Julius Caesar

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Rome:

Ancient Rome – former civilization that thrived on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world.[1]

Essence of Ancient Rome

Geography of ancient Rome

The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, under Trajan (117); imperial provinces are shaded green, senatorial provinces are shaded pink, and client states are shaded gray

Government and politics of ancient Rome

Augustus, the first Roman emperor

Political institutions of ancient Rome

Political institutions of ancient Rome


Roman magistrate

Ordinary magistrates

Ordinary magistrate

Extraordinary magistrates

Extraordinary magistrate

Roman law

Roman law

Military of ancient Rome

The Praetorians Relief, from the Arch of Claudius, Rome

Military of ancient Rome

Roman armed forces

Military history of Rome

  Roman Empire at its greatest extent, in AD 117

Military history of ancient Rome

Military conflict

General history of ancient Rome

For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Roman history.

Further information: History of the Roman Empire

Roman era

Roman expansion in Italy from 500 BC to 218 BC through the Latin War (light red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and First and Second Punic War (yellow and green). Cisalpine Gaul (238-146 BC) and Alpine valleys (16-7 BC) were later added. The Roman Republic in 500 BC is marked with dark red.

Roman Republic

Roman historiography

Roman historiography

Works on Roman history

Culture of ancient Rome

The Colosseum, the largest amphitheatre ever built
Pont du Gard, a Roman aqueduct built circa 40–60 AD
Back side of the Roman temples of Sbeitla, Tunisia
The ancient theatre of Taormina
Trio of musicians playing an aulos, cymbala, and tympanum (mosaic from Pompeii)
Daedalus and Pasiphaë, Roman fresco in the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, first century AD
Theatrical masks of Tragedy and Comedy, Roman mosaic, 2nd century AD
Ancient Roman earrings
Roman cage cup, ca. 400 AD (Collection Staatliche Antikensammlung, Munich)
Museum of Roman Civilization, a museum in Rome devoted to aspects of the Ancient Roman civilization
Sundial at the Temple of Apollo (Pompeii)

Culture of ancient Rome

Architecture of ancient Rome

Ancient Roman architecture

Types of buildings and structures

Art in ancient Rome

Roman art

Social order in ancient Rome

Augustus, possibly the most famous example of adoption in Ancient Rome
Mosaic depicting two female slaves (ancillae) attending their mistress (Carthage National Museum)

Religion in ancient Rome

The Maison Carrée in Nîmes, a mid-sized provincial temple of the Augustan imperial cult
Jupiter holding a staff, with eagle and globe, a fresco from the Casa dei Dioscuri, Pompeii

Religion in ancient Rome

Roman mythology

Roman mythology

Roman religious institutions

Portrait of the emperor Antoninus Pius in ritual attire
Roman numerals

See also: Etruscan mythology and Persecution of religion in ancient Rome

Roman religious practices

Language in ancient Rome


Languages of the Roman Empire

Economy of ancient Rome

Aureus minted in AD 176
by Marcus Aurelius
Solidus of Constantine I, minted in AD 335

Roman economy




Ancient Roman lists

See also


  1. ^ Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995).
  2. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories XXVIII.5.23.
  3. ^ Bury, John Bagnall (1923). History of the Later Roman Empire. Macmillan. p. 1.
  4. ^ Kuhoff, Wolfgang (2002). "Die diokletianische Tetrarchie als Epoche einer historischen Wende in antiker und moderner Sicht". International Journal of the Classical Tradition. 9 (2): 177–178. doi:10.1007/BF02898434. JSTOR 30224306.
  5. ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 847. ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6.
  6. ^ "Odoacer was the first barbarian who reigned over Italy, over a people who had once asserted their just superiority above the rest of mankind." Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter XXXVI