Yerava, Adiyan
Native toIndia
RegionKodagu District, Wayanad District
Ethnicity41,000 Ravula (2011 census)
Native speakers
26,563 (2011 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3yea

Ravula, known locally as Yerava or Adiyan, is a Dravidian language of Karnataka and Kerala spoken by the Adiyar. It is classified under the category Malayalam languages in both the linguistics and the Census of India. However their language exhibits a number of peculiarities which marks it off from Malayalam as well as from other tribal speeches in the districts of Kodagu and Wayanad.[2] It is spoken by 25,000 Ravulas (locally called Yerava) in Kodagu district of Karnataka and by 1,900 Ravulas (locally called Adiyan) in the adjacent Wayanad district of Kerala.[3] The term 'Yerava' is derived from the Kannada word Yeravalu meaning borrow.[4][5]


Adiya's phonology is similar to Malayalam with a few differences.

Front Central Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a


Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Stop voiceless p ʈ c k
voiced b ɖ ɟ g
Fricative s
Approximant ʋ l ɭ j
Trill r


  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ "Tribes in Malabar : A Socio-Economic Profile" (PDF). ShodhGanga.
  3. ^ "Ravula Language". Ethnologue - Languages of the world.
  4. ^ Marti, Felix (2005). Words and Worlds: World Languages Review. Multilingual Matters. p. 238. ISBN 9781853598272.
  5. ^ Sinha, Anil Kishore (2008). Bio-social Issues in Health. Northern Book Centre. p. 506. ISBN 9788172112257.
  6. ^ Mallikarjun, B. (1993). A descriptive analysis of Yerava. Central Institute of Indian Languages. OCLC 901560296.