KSAZ-TV
Phoenix, Arizona
United States
ChannelsDigital: 10 (VHF)
Virtual: 10
BrandingFox 10 Phoenix; Fox 10 News
Programming
Affiliations
Ownership
OwnerFox Television Stations
(NW Communications of Phoenix, Inc.)
KUTP
History
First air date
October 24, 1953
(68 years ago)
 (1953-10-24)
Former call signs
  • KOOL-TV (1953–1982)
  • KTSP-TV (1982–1994)
Former channel number(s)
  • Analog:
  • 10 (VHF, 1953–2009)
  • Digital:
  • 31 (UHF, until 2009)
  • Primary:
  • Independent (1953–1954)
  • ABC (1954–1955)
  • CBS (1955–1994)
  • Independent (September–December 1994)
Call sign meaning
From slogan adopted in 1994, "The Spirit of Arizona"
Technical information
Licensing authority
FCC
Facility ID35587
ERP48 kW
HAAT558 m (1,831 ft)
Transmitter coordinates33°20′3″N 112°3′46″W / 33.33417°N 112.06278°W / 33.33417; -112.06278
Translator(s)
Links
Public license information
Profile
LMS
Websitewww.fox10phoenix.com

KSAZ-TV, virtual and VHF digital channel 10, is a Fox owned-and-operated television station licensed to Phoenix, Arizona, United States. Owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation, it is part of a duopoly with MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated station KUTP (channel 45). Both stations share studios on West Adams Street in Downtown Phoenix, while KSAZ-TV's transmitter is located atop South Mountain.

Channel 10 was the third television station established in Phoenix; briefly a time-share between two separate stations, it went on to become a top-rated station as CBS affiliate KOOL-TV, a call sign used until being sold in 1982. The station switched from CBS to Fox as part of a major realignment of network affiliations in 1994 and was purchased by Fox in 1996.

History

Shared-time era and early years

While the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) worked its way toward ending a years-long freeze on new television station grants initiated in 1948, it issued a near-final version of the table of allocations for Arizona in 1951 that gave Phoenix channels 4 (changed to 3 the next year), 5 (KPHO-TV, the only pre-freeze station in the state), 8, and 10. KOOL (960 AM), one of Phoenix's heritage radio stations and its CBS radio affiliate, had previously expressed interest in filing for channel 7 prior to the amended table being released,[1] and on September 27, 1951, it applied for channel 10.[2]

KOOL was not alone in its interest. In July 1952, KOY (550 AM), the home of the Mutual Broadcasting System in Phoenix and one of the oldest stations in the state, filed its own bid.[3] The two bids portended what could have been years of comparative hearings over who got the construction permit. To avoid this, in May 1953, KOOL and KOY struck a deal that would result in both getting construction permits to share time on channel 10. The time-sharing proposal, first used by the FCC in television in grants for channel 10 in Rochester, New York, and suggested to KOOL and KOY by the commission,[4] was approved on May 27, 1953, with KOOL-TV and KOY-TV getting construction permits the same day.[5] Under the proposal, the stations would alternate daytime and evening telecasting.[4]

KOOL was the CBS radio affiliate in Phoenix, and KOOL expressed a desire to similarly align its new television station, but this would not be immediately possible. KPHO-TV, which held both CBS and ABC hookups after KTYL-TV signed on with NBC earlier in May, had just signed a renewal agreement with CBS a month and a half before the construction permits were granted.[5] Even though the two stations would have separate staffs and ownership, much of the physical plant would be shared, including a maximum-power transmitter site on South Mountain.[6] Originally proposing to build television studios behind the KOY radio studios near First Avenue and Roosevelt Street,[7] KOOL and KOY arranged instead in July to buy a former car dealership at Fifth Avenue and Adams Street; KOY wanted to continue using the other site for parking.[8] Studio construction started in August, with KOOL and KOY crews leading the way,[9] and a test pattern went out for the first time on October 19, 1953,[10] ahead of both stations' October 24 launch. The next day, channel 10 carried an opening program featuring KOY and KOOL management, including KOOL majority owner Gene Autry.[11]

As shared-time stations, KOOL-TV and KOY-TV were a conjoined unit: separate staffs, common facilities, and no network affiliation at all.[11] This changed in January 1954, when channel 10 picked up an ABC affiliation; now, each of the three major networks had their own outlet in Phoenix.[12] However, KOY-TV would not last much longer. In March 1954, KOOL reached a deal to buy out KOY, whose general manager, Albert D. Johnson, expressed a belief that the combined unit would do better under one operator instead of two and stated that the goal of the shared-time venture—to avoid lengthy comparative hearings—had been met.[13] The FCC approved of the deal—reported as $400,000 by newspapers and $200,000 to the FCC[14]—on May 5, allowing KOOL-TV to become the sole occupant of channel 10.[15] All staff were retained by the enlarged KOOL-TV.[16] It was the first time any of the post-freeze shared-time arrangements had been wound down.[16]

CBS affiliation and Autry-Chauncey ownership

On December 29, 1954, KOOL-TV announced it had secured the CBS affiliation in Phoenix, to begin on June 15, 1955.[17] KPHO-TV, whose two-year affiliation agreement ended at that time, was blindsided by the move, but it was a natural fit. Not only was KOOL radio already CBS in Phoenix, but Gene Autry had deep ties to CBS radio and television, as well as Columbia Records. ABC soon found a new home: startup outlet KTVK (channel 3), which joined that network on March 1, 1955.[18]

Mr. Chauncey has always been a guy who has said, "We're going to be first class. We're going to be No. 1. And we're going to do it the right way."

Bob Davies, longtime KOOL radio-television employee, on Tom Chauncey's management philosophy[19]

As a full-time CBS affiliate, it was now able to feature Autry's show Gene Autry's Melody Ranch on its schedule. Tom Chauncey, who also owned the biggest Arabian horse ranch in Phoenix, was a minority partner with Autry. Over the years, KOOL-TV ran nearly the entire CBS schedule; Chauncey was a fierce loyalist to the network.[19] In addition to local news, channel 10 produced a series of other local programs, such as the bilingual children's program Niños Contentos and investigative and feature series Chapter 10 and Copperstate Cavalcade.[19]

Phoenix audiences' loyalty to KOOL-TV was proven in 1971. That September, a group of Valley business leaders led by Del Webb, organized as the Valley of the Sun Broadcasting Company, filed an application for a competing channel 10 proposal to KOOL-TV's license renewal; this group proposed to return the channel to Phoenix-based ownership.[20] However, the KOOL-TV license challenge was met with a decidedly cool reception by viewers and power brokers alike. Senators Barry Goldwater and Paul Fannin and governor Jack Williams threw their support behind KOOL; Goldwater noted he often cited KOOL as an example of a quality television station, Fannin was "amazed" to learn of the counterproposal, and Williams—a former broadcaster—lauded its "record of public service" and inclusion of minority groups.[21] Further, hundreds of phone calls and letters in support of KOOL were received by the station.[22] Ten days after the application was first made public, Valley of the Sun abandoned their channel 10 bid.[22] It was later revealed that the same Washington law firm had backed a string of similar license challenges to other stations across the country.[23] After the license challenge was rebuffed, Chauncey became the majority stakeholder as a result of a sale of shares by Autry.[2][24]

In 1978, KOOL AM was sold to Stauffer Communications of Topeka, Kansas, with the FM and television stations remaining under the Autry–Chauncey ownership.[25] However, cracks began to form in the longtime ownership partnership of KOOL-FM-TV. That same year, Autry allegedly began to try and induce Chauncey to reach an agreement with Signal Oil upon which the latter company would have the option to buy Chauncey's stake at his death. Chauncey then began negotiating to buy Autry out. These talks ended in April 1981 when Autry sold half of his 48.11-percent stake in the company to the Gulf United Corporation of Jacksonville, Florida. That May, Autry sued Chauncey, alleging that he had mismanaged the assets of KOOL Radio-Television, Inc., to the tune of millions of dollars and had diverted company funds to Arabian horses, cars, and airplanes.[24] Chauncey then filed a countersuit, accusing Autry and Gulf of racketeering and trying to pressure longtime manager Homer Lane, who owned a small but pivotal stake in the firm, to sell.[26] In the wake of the dueling lawsuits, and as early as November 1981, speculation began to circulate that Chauncey and Lane were nearing a sale of their stakes to Gulf.[27]

Gulf, Taft, and Great American

On June 8, 1982, Tom Chauncey and Gulf United announced that the latter was buying out the remaining shares in KOOL-TV, with KOOL-FM to be retained by Chauncey and split from the firm; the dueling lawsuits would be dropped when the FCC approved the transaction.[28]

We told people for a long time that it stood for Tempe, Scottsdale, Phoenix, but I don’t know if anyone really believed it.

Tom Dolan, news director in 1994, when the KTSP-TV call sign was dropped[29]

The sale closed on October 1, 1982, a month after receiving FCC approval, and major changes followed at channel 10. The first was a change in call sign, as the FM retained the KOOL designation. Gulf selected KTSP-TV—while it claimed that it stood for "Tempe, Scottsdale, Phoenix", the more likely reason was that it mirrored another channel 10 station owned by Gulf, WTSP in St. Petersburg, Florida.[30] Homer Lane, the general manager and minority owner, was replaced by Jack Sander, hired from WTOL in Toledo, Ohio.[19] Gulf also invested in new production equipment to make for a more high-tech look,[31] and it completed a project started under Chauncey to replace the transmitter and tower on South Mountain.[32]

In 1985, Taft Broadcasting acquired Gulf Broadcasting, which had been spun out of Gulf United two years prior. The deal included the entire chain, but so interested was Taft in Phoenix that it obtained an option to buy KTSP-TV alone for $250 million if the entire Gulf deal were to collapse, and KTSP-TV was the most expensive of the properties it purchased from Gulf.[33] Not long after Taft acquired Gulf, however, a major management change occurred that would have long-term ramifications in Phoenix television. KTVK, which had until that time been a perennial third-place finisher in local news, poached Bill Miller, channel 10's news director, to be its station manager and hired Phil Alvidrez, the KTSP-TV assistant news director, to run its newsroom.[34] The two hires by channel 3 were partly responsible for KTVK climbing to the top of the Phoenix television market in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[35] On October 12, 1987, Taft was restructured into Great American Broadcasting after the company went through a hostile takeover by investors led by Carl Lindner.[36] Other subsidiaries of Great American Communications Corporation filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1993, a move that did not affect the television and radio holdings.[37] The station changed its call sign to KSAZ-TV on February 12, 1994, to match its new slogan, "The Spirit of Arizona".[29]

As a Fox station

After emerging from bankruptcy, Great American Broadcasting (renamed Citicasters soon after[38]) put four of its stations (including KSAZ-TV) up for sale, seeking to raise money to pay down debt and fund more acquisitions in radio.[39] KSAZ-TV, along with WDAF-TV in Kansas City, Missouri; WGHP in High Point, North Carolina; and WBRC in Birmingham, Alabama, were sold to New World Communications on May 5, 1994, for $360 million.[40]

Just 18 days later, New World announced that twelve of its 15 stations (those it already owned and those it was in the process of acquiring) would switch their varying Big Three network affiliations to Fox, which had been affiliated with KNXV-TV (channel 15).[41] A major catalyst for the Fox-New World deal was the network's newly signed contract with the National Football League's National Football Conference. New World's portfolio, dominated by CBS affiliates, included many stations that had long aired the home games of NFC teams in their home cities, such as KSAZ and the Phoenix Cardinals.[42]

The affiliation changes—three of them in all—played out in phases. CBS was the first to move, leaving channel 10 for KPHO-TV on September 10, 1994.[43] For three months between CBS's departure and Fox's arrival, KSAZ-TV was an independent station, filling the hole left by network programs with movies and additional syndicated shows[44] while also using the opportunity to debut a suite of new news programs. Fox programs moved to KSAZ on December 12,[45]

It's pretty much a flop in every category.

Dave Walker, television writer for The Arizona Republic, assessing the aftermath of KSAZ-TV's switch to Fox[46]

In the aftermath of the change, channel 10 management faced the task of melding the station's more mainstream image with the new Fox programming,[45] which proved difficult. Not only did the news programs rate poorly, but the station let go of valuable news lead-ins Jeopardy! and Wheel of Fortune as skewing too old in viewership, and the competition by KTVK and KNXV was more aggressive than KSAZ-TV had anticipated. In June 1995, general manager Ron Bergamo resigned after seven years and in the wake of sweeps figures showing the station's news ratings in some time slots had fallen by as much as 50 percent;[47] that same month, an article in The Dallas Morning News called what happened to KSAZ a "worst-case scenario".[46] Revenue reportedly dipped across the New World stations by 15 percent after their switches; New World management, however, also noted that the three months without network programming had led to the decline being more pronounced at KSAZ than elsewhere.[48] As with most other New World stations, KSAZ declined to run Fox Kids programming, which instead moved to KTVK; in September 1995, KASW (channel 61), a station programmed by KTVK, launched with The WB and Fox Kids programs.[49]

News Corporation purchased New World Communications, acquiring only its ten Fox-affiliated stations, in July 1996;[50] the merger was finalized on January 22, 1997, making KSAZ an owned-and-operated station of Fox. This status almost became short-lived: in February 1997, Fox nearly traded KSAZ and sister station KTBC in Austin, Texas, to the Belo Corporation in exchange for Seattle's KIRO-TV.[51] That trade never materialized. Fox began to upgrade the station's programming, adding some high-rated off-network sitcoms (such as M*A*S*H, Seinfeld and King of the Hill) as well as higher-rated syndicated court and reality shows. In the 2010s, Fox began to use KSAZ-TV and other stations on a regular basis to test new programs that later entered national syndication, such as TMZ Live—which KSAZ was the second station to air[52]—and The Real.[53]

Fox Television Stations purchased KUTP (channel 45) in 2001 as part of its acquisition of United Television (which had owned a 50% stake in UPN);[54] this resulted in the creation of Phoenix's second television duopoly.[55]

In 2006, Jordin Sparks won an opportunity to audition for American Idol after winning KSAZ's own "Arizona Idol" competition; she ultimately went on to win the season.[56]

News operation

Congressman Ruben Gallego on John Hook's Newsmaker Saturday in 2019
Congressman Ruben Gallego on John Hook's Newsmaker Saturday in 2019

In 1964, the KOOL radio and television newsrooms were combined under the management of a new employee that moved over from KOY radio: Bill Close, already being promoted by his new employer as the "Dean of Arizona Newscasters".[57] The newsroom grew from six people when Close arrived to 23 by 1970, making it the largest among Phoenix's four news-producing stations;[58] a helicopter, the first of several, was also added to the KOOL arsenal at that time.[59] KOOL News became the traditional news leader in Phoenix; at one point, the station's 6 p.m. news broadcast (anchored by Close) attracted 46 percent of all TV households in the market, the same share as the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite.[19] The station's success produced people who went on to larger jobs, both in and out of Phoenix. In 1979, Kent Dana—who would become a fixture at KPNX and later KPHO—was hired from KOOL-TV, where he was anchoring the weekend news, by channel 12.[60] KOOL was also the first Phoenix television station to win a Peabody Award, doing so in 1980 for a documentary, The Long Eyes of Kitt Peak.[61]

On May 28, 1982, at about 5 p.m., Joseph Billie Gwin, wanting to "prevent World War III", forced his way into the KOOL-TV studios and fired a shot from his gun. The butt of the gun struck Luis Villa in the back of the head; Gwin then held Villa in a chokehold, at gunpoint, for nearly five hours. Gwin took four people hostage and demanded nationwide airtime. Two of the hostages, Jack Webb and Bob Cimino, were released three hours later. At 9:30 p.m., anchor Bill Close read a 25-minute statement as Gwin sat next to him holding a gun under the table; Close took Gwin's gun after the statement and set it on the table.[62] Gwin surrendered to the police following the broadcast of the statement; he was charged with kidnapping, assault, and burglary and was later declared insane.[63] Gwin was put on parole and placed in a halfway house, but violated that parole after assaulting two convenience store clerks in 1984;[64] he was released from prison in 2006.[65]

In the late 1980s, after KTVK poached Miller and Alvidrez, KTSP-TV's news ratings began to decline, not helped by a series of unforced errors. In 1989, KTSP newscaster Shelly Jamison left the station after appearing as both a cover model and posing nude in a Playboy pictorial.[66] The most publicized move, however, was the 1991 dismissal of anchor Karen Carns, who found out she had been fired 15 minutes before the evening newscast when a newspaper reporter called to get her reaction.[67] By 1992, KTSP-TV had failed to win the 6 p.m. local newscast ratings in at least one of the two television ratings services of the day (Arbitron and Nielsen), a historic first.[68] That year, Close retired from channel 10 after a 28-year career.[69]

With the Fox switch, KSAZ-TV added 30 news staffers and increased its news output from three hours a day to seven, with the addition of the two-hour morning newscast Arizona Morning, an additional early evening newscast at 5:30 p.m., and a 9 p.m. news hour, Arizona Prime.[70] A simulcast of KTAR talk show McMahon Live with Pat McMahon was also added in late mornings. However, the switch proved to be very messy for the newsroom. Close, who said he felt "betrayed" by the affiliation switch, predicted that the station would lose its standing in local news.[69] Ratings for KSAZ-TV's other newscasts declined after the switch, prompting morale to fall. Arizona Morning was retooled just months after its debut, and Heidi Foglesong—the former KTVK anchor who was the show's centerpiece, left after just over a year.[71] The McMahon program was dropped in January 1996.[72]

After two years of a news product that was more staid and conservative than the station's network, things began to change in 1996 under new news director Bill Berra, who promised to "bring up the intensity".[73] Presentation was revamped that fall; the sound of an emergency siren was incorporated into the opening of the 10 p.m. newscast.[74] One anchor, June Thomson, increased her delivery speed at the behest of the new management, but the relationship broke down, and Thomson took a job at KGO-TV in San Francisco. She told the San Francisco Examiner that the station practiced "crime and body-bag journalism, just like Miami" and that she "watched the destruction of a once-fine newsroom" at channel 10.[75] Arizona Prime was replaced in April 1997 with Fox 10 News at Nine.[76]

On April 1, 2009, Fox Television Stations and the E. W. Scripps Company, owner of KNXV-TV, announced the formation of Local News Service, a model for pooling newsgathering efforts for local news events in which each station provided employees to the pool service in exchange for the sharing of video.[77] KPHO-TV eventually joined the Phoenix LNS agreement shortly after the announcement.[78] By 2020, all four English-language television newsrooms in Phoenix shared a helicopter.[79]

In 2014, KSAZ debuted an expanded Saturday morning newscast and a new Sunday morning news hour.[80] KSAZ added a 4 p.m. weekday news hour, a second half-hour to its 10 p.m. newscast, and a 7 p.m. nightly hour of news for KUTP in 2018.[81] By 2020, KSAZ-TV's daily news output had reached twelve hours on weekdays.[79]

Phoenix was also the starting point for LiveNow from Fox, the over-the-top streaming news offering from the Fox television stations. It began as "Fox 10 News Now" in November 2014, streaming for seven hours a day on the station's website and YouTube channel.[82] In 2020, production of the service was spread between the Fox stations in Phoenix, Orlando, and Los Angeles.[83]

Notable current on-air staff

Notable former on-air staff

Technical information

Subchannels

The station's digital signal is multiplexed:

Channel Video Aspect Short name Programming[93]
10.1 720p 16:9 KSAZ-DT Main KSAZ-TV programming / Fox
10.3 480i Heroes Heroes & Icons
10.4 TheGrio TheGrio TV
61.2 720p HSN HSN (KASW)
61.5 480i Grit Grit (KASW)
61.6 Escape Court TV Mystery (KASW)

Virtual channel 10.2 is assigned to a KUTP simulcast of 10.1 for the convenience of UHF antenna viewers. Three subchannels on the multiplex are hosted for KASW, Phoenix's ATSC 3.0 (NextGen TV) station, which in turn broadcasts KSAZ in that format.[93]

Analog-to-digital conversion

KSAZ-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 10, at 8:30 a.m. on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 31 to VHF channel 10 for post-transition operations.[94]

Translators

City of license Callsign Channel ERP HAAT Facility ID Transmitter coordinates Owner
Bullhead City K07YJ-D 7 0.06 kW −126.9 m (−416 ft) 129400 35°12′46″N 114°33′21″W / 35.21278°N 114.55583°W / 35.21278; -114.55583 (K07YJ-D) Mohave County Board of Supervisors
Chloride K17NS-D 17 0.05 kW 171.5 m (563 ft) 43416 35°23′48.9″N 114°10′18.8″W / 35.396917°N 114.171889°W / 35.396917; -114.171889 (K17NS-D)
Clarkdale K36AE-D 36 15 kW 753.5 m (2,472 ft) 11283 34°41′12.8″N 112°7′1.7″W / 34.686889°N 112.117139°W / 34.686889; -112.117139 (K36AE-D) Fox Television Stations
Colorado City K27EJ-D 27 0.76 kW 33.6 m (110 ft) 67392 36°53′37.9″N 113°1′53.7″W / 36.893861°N 113.031583°W / 36.893861; -113.031583 (K27EY-D) Mohave County Board of Supervisors
East Flagstaff K26NG-D 26 0.61 kW 619.6 m (2,033 ft) 11285 35°14′26.6″N 111°35′51.6″W / 35.240722°N 111.597667°W / 35.240722; -111.597667 (K26NG-D) Fox Television Stations
Kingman K29LO-D 29 0.94 kW 1,051.8 m (3,451 ft) 43383 35°4′53″N 113°54′16.8″W / 35.08139°N 113.904667°W / 35.08139; -113.904667 (K29LO-D) Mohave County Board of Supervisors
Lake Havasu City K22NK-D 22 2.34 kW 48.1 m (158 ft) 43371 34°36′9″N 114°22′16″W / 34.60250°N 114.37111°W / 34.60250; -114.37111 (K22NK-D)
Littlefield K31EA-D 31 2.53 kW 1,069.3 m (3,508 ft) 43385 37°9′1″N 113°53′1.5″W / 37.15028°N 113.883750°W / 37.15028; -113.883750 (K31EA-D)
Madera Peak K22JD-D 22 1 kW 674.5 m (2,213 ft) 11284 33°20′24.2″N 110°52′13.9″W / 33.340056°N 110.870528°W / 33.340056; -110.870528 (K22JD-D) Fox Television Stations
Peach Springs K36PE-D 36 0.072 kW 27.6 m (91 ft) 43404 35°32′9.9″N 113°25′54.7″W / 35.536083°N 113.431861°W / 35.536083; -113.431861 (K36PE-D) Mohave County Board of Supervisors
Prescott K25OM-D 25 0.973 kW 426.9 m (1,401 ft) 168334 34°29′19″N 112°32′18.4″W / 34.48861°N 112.538444°W / 34.48861; -112.538444 (K25OM-D) Fox Television Stations
Snowflake K07OJ-D 7 0.033 kW 255.8 m (839 ft) 53064 34°12′22.1″N 109°56′36.3″W / 34.206139°N 109.943417°W / 34.206139; -109.943417 (K07OJ-D)
Williams K31NE-D 31 1.28 kW 747.5 m (2,452 ft) 11287 35°12′1″N 112°12′15.6″W / 35.20028°N 112.204333°W / 35.20028; -112.204333 (K31NE-D)
Needles, CA K17BN-D 17 1.43 kW 417.3 m (1,369 ft) 43372 35°2′9″N 114°22′16.8″W / 35.03583°N 114.371333°W / 35.03583; -114.371333 (K17BN-D) Mohave County Board of Supervisors

References

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  2. ^ a b FCC History Cards for KSAZ-TV
  3. ^ "KOY Seeks TV Channel 10". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. July 25, 1952. p. 22. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
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  13. ^ "KOOL Buys KOY's Share Of Channel 10". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. March 16, 1954. p. 17. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
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  15. ^ "FCC Okays TV Sale By KOY". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. May 6, 1954. p. 45. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  16. ^ a b "KOOL-TV Buys Share-Time Partner KOY-TV Phoenix" (PDF). Broadcasting. March 22, 1954. p. 82. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 27, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2014 – via World Radio History.
  17. ^ "Next June 15: KOOL-TV Will Get CBS Affiliation". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. December 30, 1954. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 18, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  18. ^ "Soon To Be Seen Channel 3 KTVK Will Carry ABC-TV Network Shows". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. January 14, 1955. p. 13. Archived from the original on December 18, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ a b c d e Wilkinson, Bud (September 29, 1982). "End of an era: Come Saturday, it'll no longer be KOOL in Phoenix as Channel 10 changes hands". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. p. E7, E10. Archived from the original on December 18, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  20. ^ Bailey, Clarence W. (September 8, 1971). "Group files challenge of Channel 10". Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. p. 1, 4. Archived from the original on December 16, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
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