF CENTURIES OF BOTTLE MANUFACTURE". Industrial Archaeology Review. 34 (1): 37–50. doi:10.1179/0309072812Z.0000000002. ISSN 0309-0728.
  5. ^ Bill Lockhart, Beau Schreiver, Bill Lindsey, and Carol Serr. "The Ashley Semiautomatic Bottle Machine" (PDF). self.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ https://sha.org/bottle/glassmaking.htm#B. Machine-made bottles
  7. ^ "How Glass Bottles are Made". Retrieved 2010-03-09.
  8. ^ Saitoh, S (1999). "Water hammer breakage of a glass container". International glass journal. Faenza Editrice. ISSN 1123-5063.
  9. ^ Brandt RC; Tressler RE (1994). Fractography of Glass. Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-44880-7.
  10. ^ https://sha.org/bottle/body.htm#Mold Seams
  11. ^ "Behälterkennzeichnung". Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  12. ^ "How to Read a Glass Bottle" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  13. ^ Dobson, Jim. Glass Container Defect Manual. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9780557336067.
  14. ^ "Closure Types". sha.org. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  15. ^ "Recycling". Glass Packaging Institute. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  16. ^ "Types of Packaging - Glass Bottles and Jars". 4 April 2019.

Sources