Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947
Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4]

Statistics

The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972. Marie Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911. William Lawrence Bragg was, until October 2014, the youngest ever Nobel laureate; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25. He remains the youngest recipient of the Physics Prize.[5] Four women have won the prize: Curie, Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), Donna Strickland (2018), and Andrea Ghez (2020).[6] As of 2021, the prize has been awarded to 218 individuals.[7]

There have been six years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942). There were also nine years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was delayed for one year:

Ioannidis et al. reported that half of the Nobel Prize for science awarded between 1995 and 2017 are clustered in few disciplines. Particle physics (14%), atomic physics (10.9%), and 3 non-physics disciplines are dominating the prize in recent decades. And then semiconductor physics and magnetics are the next most honored physics disciplines.[17]

Laureates

Year Image Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C] Ref
1901
WilhelmRöntgen.JPG
Wilhelm Röntgen(1845-1923)  German Empire "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" [18]
1902
H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg
Hendrik Lorentz(1853-1928)  Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena" [19]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg
Pieter Zeeman(1865-1943)
1903
Paul Nadar - Henri Becquerel.jpg
Antoine Henri Becquerel(1852-1908)  France "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" [20]
PierreCurie.jpg
Pierre Curie(1859-1906) "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel" [20]
Mariecurie.jpg
Marie Skłodowska-Curie(1867-1934)  Poland
 France
1904
John William Strutt.jpg
Lord Rayleigh(1842-1919)  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies" [21]
1905
Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard(1862-1947)  Austria-Hungary
 German Empire
"for his work on cathode rays" [22]
1906
J.J Thomson.jpg
Joseph John Thomson(1856-1940)  United Kingdom "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases" [23]
1907
Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg
Albert Abraham Michelson(1852-1931)  German Empire
 United States
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid" [24]
1908
G lippmann.jpg
Gabriel Lippmann(1845-1921)  France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference" [25]
1909
Guglielmo Marconi.jpg
Guglielmo Marconi(1874-1937)  Kingdom of Italy "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy" [26]
Ferdinand Braun.jpg
Karl Ferdinand Braun(1850-1918)  German Empire
1910
Johannes Diderik van der Waals.jpg
Johannes Diderik van der Waals(1837-1923)  Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" [27]
1911
Wilhelm Wien 1911.jpg
Wilhelm Wien(1864-1928)  German Empire "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" [28]
1912
Nils Gustaf Dalén.jpg
Nils Gustaf Dalén(1869-1937)  Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys" [29]
1913
Kamerlingh portret.jpg
Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes(1853-1926)  Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium" [30]
1914
Max von Laue 1914.jpg
Max von Laue(1879-1960)  German Empire "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals", an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy. [8]
1915
Wh-bragg.jpg
William Henry Bragg(1862-1942)  United Kingdom "'For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays', an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography" [31]
Wl-bragg.jpg
William Lawrence Bragg(1890-1971)  Australia
 United Kingdom
1916 Not awarded due to World War I
1917
Charles Glover Barkla.jpg
Charles Glover Barkla(1877-1944)  United Kingdom "'For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements', another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy" [9]
1918
Max Planck 1933.jpg
Max Planck(1858-1947)  German Empire "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta" [10]
1919
Johannes Stark.jpg
Johannes Stark(1874-1957)  Weimar Republic "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" [32]
1920
Guillaume 1920.jpg
Charles Édouard Guillaume(1861-1938)   Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys" [33]
1921
Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg
Albert Einstein(1879-1955)  Weimar Republic
  Switzerland
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" [11]
1922
Niels Bohr.jpg
Niels Bohr(1885-1962)  Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" [34]
1923
Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg
Robert Andrews Millikan(1868-1953)  United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" [35]
1924
1924 Karl Manne Siegbahn.jpg
Manne Siegbahn(1886-1978)  Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy" [12]
1925
James Franck 1925.jpg
James Franck(1882-1964)  Weimar Republic "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" [13]
Gustav Hertz.jpg
Gustav Hertz(1887-1975)
1926
Jean Perrin 1926.jpg
Jean Baptiste Perrin(1870-1942)  France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium" [36]
1927
Arthur Compton.jpg
Arthur Holly Compton(1892-1962)  United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him" [37]
CTR Wilson.jpg
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson(1869-1959)  United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour" [37]
1928
Owen Richardson.jpg
Owen Willans Richardson(1879-1959)  United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him" [14]
1929
Broglie Big.jpg
Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie(1892-1987)  France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" [38]
1930
Sir CV Raman.JPG
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(1888-1970)  India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" [39]
1931 Not awarded
1932
Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg
Werner Heisenberg(1901-1976)  Weimar Republic "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" [15]
1933
Erwin Schrödinger (1933).jpg
Erwin Schrödinger(1887-1961)  Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" [40]
Dirac 4.jpg
Paul Dirac(1902-1984)  United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935
James Chadwick.tif
James Chadwick(1891-1974)  United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron" [41]
1936
Hess.jpg
Victor Francis Hess(1883-1964)  Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" [42]
Carl David Anderson.jpg
Carl David Anderson(1905-1991)  United States "for his discovery of the positron" [42]
1937
Clinton Davisson.jpg
Clinton Joseph Davisson(1881-1958)  United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" [43]
George Paget Thomson.jpg
George Paget Thomson(1892-1975)  United Kingdom
1938
Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg
Enrico Fermi(1901-1954)  Kingdom of Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons" [44]
1939
Ernest Lawrence.jpg
Ernest Lawrence(1901-1958)  United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements" [45]
1940 Not awarded due to World War II
1941 Not awarded due to World War II
1942 Not awarded due to World War II
1943
Otto Stern.jpg
Otto Stern(1888-1969)  United States
 Weimar Republic
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" [16][46]
1944
II Rabi.jpg
Isidor Isaac Rabi(1898-1988)  United States
 Poland
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" [47]
1945
Pauli.jpg
Wolfgang Pauli(1900-1958)  Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle" [48]
1946
Bridgman.jpg
Percy Williams Bridgman(1882-1961)  United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics" [49]
1947
Appleton.jpg
Edward Victor Appleton(1892-1965)  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer" [50]
1948
Blackett-large.jpg
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett(1897-1974)  United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation" [51]
1949
Yukawa.jpg
Hideki Yukawa(1907-1981)  Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces" [52]
1950
Cecil Powell.jpg
Cecil Frank Powell(1903-1969)  United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" [53]
1951
Cockcroft.jpg
John Douglas Cockcroft(1897-1967)  United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" [54]
Ernest Walton.jpg
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton(1903-1995)  Ireland
1952
Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg
Felix Bloch(1905-1983)   Switzerland
 United States
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" [55]
Edward Mills Purcell.jpg
Edward Mills Purcell(1912-1997)  United States
1953
Zernike.jpg
Frits Zernike(1888-1966)  Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" [56]
1954
Max Born.jpg
Max Born(1882-1970)  West Germany "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" [57]
Bothe.jpg
Walther Bothe(1891-1957)  West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith" [57]
1955
Willis Lamb 1955.jpg
Willis Eugene Lamb(1913-2008)  United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" [58]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg
Polykarp Kusch(1911-1993) "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron" [58]
1956
Bardeen.jpg
John Bardeen(1908-1991)  United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" [59]
Brattain.jpg
Walter Houser Brattain(1902-1987)
William Shockley, Stanford University.jpg
William Bradford Shockley(1910-1989)
1957
TD Lee.jpg
Tsung-Dao Lee(b. 1926)  Republic of China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" [60]
Yang.jpg
Chen-Ning Yang(b. 1922)
1958
Cerenkov.jpg
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov(1904-1990)  Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" [61]
Ilya Frank.jpg
Ilya Frank(1908-1990)
Igor Tamm.jpg
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm(1895-1971)
1959
Segre.jpg
Emilio Gino Segrè(1905-1989)  Italy
 United States
"for their discovery of the antiproton" [62]
Owen Chamberlain.jpg
Owen Chamberlain(1920-2006)  United States
1960
Donald Glaser 1.jpg
Donald Arthur Glaser(1926-2013)  United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber" [63]
1961
Robert Hofstadter.jpg
Robert Hofstadter(1915-1990)  United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" [64]
Mossbauer.jpg
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer(1929-2011)  West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name" [64]
1962
Landau.jpg
Lev Davidovich Landau(1908--1968)  Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" [65]
1963
Wigner.jpg
Eugene Paul Wigner(1902-1995)  Hungary
 United States
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" [66]
Mayer.jpg
Maria Goeppert-Mayer(1906-1972)  German Empire
 United States
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" [66]
Jensen.jpg
J. Hans D. Jensen(1907-1973)  West Germany
1964
Basov.jpg
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov(1922-2001)  Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle" [67]
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg
Alexander Prokhorov(1916-2002)
Charles Townes Nobel.jpg
Charles Hard Townes(1915-2015)  United States
1965
Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg
Richard Phillips Feynman(1918-1988)  United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" [68]
Schwinger.jpg
Julian Schwinger(1918-1994)
Tomonaga.jpg
Shin'ichirō Tomonaga(1906-1979)  Japan
1966
Kastler.jpg
Alfred Kastler(1902-1984)  France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" [69]
1967
Hans Bethe.jpg
Hans Albrecht Bethe(1906-2005)  United States
 West Germany
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" [70]
1968
LWA Picture Final.jpg
Luis Walter Alvarez(1911-1988)  United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" [71]
1969
MurrayGellMannJI1.jpg
Murray Gell-Mann(1929-2019)  United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" [72]
1970
YoungAlfven.jpg
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén(1908-1995)  Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" [73]
Louis Neel 1970.jpg
Louis Néel(1904-2000)  France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics" [73]
1971
Dennis Gabor 1971b.jpg
Dennis Gabor(1900-1979)  Hungary
 United Kingdom
"for his invention and development of the holographic method" [74]
1972
Bardeen.jpg
John Bardeen(1908-1991)  United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory" [75]
Nobel Laureate Leon Cooper in 2007.jpg
Leon Neil Cooper(b. 1930)
John Robert Schrieffer.jpg
John Robert Schrieffer(1931-2019)
1973
Leo Esaki 1959.jpg
Leo Esaki(b. 1925)  Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" [76]
Ivar Giaever.jpg
Ivar Giaever(b. 1929)  United States
 Norway
cmglee_Cambridge_Wikimedia_Meetup_23_tour_Brian_Josephson.jpg
Brian David Josephson(b. 1940)  United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect" [76]
1974
No image.svg
Martin Ryle(1918-1984)  United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars" [77]
No image.svg
Antony Hewish(1924-2021)
1975
Aage Bohr.jpg
Aage Bohr(1922-2009)  Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection" [78]
Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg
Ben Roy Mottelson(1926-2022)
James Rainwater 2.jpg
Leo James Rainwater(1917-1986)  United States
1976
Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg
Samuel Chao Chung Ting(b. 1936)  Republic of China
 United States
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" [79]
Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg
Burton Richter(1931-2018)  United States
1977
Andersonphoto.jpg
Philip Warren Anderson(1923-2020)  United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems" [80]
Mott,Nevill Francis Heisenberg 1952 London.jpg
Nevill Francis Mott(1905-1996)  United Kingdom
JH van Vleck 1974.jpg
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck(1899-1980)  United States
1978
Pyotr L Kapitsa Russian physicist 1964.jpg
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa(1894-1984)  Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics" [81]
Arno Penzias.jpg
Arno Allan Penzias(b. 1933)  United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" [81]
Robert Wilson (28215880301) (portrait).jpg
Robert Woodrow Wilson(b. 1936)
1979
Sheldon Glashow at Harvard cropped.jpg
Sheldon Glashow(b. 1932)  United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current" [82]
Abdus Salam 1987.jpg
Abdus Salam(1926-1996)  Pakistan
Steven weinberg 2010.jpg
Steven Weinberg(1933-2021)  United States
1980
James-cronin.jpg
James Watson Cronin(1931-2016)  United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons" [83]
Val Fitch.jpg
Val Logsdon Fitch(1923-2015)
1981
Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981.jpg
Nicolaas Bloembergen(1920-2017)  Netherlands
 United States
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" [84]
Artur Schawlow, Stanford University.jpg
Arthur Leonard Schawlow(1921-1999)  United States
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn 2.jpg
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn(1918-2007)  Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy" [84]
1982
No image.svg
Kenneth G. Wilson(1936-2013)  United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions" [85]
1983
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.gif
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar(1910-1995)  India
 United States
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars" [86]
William A. Fowler Los Alamos ID.png
William Alfred Fowler(1911-1995)  United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe" [86]
1984
Carlo Rubbia 2012.jpg
Carlo Rubbia

(b. 1934)

 Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" [87]
Simon Van der Meer.png
Simon van der Meer(1925-2011)  Netherlands
1985
Klaus von Klitzing 2015.jpg
Klaus von Klitzing(b. 1943)  West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" [88]
1986
No image.svg
Ernst Ruska(1906-1988)  West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" [89]
Gerd Binnig sw.jpg
Gerd Binnig(b. 1947)  West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" [89]
Rohrer.jpg
Heinrich Rohrer(1933-2013)   Switzerland
1987
Ibmgb.jpg
Johannes Georg Bednorz(b. 1950)  West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials" [90]
Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg
Karl Alexander Müller(b. 1927)   Switzerland
1988
Leon M. Lederman.jpg
Leon Max Lederman(1922-2018)  United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" [91]
No image.svg
Melvin Schwartz(1932-2006)
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG
Jack Steinberger(1921-2020)
1989
Norman Foster Ramsey 1970 (cropped).jpg
Norman Foster Ramsey(1915-2011)  United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" [92]
No image.svg
Hans Georg Dehmelt(1922-2017)  United States
 West Germany
"for the development of the ion trap technique" [92]
No image.svg
Wolfgang Paul(1913-1993)  West Germany
1990
Physics Nobel laureate Jerry Friedman, 2016.jpg
Jerome I. Friedman(b. 1930)  United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" [93]
Henry Kendall by Tom Frost crop.jpg
Henry Way Kendall(1926-1999)
Richard E. Taylor.jpg
Richard E. Taylor(1929-2018)  Canada
1991
Pierre-Gilles crop.jpg
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes(1932-2007)  France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers" [94]
1992
CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG
Georges Charpak(1924-2010)  France
 Poland
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" [95]
1993
Russell Alan Hulse.jpg
Russell Alan Hulse(b. 1950)  United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" [96]
2008JosephTaylor.jpg
Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.(b. 1941)
1994
Bertram Brockhouse.jpg
Bertram Brockhouse(1918-2003)  Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [97]
HD.3F.113 (10347363986).jpg
Clifford Glenwood Shull(1915-2001)  United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [97]
1995
Martin Perl - tau.jpg
Martin Lewis Perl(1927-2014)  United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [98]
Frederick Reines.jpg
Frederick Reines(1918-1998) "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [98]
1996
Nobel Laureate David Morris Lee in 2007.jpg
David Morris Lee(b. 1931)  United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" [99]
Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg
Douglas D. Osheroff(b. 1945)
Robert Coleman Richardson.jpg
Robert Coleman Richardson(1937-2013)
1997
Steven Chu official portrait headshot.jpg
Steven Chu(b. 1948)  United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light." [100]
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji(b. 1933)  France
William D. Phillips.jpg
William Daniel Phillips(b. 1948)  United States
1998
Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg
Robert B. Laughlin(b. 1950)  United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" [101]
Horst Störmer cropped.jpg
Horst Ludwig Störmer(b. 1949)  Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui.jpg
Daniel Chee Tsui(b. 1939)  Republic of China
 United States
1999
Gerard
Gerard 't Hooft(b. 1946)  Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics" [102]
Martinus Veltman.jpg
Martinus J. G. Veltman(1931-2021)
2000
Zhores Alferov.jpg
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov(1930-2019)  Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics" [103]
Herbert Kroemer (cropped).jpg
Herbert Kroemer(b. 1928)  Germany
Jack St. Clair Kilby

(1923-2005)

 United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit" [103]
2001
Physics Nobel Laureate Eric Allin Cornell, in June of 2015.jpg
Eric Allin Cornell(b. 1961)  United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" [104]
Carl Wieman.jpg
Carl Edwin Wieman(b. 1951)
Ketterle.jpg
Wolfgang Ketterle(b. 1957)  Germany
2002
Raymond Davis, Jr 2001.jpg
Raymond Davis Jr.(1914-2006)  United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" [105]
Masatoshi Koshiba 2002.jpg
Masatoshi Koshiba(1926-2020)  Japan
RiccardoGiacconi.jpg
Riccardo Giacconi(1931-2018)  Italy
 United States
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources" [105]
2003
AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg
Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov(1928-2017)  Russia
 United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" [106]
Ginzburg in MSU opaque.jpg
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg(1916-2009)  Russia
Nobel Laureate Sir Anthony James Leggett in 2007.jpg
Anthony James Leggett(b. 1938)  United Kingdom
 United States
2004
David Gross LANL.jpg
David J. Gross(b. 1941)  United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" [107]
No image.svg
Hugh David Politzer(b. 1949)
Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek 2007.jpg
Frank Wilczek(p. 1951)
2005
Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg
Roy J. Glauber(1925-2018)  United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" [108]
John L. Hall.jpg
John L. Hall(b. 1934) "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" [108]
Theodor W Haensch.jpg
Theodor W. Hänsch(b. 1941)  Germany
2006
John-C-Mather5.jpg
John C. Mather(b. 1946)  United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation" [109]
George Smoot crop.jpg
George F. Smoot(b. 1945)
2007
Fert-002 (cropped).jpg
Albert Fert(b. 1938)  France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance" [110]
Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg
Peter Grünberg(1939-2018)  Germany
2008
Mkobayashi.jpg
Makoto Kobayashi(b. 1944)  Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" [111]
Masukawa.jpg
Toshihide Maskawa(1940-2021)
YoichiroNambu.jpg
Yoichiro Nambu(1921-2015)  Japan
 United States
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" [111]
2009
Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg
Charles K. Kao(1933-2018)  Hong Kong
 United Kingdom
 United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" [112]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg
Willard S. Boyle(1924-2011)  Canada
 United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor" [112]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-27.jpg
George E. Smith(b. 1930)  United States
2010
Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg
Andre Geim(b. 1958)  Russia
 United Kingdom
 Netherlands
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" [113]
Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg
Konstantin Novoselov(b. 1974)  Russia
 United Kingdom
2011
Saul Perlmutter.jpg
Saul Perlmutter(b. 1959)  United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae" [114]
Brian P Schmidt.jpg
Brian P. Schmidt(b. 1967)  Australia
 United States
Adam Riess.jpg
Adam G. Riess(b. 1969)  United States
2012
Serge Haroche - Théâtre de la Commune d
Serge Haroche(b. 1944)  France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems." [115]
David Wineland 2008crop.jpg
David J. Wineland(b. 1944)  United States
2013
Francois Englert.jpg
François Englert(b. 1932)  Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider" [116]
Higgs, Peter (1929)3.jpg
Peter Higgs(b. 1929)  United Kingdom
2014
Isamu Akasaki 20141211.jpg
Isamu Akasaki(1929-2021)  Japan "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" [117]
Hiroshi Amano 20141211.jpg
Hiroshi Amano(b. 1960)
Shiju.jpg
Shuji Nakamura(b. 1954)  Japan
 United States
2015
Takaaki Kajita 5171-2015.jpg
Takaaki Kajita(b. 1959)  Japan "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass" [118]
Arthur B. McDonald 5193-2015.jpg
Arthur B. McDonald(b. 1943)  Canada
2016
DavidThouless 1995 UW.jpg
David J. Thouless(1934-2019)  United Kingdom "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter" [119]
Duncan Haldane.jpg
F. Duncan M. Haldane(b. 1951)  United Kingdom
 Slovenia
Jkosterl.jpg
John M. Kosterlitz(b. 1943)  United Kingdom
 United States[120]
2017
Rainer Weiss - December 2006 (cropped).jpg
Rainer Weiss(b. 1932)  Germany
 United States
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves" [121]
Kip Thorne at Caltech.jpg
Kip Thorne(b. 1940)  United States
05-0367-92D.hr.jpg
Barry Barish(b. 1936)
2018
Arthur Ashkin EM1B5678 (44417135450) (adjusted).jpg
Arthur Ashkin(1922-2020)  United States "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" [122]
Gérard Mourou (cropped).jpg
Gérard Mourou(b. 1944)  France "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"
Donna Strickland, OSA Holiday Party 2012.jpg
Donna Strickland(b. 1959)  Canada
2019
Jim Peebles (cropped 2).jpg
James Peebles(b. 1935)  Canada
 United States
"for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology" [123]
Michel Mayor, 2012 (cropped).jpg
Michel Mayor(b. 1942)   Switzerland "for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"
Didier Queloz, 2012 (cropped).jpg
Didier Queloz(1966)
2020
Roger Penrose at Festival della Scienza Oct 29 2011.jpg
Roger Penrose(b. 1931)  United Kingdom "for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity" [124]
Reinhard Genzel.jpg
Reinhard Genzel(b. 1952)  Germany "for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy"
Andrea Ghez(b. 1965)  United States
2021
Crafoord Prize EM1B0732 (42329290061).jpg
Syukuro Manabe(b. 1931)  Japan
 United States[125]
"for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming" [126]
Klaus Hasselmann(b. 1931)  Germany
Parisi giorgio.jpg
Giorgio Parisi(b. 1948)  Italy "for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales"

See also

References

Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

Citations

  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  5. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  6. ^ "Nobel prize awarded women". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  7. ^ "All Nobel Prizes in Physics". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  8. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  9. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  11. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  13. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  14. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  15. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  16. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  17. ^ Ioannidis, John; Cristea, Ioana-Alina; Boyack, Kevin (29 July 2020). "Work honored by Nobel prizes clusters heavily in a few scientific fields". PLOS ONE. 15 (7): e0234612. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1534612I. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234612. PMC 7390258. PMID 32726312.
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  19. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  20. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  25. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  27. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  32. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  33. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 November 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  37. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  38. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  39. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  40. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  41. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  42. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  43. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  44. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  45. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  46. ^ "Otto Stern" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  47. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  48. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  49. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  50. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  51. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  52. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  54. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  55. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  56. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  57. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  58. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  59. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  60. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  61. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  62. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  63. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  64. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 November 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  65. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  66. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  67. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  68. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  69. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  70. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  71. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  72. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 November 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  73. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  74. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 November 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  75. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  76. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 June 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  77. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  78. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  79. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  80. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  81. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  82. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  83. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  84. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  85. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  86. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  87. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  88. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  89. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  90. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  91. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  92. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  93. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  94. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 November 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  95. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  96. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  97. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  98. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  99. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  100. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  101. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  102. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  103. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  104. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  105. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  106. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  107. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  108. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  109. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  110. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
  111. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 8 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  112. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  113. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  114. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  115. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  116. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 Press Release" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  117. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  118. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  119. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  120. ^ J. Michael Kosterlitz - Biographical.” Nobelprize.org, . "I was born on June 22, 1943 in wartime Aberdeen, Scotland...My wife and I finally became citizens of the USA in 2004."
  121. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  122. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  123. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 8 October 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  124. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2020". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  125. ^ He is considered a U.S. citizen by Nobel Prize Committee.
  126. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2021" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 5 October 2021.

Sources