Kabi Kalahansa - Basanta Kokila

Gopalakrusna Pattanayaka
Wooden statue of Gopalakrushna at his residence in Paralakhemundi, made by an artisan who had seen him in real life
Wooden statue of Gopalakrushna at his residence in Paralakhemundi, made by an artisan who had seen him in real life
Native name
ଗୋପାଳକୃଷ୍ଣ ପଟ୍ଟନାୟକ
Born1784
Paralakhemundi, Odisha, India
Died1862
Paralakhemundi, Odisha, India
OccupationOdissi poet-musician
LanguageOdia
Nationality Indian
GenreOdissi music

Gopalakrusna Pattanayaka (Alternatively spelled Gopalakrishna, Pattnaik; Odia: ଗୋପାଳକୃଷ୍ଣ ପଟ୍ଟନାୟକ, romanized: Gopāḷakruṣṇa Paṭṭanāyaka, Odia: [gopaːl̪ɔkrusɳɔ pɔʈʈɔnaːjɔkɔ] ; 1784-1862) was an Odia poet & composer of Odissi music.[1] His Odissi songs in various traditional ragas and talas are widely sung across the state,[2] as well as other allied traditional artforms of Odisha, such as pala. The 20th-century Odissi musician, vocalist & binākara Apanna Panigrahi, also from the poet's hometown, was well-known for his renditions of Gopalakrusna's lyrics. Some of the most iconic Odissi songs, such as Syamaku Juhara Tara Premaku Juhara Ma, Jala Ani Jai Kali Kalindasutaku, Sangini Re Rasarangini Re, Kadamba Bane Bansi Bajila Re, Uthilu Ede Begi Kahinkire, Ki Nadare Prana Sangini, Manasija Mana Mohana are creations of Gopalakrusna. Many of his songs are popular abhinaya items in Odissi dance.[3][4][5]

Born in 1784 in a karana family of Paralakhemundi, Gopalakrusna's father Banabasi Pattanayaka was in the service of the Gajapati kings of the powerful princely state of Odisha. His mother's name was Lalita Dei. At the age of twenty, Gopalakrusna was married to a young girl by the name of Hira Dei. In the early days of his life, Gopalakrusna remained in the service of the Gajapati king as a panjia karana, an accountant-scribe. Later, after training from the virtuoso musician poet Bakrabak Chakrapani Pattanayaka, his fame as a poet and musician grew and the king subsequently offered him an exclusive position in the court to encourage his musical & literary pursuits.[4][6] Kabisurjya Baladeba Ratha and Utkala Ghanta Jadumani Mahapatra were his contemporaries. Another Odissi musician, the poet Haribandhu was inspired by Gopalakrusna to write lyrics and set them to music. Haribandhu is credited with documenting a significant number of Gopalakrusna's songs, as the poet himself was not concerned with preserving his songs. Gopalakrusna would sing impromptu, overcome by divine inspiration and Haribandhu as a child would follow him, noting everything down onto a palm leaf.[7]

Gopalakrusna's handwritten talapatra pothi (palm leaf manuscript) of Jayadeva's Gitagovinda, in Odia script

Gopalakrusna's writings have been published as anthologies more than once. The first significant anthology was made by the poet's own great-grandson, Ramakrusna Pattanayaka in 1919. Before Ramakrusna's anthology, smaller collections of the poet's work had appeared in bits and pieces in Damodar Patnaik's Sangita Sagara (1889-1903) and Gobinda Ratha's Chaupadi Chandrodaya (1895). The Gajapati press in Paralakhemundi had also published small booklets of the poet's work in the early 1900s. Subsequently, larger anthologies have been collated and published by Babaji Baisnaba Charana Dasa (195-60), Kabichandra Kali Charan Patnaik (1959), Saroj Kumar Panigrahi (1969) and Dr. Krushna Charan Behera (2002).[4]

A musical album called Lyrics of Gopalakrushna was made by the involvement of leading Odissi musicians and erstwhile chief minister Nandini Satapathy in the year 1970. Eminent Gurus such as Sangita Sudhakara Balakrushna Dash, Shyamamani Devi, Suramani Raghunath Panigrahi, Bhubaneswari Mishra and Indira Pratihari lent their voices to the various tracks.

Gopalakrusna died in 1862. His last poem is said to be a prophecy of his death :

At the poet's residence in Paralakhemundi, there is a life-size wooden statue of the poet. This statues was made in 1921 by Brundabana Chandra Patnaik, an elderly craftsman who had seen the poet during his lifetime. Some other items of his use, such as a karani stylus used by Odia scribes and his bodybuilding tools are preserved by the family.

Compositions

Some well-known Odissi compositions of the poet are:[4]

Many of Gopalakrusna's compositions have become iconic in the voice of legendary Odissi musicians, such as :

Lineage

Source:[8]

Mandhata Pattanayaka
Nandakisora (Kisora)
Bhaskara
Bansidhari
Lalita DeiBanabasiBrajabasi
HiramaniGopalakrusnaJayakrusnaKanheichandaRadhakrusna
SunamaGaurachandraHaribandhuKarunanidhiLalita MaBisakhaSudebiNityanandaMagataChaitanyaGorachandaBankabihari
GopinathaBaisnaba
RamakrusnaSurjyanarayanaNilamaniBanabasiGobindachandraChakrapani

References

  1. ^ Parhi, Dr. Kirtan Narayan (2017). The Classicality of Orissi Music. India: Maxcurious Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 383. ISBN 9788193215128.
  2. ^ Parhi, Dr. Kirtan Narayan (2009). "Odissi Music : Retrospect and Prospect". In Mohapatra, PK (ed.). Perspectives on Orissa. New Delhi: Centre for study in civilizations. pp. 613–626.
  3. ^ Dāsa, Phakīramohana (2002). Bhakta Kavi Gopāla Krishna. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1201-5.
  4. ^ a b c d Pattanayaka, Gopalakrusna (2002). Behera, Dr. Krushna Charan (ed.). Gopalakrusna Rachanabali (in Odia). Gopalpur, Cuttack: Sahitya Sangraha Prakasana.
  5. ^ Pattanayaka, Gopalakrusna (1969). Panigrahi, Saroj Kumar (ed.). Gopalakrusna Granthabali. Cuttack, Odisha: Odisha Kohenoor Press.
  6. ^ Mohanty, Indrajeet (June 2005). "The Lyrics of Gopal Krushna" (PDF). Orissa Review.
  7. ^ Singh, Jagabandhu (1982). Prachina Utkala (3 ed.). Bhubaneswar, Odisha: Odisha Sahitya Akademi.
  8. ^ Pattanayaka, Gopalakrusna (2014). Behera, Dr. Krusna Charan (ed.). Gopalakrusna Rachanabali. Gopalpur, Cuttack: Sahitya Sangraha Prakasana.