Lazarus
Laz banner.png
Lazarus 1.0 Carbon.png
Lazarus IDE 1.0 running on macOS
Developer(s)Volunteers (Lazarus Team)
Stable release
2.2.2 / May 19, 2022; 44 days ago (2022-05-19)
Repository
Written inObject Pascal
Operating systemWindows, macOS, Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris and others
PlatformIA-32, x86-64, winCE for ARM, PowerPC
TypeIntegrated development environment
LicenseGNU General Public License and modified GNU Lesser General Public License (with static linking exception)
Websitewww.lazarus-ide.org

Lazarus is a free cross-platform visual integrated development environment (IDE) for rapid application development (RAD) using the Free Pascal compiler. Its goal is to provide an easy-to-use development environment for programmers developing with the Object Pascal language, which is as close as possible to Delphi.

Software developers use Lazarus to create native-code console and graphical user interface (GUI) applications for the desktop, and also for mobile devices, web applications, web services, visual components and function libraries for a number of different platforms, including Mac, Linux and Windows.

A project created by using Lazarus on one platform can be compiled on any other one which Free Pascal compiler supports. For desktop applications a single source can target Mac OS, Linux, and Windows, with little or no modification. An example is the Lazarus IDE itself, created from a single code base and available on all major platforms including the Raspberry Pi.

Features

Lazarus provides a highly visual development environment for the creation of rich user interfaces, application logic, and other supporting code artifacts, similar to Borland Delphi. Along with project management features, the Lazarus IDE also provides:

Cross-platform development

Interaction of class libraries and widgetsets in Lazarus and Free Pascal
Interaction of class libraries and widgetsets in Lazarus and Free Pascal

Lazarus uses Free Pascal as its back-end compiler. Therefore, Lazarus can theoretically be used to develop applications for all platforms supported by Free Pascal.

Lazarus provides a cross-platform application framework called the Lazarus Component Library (LCL), which provides a single, unified interface for programmers, with different platform-specific implementations. Using LCL, it is possible to create applications in a write once, compile anywhere manner, unless system-dependent features are used explicitly.

Cross-compiling

As Free Pascal supports cross-compiling, Lazarus applications can be cross-compiled from Windows to Linux / macOS / etc. and vice versa.

Applications for embedded devices (smartphones, PDAs, routers, game consoles) can be cross-compiled from any desktop platform.

Lazarus Component Library

Architecture of the Lazarus Component Library
Architecture of the Lazarus Component Library

The standard application framework, Lazarus Component Library (LCL) was originally modeled after the Visual Component Library (VCL) in Delphi 6, but, unlike Delphi, is not restricted to Microsoft Windows operating systems. This is done by separating the definition of common widget classes and their widgetset-specific implementation. Each widget set is supported by providing an interface which interacts directly with the set.[1]

Database development

Developers can install packages that allow Lazarus to support several database management systems (DBMSes). Programs can interact with DBMSes through code or by components dropped on a form.

The following DBMSes are supported out of the box:

Differences from Delphi

While resembling Delphi in many ways, there are a few limitations regarding the performance and feature set, including:

Distribution and licensing

Like Free Pascal, Lazarus is free software. Different portions are distributed under different free software licenses, including GPL, LGPL, MPL, and a modified version of LGPL.[3]

Specifically, the LCL, which is statically built into the produced executables, is licensed under a modified version of the LGPL, granting extra permissions to allow it to be statically built into the produced software, including proprietary ones.

Installing a design time package is equivalent to linking to the IDE, so that distributing the Lazarus IDE with a GPL-incompatible design-time package such as the JEDI packages licensed under the Mozilla Public License, pre-installed would cause a license violation. This does not prohibit proprietary packages from being developed with Lazarus.

History

The first attempt to develop a visual IDE for Free Pascal dates back to 1998, under the name "Megido project". For various reasons this approach failed. Some of Megido's developers then started a new project based on a more flexible foundation.

The first preliminary LCL version was ready for release in 2001, and in 2003 the first beta version of Lazarus (0.9.0.3) was hosted at SourceForge. The first final Lazarus version (1.0) was released in 2012, and significantly enhanced Lazarus 1.2 with was released in 2014. More than four million downloads had been made from SourceForge as of March 2014.

The name "Lazarus" alludes to the revival of the Megido concept. It is inspired by Lazarus of Bethany, who, according to the Gospel of John, was restored to life by Jesus four days after his death.

Versions

Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release
Version number Release date Platform Comments
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.0.5 January 2001 Windows First release of component library
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.1 January 2001 Windows Redesign of component library to support platform-sensitive development for Linux and Windows using GTK+ and other widgetsets.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.5 January 30, 2001 Windows, Linux Bug fixes and new features supporting cross-platform development and project skeletons.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.8 October 9, 2001 Windows, Linux Codetools implemented, bug fixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.8.2 January 17, 2002 Windows, Linux Expanded find functions.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.8.4 August 19, 2002 Windows, Linux Improved graphics and font support, support for Delphi 6 syntax. Binary DFMs are now automatically converted to LFMs.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.8.5 October 26, 2002 Windows, Linux LCL decoupled from interfaces.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.0.3 September 4, 2003 Linux First release on SourceForge
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.1 February 27, 2004 Windows, Linux Support for packages, numerous added and enhanced properties.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.4 January 3, 2005 Windows Threading support improved, oldest public version hosted at SourceForge
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.6 February 25, 2005 Windows
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.8 July 19, 2005 Windows
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.10 October 3, 2005 Windows, Mac OS X (PPC) Bug fixes, extensibility of IDE improved, document editor for FPDoc files. Includes Free Pascal 2.0.1
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.12 February 7, 2006 Windows New packages for database support, CGI applications and printing.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.14 April 2, 2006 Windows, Mac OS X (PPC), Linux Bugfixes, more controls in the WinCE and Qt4 interface
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.16 May 28, 2006 Windows, Mac OS X (PPC), Linux Bug fixes, online help for IDE windows and for LCL applications, improvements to QT widgetset interface. Includes Free Pascal 2.0.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.18 September 23, 2006 Windows, Mac OS X (PPC), Linux Bugfixes, procedure list implemented, new command-line tool "lazbuild"
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.20 November 5, 2006 Windows, Mac OS X (PPC), Linux Bufixes, code folding implemented, QT widgetset improved.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.22 March 26, 2007 Windows, Mac OS X (PPC), Linux New components to write Windows services and Linux daemons, support for custom mouse cursors. Includes Free Pascal 2.0.4
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.24 November 15, 2007 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux First stable release for Win64, WinCE, and Intel-based Mac OS X. Improvements in Qt, Carbon, and Gtk2 widgetset interfaces. Customizable toolbar. Includes Free Pascal 2.2.0
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.26 October 5, 2008 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Internal graphic system was rewritten. LCL now uses Unicode strings encoded as UTF-8 on all platforms. FPDoc help in tooltips. First version to run natively using the Carbon widgetset on Mac OS X.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.26.2 March 13, 2009 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes, improved icon support. Includes Free Pascal 2.2.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.28 September 29, 2009 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Improvements of editor and debugger including support for double-byte fonts such as Eastern, Japanese, Chinese, and Arabic, smaller file sizes of generated applications. Includes Free Pascal 2.2.4
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.28.2 October 25, 2009 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Mainly bug fixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30 March 22, 2011 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Large number of new features, including docking and multiple source-code windows. Based on Free Pascal 2.4.2.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.2RC1 September 30, 2011 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Includes Free Pascal 2.4.4. Release candidate for Lazarus 0.9.30.2.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.2RC2 October 26, 2011 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 0.9.30.2.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.2 November 5, 2011 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.4RC1 March 3, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes, includes Free Pascal 2.6.0. Release candidate for Lazarus 0.9.30.4.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.4RC2 March 7, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 0.9.30.4.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.4RC3 March 11, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 0.9.30.4.
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.30.4 March 14, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0RC1 July 29, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel), Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 1.0.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0RC2 August 21, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 1.0.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0 August 28, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux First final version. This stable release includes Free Pascal 2.6.0. Multiple corrections and improvements of the IDE, including a macro function, expanded code-folding and new debugger functions.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.2 October 10, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes, minor additions to LCL and widgetsets
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.4 December 2, 2012 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes, minor additions to IDE, LCL and widgetsets as well as LazReport and TAChart
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.6 February 3, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes, minor additions to IDE, LCL and widgetsets as well as LazReport and TAChart
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.8 March 19, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fix release. Includes Free Pascal 2.6.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.10 June 12, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.12 August 24, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.14 November 16, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X (Intel and PPC), Linux Bug fixes.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1.99 September 16, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X, Linux Alpha version for Lazarus 1.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2RC1 November 3, 2013 Windows, Mac OS X, Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 1.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2RC2 January 13, 2014 Windows, Mac OS X, Linux Release candidate for Lazarus 1.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2 March 4, 2014 Windows, Mac OS X, Linux Multiple new features, including a macro recorder, support for layered graphs and Pascal Script. Based on Free Pascal 2.6.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.2 April 23, 2014 Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, Solaris, Linux Bug fix release. Based on Free Pascal 2.6.4
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.4 June 16, 2014 Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, Solaris, Linux Bug fix release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.6 October 12, 2014 Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, Solaris, Linux Bug fix release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.4.0 April 19, 2015 Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, Solaris, Linux Improvements of editor, resource handling and additional new features. Based on Free Pascal 2.6.4.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.4.2 July 14, 2015 Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, Solaris, Linux Bug fix release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.4.4 October 4, 2015 Windows, Mac OS X, BSD, Solaris, Linux Bug fix release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.6 February 18, 2016 Windows 32bit/64bit, Mac OS X, Linux Multiple new features, including docking, project groups and improved editor. Based on Free Pascal 3.0.0.[4]
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.6.2 November 13, 2016 Windows 32bit/64bit, Mac OS X, Linux Bug fix release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.6.4 February 26, 2017 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, Linux Bug fix release. Based on Free Pascal 3.0.2.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.8.0 December 6, 2017 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Major release with many new features including an online package manager. Based on Free Pascal 3.0.4.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.8.2 February 28, 2018. Bug fix release.
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.8.4 May 22, 2018 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Bug fix release.[5]
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.0 January 5, 2019 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Multiple new features including Cocoa support and the introduction of a Pascal to JavaScript transpiler.
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.2 April 16, 2019 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Bug fix release.
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.4 August 6, 2019 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Bug fix release.
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.6 November 1, 2019 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Bug fix release.
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.8 April 16, 2020 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Bug fix release, improved Cocoa widgetset.
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.10 July 11, 2020 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Bug fix release, minor additions, first version based on Free Pascal 3.2.0.
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.0.12 February 21, 2021 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS, BSD, Linux Based on Free Pascal 3.2.0. List of fixes available.[6]
Older version, yet still maintained: 2.2.0 January 5, 2022 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS (ARM and Intel), BSD, Linux Based on Free Pascal 3.2.2. Multiple improvements, among others in the IDE, the LCL and widgetsets.[7]
Current stable version: 2.2.2 May 19, 2022 Windows 32bit/64bit, macOS (ARM and Intel), BSD, Linux Bug fix release.

Examples of applications produced with Lazarus

Examples of Delphi libraries compatible with Lazarus

See also

Citations

  1. ^ See LCL Internals.
  2. ^ "Using Pascal Libraries with .NET and Mono". Lazarus wiki. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  3. ^ ""COPYING.txt" file from the online source code repository".
  4. ^ Lazarus 1.6 on http://forum.lazarus.freepascal.org
  5. ^ Lazarus 1.8.4 on http://forum.lazarus.freepascal.org
  6. ^ "Lazarus 2.0 fixes branch". Lazarus Wiki. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Lazarus 2.2.0 release notes". Lazarus Wiki. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  8. ^ c-evo Lazarus port website
  9. ^ "In which language is TC written??". Ghisler.ch. 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  10. ^ sourceforge.net.
  11. ^ "Tranzistow".

Additional references